Developing 1D nanostructure arrays for future nanophotonics

  • Harry E. Ruda1Email author,

    Affiliated with

    • John C. Polanyi2,

      Affiliated with

      • Jody S.Y. Yang2,

        Affiliated with

        • Zhanghua Wu1,

          Affiliated with

          • Usha Philipose1,

            Affiliated with

            • Tao Xu1,

              Affiliated with

              • Susan Yang1,

                Affiliated with

                • K.L. Kavanagh3,

                  Affiliated with

                  • J.Q. Liu3,

                    Affiliated with

                    • L. Yang3,

                      Affiliated with

                      • Y. Wang3,

                        Affiliated with

                        • Kevin Robbie4,

                          Affiliated with

                          • J. Yang4,

                            Affiliated with

                            • K. Kaminska4,

                              Affiliated with

                              • D.G. Cooke5,

                                Affiliated with

                                • F.A. Hegmann5,

                                  Affiliated with

                                  • A.J. Budz6 and

                                    Affiliated with

                                    • H.K. Haugen6, 7

                                      Affiliated with

                                      Nanoscale Research Letters20061:99

                                      DOI: 10.1007/s11671-006-9016-6

                                      Published: 26 August 2006

                                      Abstract

                                      There is intense and growing interest in one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures from the perspective of their synthesis and unique properties, especially with respect to their excellent optical response and an ability to form heterostructures. This review discusses alternative approaches to preparation and organization of such structures, and their potential properties. In particular, molecular-scale printing is highlighted as a method for creating organized pre-cursor structure for locating nanowires, as well as vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) templated growth using nano-channel alumina (NCA), and deposition of 1-D structures with glancing angle deposition (GLAD). As regards novel optical properties, we discuss as an example, finite size photonic crystal cavity structures formed from such nanostructure arrays possessing highQ and small mode volume, and being ideal for developing future nanolasers.

                                      Keywords

                                      Nanostructures Nanophotonics Vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) growth Glancing angle deposition Molecular scale imprinting Nanowire photonic crystals

                                      [1129]

                                      Declarations

                                      Acknowledgements

                                      The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from CIPI and NSERC.

                                      Authors’ Affiliations

                                      (1)
                                      Centre for Nanotechnology, University of Toronto
                                      (2)
                                      Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto
                                      (3)
                                      Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University
                                      (4)
                                      Department of Physics, Queen’s University
                                      (5)
                                      Department of Physics, University of Alberta
                                      (6)
                                      Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University
                                      (7)
                                      Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University

