Open Access

Site-controlled quantum dots fabricated using an atomic-force microscope assisted technique

  • HZ Song1Email author,
  • T Usuki1,
  • T Ohshima1,
  • Y Sakuma2,
  • M Kawabe2,
  • Y Okada3,
  • K Takemoto1,
  • T Miyazawa1,
  • S Hirose1,
  • Y Nakata1,
  • M Takatsu1 and
  • N Yokoyama1
Nanoscale Research Letters20061:160

DOI: 10.1007/s11671-006-9012-x

Published: 3 August 2006

Abstract

An atomic-force microscope assisted technique is developed to control the position and size of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Presently, the site precision is as good as ± 1.5 nm and the size fluctuation is within ± 5% with the minimum controllable lateral diameter of 20 nm. With the ability of producing tightly packed and differently sized QDs, sophisticated QD arrays can be controllably fabricated for the application in quantum computing. The optical quality of such site-controlled QDs is found comparable to some conventionally self-assembled semiconductor QDs. The single dot photoluminescence of site-controlled InAs/InP QDs is studied in detail, presenting the prospect to utilize them in quantum communication as precisely controlled single photon emitters working at telecommunication bands.

Keywords

Quantum dot Site-Control Atomic-force microscope Local oxidation Quantum computer Quantum communication

[135]

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Nanotechnology Research center, Fujitsu Lab. Ltd.
(2)
Nanomaterials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)
(3)
Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba

References

  1. Bimberg D, Grundmann M, Ledentsov NN: Quantum Dot Heterostructures. Widley, New York; 1999.
  2. Sakaki H: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.. 1989, 28: L314. 10.1143/JJAP.28.L314View Article
  3. Takagahara T: Surf. Sci.. 1992, 267: 310. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK38XisVCksrw%3D] 10.1016/0039-6028(92)91144-ZView Article
  4. Song HZ, Akahane K, Lan S, Xu HZ, Okada Y, Kawabe M: Phys. Rev. B. 2001, 64: 085303. 10.1103/PhysRevB.64.085303View Article
  5. Bonadeo NH, Erland J, Gammon D, Park D, Katzer DS, Steel DG: Science. 1998, 282: 1473. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXns1ymsro%3D] 10.1126/science.282.5393.1473View Article
  6. Besombes L, Baumberg JJ, Motohisa J: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 2003, 90: 257402. COI number [1:STN:280:DC%2BD3szivVGgtw%3D%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.257402View Article
  7. Santori C, Fattal D, Vučković J, Solomon GS, Yamamoto Y: Nature. 2002, 419: 594. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xns1Ont78%3D] 10.1038/nature01086View Article
  8. Yuan Z, Kardynal BE, Stevenson RM, Shields AJ, Lobo CJ, Cooper K, Beattie NS, Ritchie DA, Pepper M: Science. 2002, 295: 102. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XksVeruw%3D%3D] 10.1126/science.1066790View Article
  9. Loss D, DiVincenzo DP: Phys. Rev. A. 1998, 57: 120. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXitlamug%3D%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevA.57.120View Article
  10. Ishikawa T, Nishimura T, Kohmoto S, Asakawa K: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2000, 76: 167. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXitFWrtg%3D%3D] 10.1063/1.125691View Article
  11. Lee H, Johnson JA, He MY, Speck JS, Petroff PM: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2001, 78: 105. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmvVCm] 10.1063/1.1336554View Article
  12. Chithrani D, Williams RL, Lefebvre J, Poole PJ, Aers GC: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2004, 84: 978. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVGms7Y%3D] 10.1063/1.1646455View Article
  13. H.Z. Song, T. Ohshima, Y. Okada, K. Akahane, T. Miyazawa, M. Kawabe, N. Yokoyama in Proceedings of the 26th ICPS, Edinburgh, 29 July- 2 August 2002, P.32
  14. Keyser UF, Schumacher HW, Zeitler U, Haug RJ, Zberl K: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2000, 76: 457. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXlvVaqtQ%3D%3D] 10.1063/1.125786View Article
  15. Song HZ, Nakata Y, Okada Y, Miyazawa T, Ohshima T, Takatsu M, Kawabe M, Yokoyama N: Phys. E. 2004, 21: 625. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXitlKjtb8%3D] 10.1016/j.physe.2003.11.092View Article
  16. Song HZ, Usuki T, Hirose S, Takemoto K, Nakata Y, Yokoyama N, Sakuma Y: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2005, 86: 113118. 10.1063/1.1887826View Article
  17. Hirai A, Itoh KM: Physica E. 2004, 23: 248. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXlvFCrtbs%3D] 10.1016/j.physe.2003.12.130View Article
  18. Okada Y, Iuchi Y, Kawabe M, Harris JS: J. Appl. Phys.. 2000, 88: 1136. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXksV2itb8%3D] 10.1063/1.373788View Article
  19. Wang ZhM, Mazur YI, Seydmohamadi Sh, Salamo GJ, Kissel H: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2005, 87: 213105. 10.1063/1.2131198View Article
  20. Song HZ, Lan S, Akahane K, Jang KY, Okada Y, Kawabe M: Solid State Communications. 2000, 115: 195. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXkt1artLw%3D] 10.1016/S0038-1098(00)00153-8View Article
  21. Huffaker DL, Deppe DG: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1998, 73: 366. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXks12isLo%3D] 10.1063/1.121836View Article
  22. Ohshima T, Song HZ, Okada Y, Akahane K, Miyazawa T, Kawabe M, Yokoyama N: Phys. Stat. Sol. (c). 2003, 4: 1364. 10.1002/pssc.200303096View Article
  23. Ohshima T: Phy. Rev. A. 2000, 62: 062316. 10.1103/PhysRevA.62.062316View Article
  24. Takemoto K, Sakuma Y, Hirose S, Usuki T, Yokoyama N: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (part B). 2004, 43: L349. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXivFaru7s%3D] 10.1143/JJAP.43.L349View Article
  25. Takemoto K, Sakuma Y, Hirose S, Usuki T, Yokoyama N, Miyazawa T, Takatsu M, Arakawa Y: Jpn J. Appl. Phys. (part B). 2004, 43: L993. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmtlGjtbY%3D] 10.1143/JJAP.43.L993View Article
  26. Panranthoen C, Bertru N, Dehaese O, LeCorre A, Loualiche S, Lambert B, Patriarche G: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2001, 78: 1751. 10.1063/1.1356449View Article
  27. Raymond S, Studenikin S, Cheng SJ, Pioro-Ladrière M, Ciorga M, Poole PJ, Robertson MD: Semicond. Sci. Technol.. 2003, 18: 385. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjtl2gtLY%3D] 10.1088/0268-1242/18/4/332View Article
  28. Sakuma Y, Takemoto K, Hirose S, Usuki T, Yokoyama N: Physica E. 2005, 26: 81. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1Ontrs%3D] 10.1016/j.physe.2004.08.028View Article
  29. Sakuma Y, Takeguchi M, Takemoto K, Hirose S, Usuki T, Yokoyama N: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 2005, 23: 1741. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXntFSjs7c%3D] 10.1116/1.1949216View Article
  30. Yokoi T, Adachi S, Sasakura H, Muto S, Song HZ, Usuki T, Hirose S: Phys. Rev. B. 2005, 71: 041307R. 10.1103/PhysRevB.71.041307View Article
  31. Feng W, Wang Y, Wang J, Ge WK, Huang Q, Zhou JM: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1998, 72: 1463. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXhsl2rs7o%3D] 10.1063/1.120593View Article
  32. Karlsson KF, Moskalenko ES, Holtz PO, Monemar B, Schoenfled WV, Garcia JM, Petroff PM: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2001, 78: 2952. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXjt1ejtb4%3D] 10.1063/1.1370547View Article
  33. Ignatiev VI, Kozin EI, Nair SV, Ren HW, Sugou S, Masumoto Y: Phys. Rev. B. 2000, 61: 15633. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXktV2murY%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevB.61.15633View Article
  34. Pepper M: J. Phys. C. 1980, 13: L709. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXhtVeksQ%3D%3D] 10.1088/0022-3719/13/26/004View Article
  35. Kimura S, Kumano H, Endo M, Suemune I, Yokoi T, Sasakura H, Adachi S, Muto S, Song HZ, Hirose S, Usuki T: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.. 2005, 44: L793. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXmvVemsbg%3D] 10.1143/JJAP.44.L793View Article

Copyright

© to the authors 2006