                                      References

                                      1. Dobrin S, Lu X, Naumkin FY, Polanyi JC, Yang JSY: Surf. Sci.. 2004,573(2):L363. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVagsbzE] 10.1016/j.susc.2004.09.048
                                      2. Brown DE, Moffat DJ, Wolkow RA: Science. 1998, 279: 542. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXotVOisw%3D%3D] 10.1126/science.279.5350.542
                                      3. Dobrin S, Harikumar KR, Polanyi JC: Surf. Sci.. 2004, 561: 11. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXltVSgu7o%3D] 10.1016/j.susc.2004.04.057
                                      4. Marsh EP, Gilton TL, Meier W, Schneider MR, Cowin JP: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 1988, 61: 2725. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL1MXktlyksLc%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.2725
                                      5. Zhou XL, White JM: Surf. Sci.. 1991, 241: 259. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXhtlaqsrk%3D] 10.1016/0039-6028(91)90086-8
                                      6. Dixon-Warren J, Jensen ET, Polanyi JC: J. Chem. Phys.. 1991, 98: 5938. 10.1063/1.464888
                                      7. Yang QY, Schwarz WN, Lasky PJ, Hood SC, Loo NL, Osgood RM: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 1994, 72: 3068. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXks12ht74%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.72.3068
                                      8. Xu H, Yuro R, Harrison I: Surf. Sci.. 1998, 411: 303. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmtVOnu7c%3D] 10.1016/S0039-6028(98)00338-0
                                      9. Khan KA, Camillone N, Osgood RM: J. Phys. Chem.. 1999, B103: 5530.
                                      10. Totir GG, Le Y, Osgood RM: J. Phys. Chem.. 2005, B109: 8452.
                                      11. Schmuttenmaer CA, Miller CC, Herman JW, Cao J, Mantell DA, Gao Y, Miller RJD: Chem. Phys.. 1996, 205: 91. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK28XisFSktrw%3D] 10.1016/0301-0104(95)00328-2
                                      12. Petroff P, Gossard A, Wiegmann W: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1984, 45: 620. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXlvVWgu7c%3D] 10.1063/1.95332
                                      13. Fukui T, Saito H: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1987, 50: 824. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL2sXitVGmsrs%3D] 10.1063/1.98056
                                      14. Miller M, Weman H, Pryor C, Krishnamurthy M, Petroff P, Kroemer H, Merz L: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 1992, 68: 3464. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK38XkvVWjtLg%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.68.3464
                                      15. Hara S, Ishizaki J, Motohisa J, Fukui T, Hasegawa H: J. Crystal Growth. 1994, 145: 692. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXivVOjtLs%3D] 10.1016/0022-0248(94)91128-2
                                      16. Ishizaki J, Goto S, Kishida M, Fukui T, Hasegawa H: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.. 1994, 33: 721. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXitlantr8%3D] 10.1143/JJAP.33.721
                                      17. Laruelle F, Lelarge F, Wang Z, Mélin T, Cavanna A, Etienne B: J. Crystal Growth. 1997, 175/176: 1087. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXjvVarur0%3D] 10.1016/S0022-0248(96)00890-1
                                      18. Kato T, Takeuchi T, Inoue Y, Hasegawa S, Inoue K, Nakashima H: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1998, 72: 465. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXks1KhtQ%3D%3D] 10.1063/1.120787
                                      19. Ota T, Maehashi K, Christen J, Oto K, Murase K, Nakashima H: Physica. 2001, E11: 228.
                                      20. Francoeur S, Norman A, Mascarenhas A, Jones E, Reno J, Lee S, Follstaedt D: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2002, 81: 529. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XltVOitLk%3D] 10.1063/1.1493222
                                      21. Nötzel R, Ledentsov N, Däweritz L, Ploog K, Hohenstein M: Phys. Rev.. 1992, B45: 3507.
                                      22. Omi H, Ogino T: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1997, 71: 2163. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXmsFOhsr4%3D] 10.1063/1.119369
                                      23. Tsang W, Cho A: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1997, 30: 293. 10.1063/1.89373
                                      24. Kapon E, Tamargo M, Hwang D: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1987, 50: 347. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL2sXitVGqtbY%3D] 10.1063/1.98196
                                      25. Bhat R, Kapon E, Werner J, Hwang D, Stoffel N, Koza M: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1990, 56: 863. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK3cXhsVymtbg%3D] 10.1063/1.102665
                                      26. Koshiba S, Noge H, Akiyama H, Inoshita T, Nakamura Y, Shimizu A, Nagamune Y, Tsuchiya M, Kano H, Sakaki H, Wada K: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1994, 64: 363. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXhsFSgtLs%3D] 10.1063/1.111967
                                      27. Simhony S, Kapon E, Colas E, Hwang DM, Stoffel N, Worland P: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1991, 59: 2225. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXms1Kit7o%3D] 10.1063/1.106077
                                      28. Tribe W, Steer MJ, Mowbray D, Skolnick M, Forshaw A, Roberts J, Hill G, Pate M, Whitehouse C, Williams G: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1997, 70: 993. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXhsVKlsb0%3D] 10.1063/1.118459
                                      29. Tribe W, Steer M, Forshaw A, Schumacher K, Mowbray D, Whittaker D, Skolnick M, Roberts J, Hill G: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1998, 73: 3420. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXnslSltbw%3D] 10.1063/1.122784
                                      30. Kapon E, Reinhardt F, Biasiol G, Gustafsson A: Appl. Surf. Sci.. 1998, 123/124: 674. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXhtlKmtr0%3D] 10.1016/S0169-4332(97)00461-3
                                      31. Steer M, Mowbray D, Skolnick M, Tribe W, Forshaw A, Whittaker D, Roberts J, Cullis A, Hill G, Pate M, Whitehouse C: Physica. 1998, E2: 949.
                                      32. Nötzel R, Ramsteiner M, Menniger J, Trampert A, Schönherr H, Däweritz L, Ploog K: J. Appl. Phys.. 1996, 80: 4108. 10.1063/1.363281
                                      33. Robbie K, Brett MJ: J. Vac. Sci. Technol.. 1997, A15: 1460.
                                      34. Robbie K, Beydaghyan G, Brown T, Dean C, Adams J, Buzea C: Rev. Sci. Instr.. 2004, 75: 1089. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXitlOru7k%3D] 10.1063/1.1667254
                                      35. Kaminska K, Brown T, Beydaghyan G, Robbie K: Appl. Opt.. 2003, 42: 4212. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXmtVGjsb4%3D]
                                      36. Kaminska K, Suzuki M, Kimura K, Taga Y, Robbie K: J. Appl. Phys.. 2004, 95: 3055. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhvFKms7s%3D] 10.1063/1.1649804
                                      37. Jensen MO, Brett MJ: Opt. Expr.. 2005, 13: 3348. 10.1364/OPEX.13.003348
                                      38. Kaminska K, Robbie K: Appl. Opt.. 2004, 43: 1570. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXisFCht7Y%3D] 10.1364/AO.43.001570
                                      39. Karabacak T, Singh JP, Zhao YP, Wang GC, Lu T: Phys. Rev.. 2003, B68: 125,408.
                                      40. Buzea C, Beydaghyan G, Elliott C, Robbie K: Nanotechnol.. 2005, 16: 1986. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1Ciur%2FI] 10.1088/0957-4484/16/10/002
                                      41. Beydaghyan G, Kaminska K, Brown T, Robbie K: Appl. Opt.. 2004, 43: 5343. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXptFGksrs%3D] 10.1364/AO.43.005343
                                      42. Robbie K, Brett MJ, Broer DJ: Nature. 1999, 399: 764. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXksVShtb0%3D] 10.1038/21612
                                      43. Gilbertson KE, Finlay WH, Lange CF, Brett MJ, Vick D, Cheng YS: Aerosol. Sci.. 2005, 36: 933. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXltlagsrw%3D] 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2004.10.010
                                      44. I. Hodgkinson, Q.H. Wu, M. Arnold, L. De Silva, G. Beydaghyan, K. Kaminska, K. Robbie, Appl. Opt. 45, 1563 (2006)
                                      45. C. Buzea, K. Robbie, K. Kaminska, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Elliott, C. Dean, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B23, 2545 (2005)
                                      46. K. Kaminska, A. Amassian, L. Martinu, K. Robbie, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013511–1 (2005)
                                      47. A.L. Barabasi, H.E. Stanley, Fractal Concepts in Surface Growth (Cambridge University Press, 1995)
                                      48. Wagner R, Ellis W: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1964, 4: 89. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaF2cXls1yhug%3D%3D] 10.1063/1.1753975
                                      49. Finkelman R, Larson R, Dwornik E: J. Crystal Growth. 1974, 22: 159. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE2cXhsV2ms70%3D] 10.1016/0022-0248(74)90132-8
                                      50. Givargizov E: J. Crystal Growth. 1975, 31: 20. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE28Xot1KmtQ%3D%3D] 10.1016/0022-0248(75)90105-0
                                      51. Bootsma G, Gassen H: J. Crystal Growth. 1971, 10: 223. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE3MXks1yhtbc%3D] 10.1016/0022-0248(71)90188-6
                                      52. Givargizov E: J. Crystal Growth. 1973, 20: 217. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE3sXlsVSgt7s%3D] 10.1016/0022-0248(73)90008-0
                                      53. Weyher J: Mater. Sci. Eng.. 1975, 20: 171. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE2MXmtVShu7w%3D] 10.1016/0025-5416(75)90146-9
                                      54. Weyher J, Surowiec M: J. Crystal Growth. 1978, 43: 245. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE1cXhvVSgu7Y%3D] 10.1016/0022-0248(78)90174-4
                                      55. Weyher J: J. Crystal Growth. 1978, 43: 235. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE1cXhvVSgu7k%3D] 10.1016/0022-0248(78)90173-2
                                      56. Westwater J, Gosain D, Tomiya S, Usui S, Ruda H: J. Vac. Sci. Technol.. 1997, B15: 554.
                                      57. Hiruma K, Yazawa M, Haraguchi K, Ogawa K: J. Appl. Phys.. 1993, 74: 3162. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXmtlyqsrc%3D] 10.1063/1.354585
                                      58. Hiruma K, Yazawa M, Katsuyama T, Ogawa K, Koguchi M, Kakibayashi H: J. Appl. Phys.. 1995, 77: 447. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXjtVSrurs%3D] 10.1063/1.359026
                                      59. Viswanath A, Hiruma K, Katsuyama T: Superlat. Microstruct.. 1993, 14: 105. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXptlSgtQ%3D%3D] 10.1006/spmi.1993.1109
                                      60. Ohlsson B, Björk M, Magnusson M, Deppert K, Samuelson L, Wallenberg L: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2001, 79: 3335. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXot1Slu78%3D] 10.1063/1.1418446
                                      61. Morales A, Lieber C: Science. 1998, 279: 208. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXkvFSrtQ%3D%3D] 10.1126/science.279.5348.208
                                      62. Hu J, Odom T, Lieber C: Acc. Chem. Res.. 1999, 32: 435. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXht1ShurY%3D] 10.1021/ar9700365
                                      63. Duan X, Lieber C: Adv. Mater.. 2000, 12: 298. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXksFWntLc%3D] 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(200002)12:4<298::AID-ADMA298>3.0.CO;2-Y
                                      64. Duan X, Wang J, Lieber C: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2000, 76: 1116. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhtlSgtb4%3D] 10.1063/1.125956
                                      65. Wu Z, Mei X, Kim D, Blumin M, Ruda H: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2002, 81: 5177. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XpvVaqs70%3D] 10.1063/1.1532772
                                      66. Wu Z, Mei X, Kim D, Blumin M, Ruda H, Liu J, Kavanagh K: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2003, 83: 3368. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXot1aht7s%3D] 10.1063/1.1618018
                                      67. Cui Y, Lauhon L, Gudiksen M, Wang J, Lieber C: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2001, 78: 2214. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXisV2gtr0%3D] 10.1063/1.1363692
                                      68. Shimada T, Hiruma K, Shirai M, Yazawa M, Haraguchi K, Sato T, Matsui M, Katsuyama T: Superlat. Microstruct.. 1998, 24: 453. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXosFOgug%3D%3D] 10.1006/spmi.1996.0270
                                      69. Gudiksen M, Lauhon L, Wang J, Smith D, Lieber C: Nature. 2002, 415: 617. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhsVCjsL4%3D] 10.1038/415617a
                                      70. Sato T, Hiruma K, Shirai M, Tominaga K, Haraguchi K, Katsuyama T, Shimada T: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1995, 66: 159. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXivFGru7s%3D] 10.1063/1.113549
                                      71. Haraguchi K, Hiruma K, Katsuyama T, Tominaga K, Shirai M, Shimada T: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1996, 69: 386. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK28XksVClu7c%3D] 10.1063/1.118069
                                      72. Haraguchi K, Hiruma K, Hosomi K, Shirai M, Katsuyama T: J. Vac. Sci. Technol.. 1997, B15: 1685.
                                      73. Cui Y, Duan X, Hu J, Lieber C: Phys. Chem.. 2000, 104: 5213. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjtVCltLo%3D]
                                      74. Haraguchi K, Katsuyama T, Hiruma K, Ogawa K: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1992, 60: 745. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK38Xit1Gkurw%3D] 10.1063/1.106556
                                      75. Björk M, Ohlsson B, Sass T, Persson A, Thelander C, Magnusson M, Deppert K, Wallenberg L, Samuelson L: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2002, 80: 1058. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xpt1ChsA%3D%3D] 10.1063/1.1447312
                                      76. Wu Y, Fan R, Yang P: Nano Lett.. 2002, 2: 83. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xls1eisw%3D%3D] 10.1021/nl0156888
                                      77. Lauhon L, Gudiksen M, Wang D, Lieber C: Nature. 2002, 420: 57. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XosVCmu7o%3D] 10.1038/nature01141
                                      78. Goldberger J, He R, Zhang Y, Lee S, Yan H, Choi H, Yang P: Nature. 2003, 422: 599. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXislCgtb4%3D] 10.1038/nature01551
                                      79. Vayssieres L, Beermann N, Lindquist S, Hagfeldt A: Chem. Mater.. 2001, 13: 233. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXptV2rtLg%3D] 10.1021/cm001202x
                                      80. Vayssieres L, Keis K, Hagfeldt A, Lindquist S: Chem. Mater.. 2001, 13: 4395. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXotVOht7k%3D] 10.1021/cm011160s
                                      81. Vayssieres L: Adv. Mater.. 2003, 15: 464. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXisFemtLs%3D] 10.1002/adma.200390108
                                      82. Heath J, LeGoues F: Chem. Phys. Lett.. 1993, 208: 263. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXltVKktrg%3D] 10.1016/0009-2614(93)89073-Q
                                      83. Tang K, Qian Y, Zeng J, Yang X: Adv. Mater.. 2003, 15: 448. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXisFemtL8%3D] 10.1002/adma.200390104
                                      84. Trentler T, Hickman K, Goel S, Viano A, Gibbons P, Buhro W: Science. 1995, 270: 1791. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXhtVSiurnM] 10.1126/science.270.5243.1791
                                      85. Yu H, Buhro W: Adv. Mater.. 2003, 15: 416. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXisFemt70%3D] 10.1002/adma.200390096
                                      86. Hanrath T, Korgel B: Adv. Mater.. 2003, 15: 437. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXisFemt7Y%3D] 10.1002/adma.200390101
                                      87. Huang Y, Duan X, Wei Q, Lieber C: Science. 2001, 291: 630. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXntlWlsw%3D%3D] 10.1126/science.291.5504.630
                                      88. Cui Y, Lieber C: Science. 2001, 291: 851. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXpslGqsQ%3D%3D] 10.1126/science.291.5505.851
                                      89. Zhu Y, Bando Y: Chem. Phys. Lett.. 2003, 377: 367. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXmsVOks7w%3D] 10.1016/S0009-2614(03)01197-7
                                      90. Zhang XT, Ip KM, Liu Z, Leung YP, Li Q, Hark SK: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2004, 84: 2641. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXivVaqtLk%3D] 10.1063/1.1695096
                                      91. Zhang XT, Ip KM, Liu Z, Leung YP, Li Q, Hark SK: J. Appl. Phys.. 2004, 95: 5752. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXjvVSrtLY%3D] 10.1063/1.1699497
                                      92. Xiang B, Zhang HZ, Li GH, Yang FH, Su FH, Wang RM, Xu J, Lu GW, Sun XC, Zhao Q, Yu DP: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2003, 82: 3330. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjs1Gktrc%3D] 10.1063/1.1573334
                                      93. Fujita S, Mimoto H, Naguchi T: J. Appl. Phys.. 1979, 50: 1079. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE1MXhsVersLc%3D] 10.1063/1.326084
                                      94. Zhang XB, Ha KL, Hark SK: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2001, 79: 1127. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmtVahs70%3D] 10.1063/1.1394949
                                      95. Makhnii VP, Tkachenko IV: J. Opt. Technol.. 2003,70(9):665. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXns1Gnu7Y%3D]
                                      96. Ip KM, Liu Z, Ng CM, Hark SK: Nanotechnology. 2005, 16: 1144. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVWgsLfN] 10.1088/0957-4484/16/8/027
                                      97. Cooke DG, Hegmann FA, Mazur YI, Ma WQ, Wang X, Wang ZM, Salamo GJ, Xiao M, Mishima TD, Johnson MB: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2004, 85: 3839. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXptFehtL8%3D] 10.1063/1.1807959
                                      98. Arakawa Y, Sakaki H: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1982, 40: 939. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL38XkvVansrg%3D] 10.1063/1.92959
                                      99. M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1915 (1986)
                                      100. Huang M, Mao S, Feick H, Yan H, Wu Y, Kind H, Weber E, Russo R, Yang P: Science. 2001, 292: 1897. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXksVaqsb0%3D] 10.1126/science.1060367
                                      101. Cao H, Xu J, Zhang D, Chang S, Ho S, Seelig E, Liu X, Chang R: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 2000, 84: 5584. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjvVyis7k%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.5584
                                      102. Duan X, Huang Y, Agarwal R, Lieber C: Nature. 2003, 421: 241. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjsF2gug%3D%3D] 10.1038/nature01353
                                      103. Baba T, Hamano T, Koyama F, Iga K: IEEE J. Quant. Electron.. 1991, 27: 1347. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXlsVKjsr8%3D] 10.1109/3.89951
                                      104. Kogelnik H, Shank C: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1971, 18: 152. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE3MXhtlaru70%3D] 10.1063/1.1653605
                                      105. Kaminow IP, Weber HP, Chandross EA: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1971, 18: 497. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE3MXks12gu7k%3D] 10.1063/1.1653511
                                      106. John S: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 1987, 58: 2486. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL2sXks1KksL0%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.58.2486
                                      107. Yablonovitch E: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 1987, 58: 2059. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL2sXktFGit7Y%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.58.2059
                                      108. Dowling JP, Scalora M, Bloemer MJ, Bowden CM: J. Appl. Phys.. 1994, 75: 1896. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXitlWjsr8%3D] 10.1063/1.356336
                                      109. Sakoda K, Ohtaka K, Ueta T: Opt. Express. 1999, 4: 481. COI number [1:STN:280:DC%2BD1MzgtlOjug%3D%3D] 10.1364/OE.4.000481
                                      110. Xu T, Yang S, Nair SV, Ruda HE: Phys. Rev.. 2005, B72: 045,126.
                                      111. Xu T, Yang S, Nair SV, Ruda HE: Proc. SPIE. 2005, 5971: 262.
                                      112. T. Martensson, C.P.T. Svensson, B.A. Wacaser, M.W. Larsson, W. Seifert, K. Deppert, A. Gustafsson, L.R. Wallenberg, L. Samuelson, Nano Lett. 4, 1987 (2004)
                                      113. Komiyama S, Astafiev O, Antonov V, Kutsuwa T, Hirai H: Nature. 2000, 403: 405. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXps1egsQ%3D%3D] 10.1038/35000166
                                      114. Yakimov A, Dvurechenskii A, Nikiforov A, Proskuryakov Y: J. Appl. Phys.. 2001, 89: 5676. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXjt1ehsLo%3D] 10.1063/1.1346651
                                      115. Phillips J: J. Appl. Phys.. 2002, 91: 4590. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XisVeqsb0%3D] 10.1063/1.1455130
                                      116. A.J. Budz, M.J. Brennan, H.K. Haugen, Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics (San Francisco, CA, 2004), paper CTuP6
                                      117. Tong S, Liu J, Wan J, Wang K: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2002, 80: 1189. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhtlSit7o%3D] 10.1063/1.1449525
                                      118. Kuo D, Chang Y: Phys. Rev.. 2003, B67: 353,131.
                                      119. Kind H, Yan H, Messer B, Law M, Yang P: Adv. Mater.. 2002, 14: 158. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhtVaru78%3D] 10.1002/1521-4095(20020116)14:2<158::AID-ADMA158>3.0.CO;2-W
                                      120. Bimberg D: J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.. 2005, 38: 2055. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXmsVKjsbk%3D] 10.1088/0022-3727/38/13/001
                                      121. Thompson MG, et al.: Electron. Lett.. 2005, 41: 248. 10.1049/el:20047868
                                      122. Kuntz M, et al.: New J. Phys.. 2004, 6: 181. 10.1088/1367-2630/6/1/181
                                      123. Rafailov EU, et al.: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2005, 87: 081,107. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpsleisLw%3D] 10.1063/1.2032608
                                      124. Komiyama S, Astafiev O, Antonov V, Kutsuwa T, Hirai H: Nature. 2000, 403: 405. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXps1egsQ%3D%3D] 10.1038/35000166
                                      125. Yakimov A, Dvurechenskii A, Nikiforov A, Proskuryakov Y: J. Appl. Phys.. 2001, 89: 5676. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXjt1ehsLo%3D] 10.1063/1.1346651
                                      126. Phillips J: J. Appl. Phys.. 2002, 91: 4590. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XisVeqsb0%3D] 10.1063/1.1455130
                                      127. Tong S, Liu J, Wan J, Wang K: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2002, 80: 1189. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhtlSit7o%3D] 10.1063/1.1449525
                                      128. Kuo D, Chang Y: Phys. Rev.. 2003, B67: 353,131.
                                      129. Kind H, Yan H, Messer B, Law M, Yang P: Adv. Mater.. 2002, 14: 158. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhtVaru78%3D] 10.1002/1521-4095(20020116)14:2<158::AID-ADMA158>3.0.CO;2-W

                                      Copyright

                                      © to the authors. 2006