Open Access

Single step process for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes and metal/alloy-filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes

  • M. M. Shaijumon1,
  • A. Leela Mohana Reddy1 and
  • S. Ramaprabhu1Email author
Nanoscale Research Letters20072:75

DOI: 10.1007/s11671-006-9033-5

Received: 13 September 2006

Accepted: 1 December 2006

Published: 6 January 2007


A single-step approach for the synthesis of multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) filled with nanowires of Ni/ternary Zr based hydrogen storage alloy has been illustrated. We also demonstrate the generation of CO-free hydrogen by methane decomposition over alloy hydride catalyst. The present work also highlights the formation of single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) and MWNTs at varying process conditions. These carbon nanostructures have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy. This new approach overcomes the existing multi-step process limitation, with possible impact on the development of future fuel cell, nano-battery and hydrogen sensor technologies.


Carbon nanotubes Nanowires Encapsulation Hydrogen production Alloys Chemical vapour deposition




We gratefully acknowledge financial support received from DRDO, RCI, NMRL and MHRD, Govt. of India for the present work.

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Physics, Alternative Energy Technology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras


  1. Zhang B, Liu C, Cheng HM, Cai QK: New Carbon Mater. 2003, 18: 174.
  2. Terrones M, Grobert N, Hsu WK, Zhu YQ, Hu WB, Terrones H, Hare JP, Kroto HW, Walton DRM: MRS Bull. 1999, 24: 43. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXlvVKitLY%3D]
  3. Meyer R, Sloan J, Dunin-Borkowski RE, Kirkland AI, Novotny MI, Bailey SR, Hutchison JL, Green MLH: Science. 2000, 289: 1324. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXmt1Wlurs%3D], 10.1126/science.289.5483.1324View Article
  4. Che G, Lakshmi BB, Martin CR, Fisher ER: Langmuir. 1999, 15: 750. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXoslCi], 10.1021/la980663iView Article
  5. Sloan J, Cook J, Green MLH, Hutchison JL, Tenne R: J. Mater. Chem.. 1997, 7: 1089. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXkvFeksLw%3D], 10.1039/a700035iView Article
  6. Bao JC, Tie C, Xu Z, Suo ZY, Zhou QF, Hong JM: Adv. Mater.. 2002, 14: 1483. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XosF2qt7o%3D], 10.1002/1521-4095(20021016)14:20<1483::AID-ADMA1483>3.0.CO;2-6View Article
  7. Bao JC, Zhou QF, Hong JM, Xu Z: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2002, 81: 4592. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xptlemu7k%3D], 10.1063/1.1526461View Article
  8. Golberg D, Gu CZ, Bando Y, Mitome M, Tang CC: Acta. Mater.. 2005, 53: 1583. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVaktb0%3D], 10.1016/j.actamat.2004.12.023View Article
  9. Bethune DS, Kiang CH, deVries MS, Gorman G, Savoy R, Vazquez J, Beyers R: Nature. 1993, 363: 605. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXltVOrs7s%3D], 10.1038/363605a0View Article
  10. Guo T, Nikolaev P, Thess A, Colbert DT, Smalley RE: Chem. Phys. Lett.. 1995, 243: 49. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXnvFWisLg%3D], 10.1016/0009-2614(95)00825-OView Article
  11. Yudasaka M, Kikuchi R, Matsui R, Ohki Y, Yoshimura S, Ota E: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 1995, 67: 2477. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXovVGktr0%3D], 10.1063/1.114613View Article
  12. Cheng JP, Zhang XB, Liu F, Tu JP, Ye Y, Ji YJ, Chen CP: Carbon. 2003, 41: 1965. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXltlOitbY%3D], 10.1016/S0008-6223(03)00185-4View Article
  13. Gao Y, Bando Y, Goldberg D: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2002, 81: 4133. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XovVSktr0%3D], 10.1063/1.1524293View Article
  14. Grobert N, Terrones M, Osborne OJ, Terrones H, Olivares J, Hsu WK, Trasobares S, Zhu YQ, Hare JP, Kroto HW, Walton DRM: Appl. Phys. A. 1998, 67: 595. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmvFertr4%3D], 10.1007/s003390050828View Article
  15. Rao CNR, Sen R, Satishkumar BC, Govindaraj L: Chem. Commun.. 1998, 15: 1525. 10.1039/a802258eView Article
  16. Shaijumon MM, Ramaprabhu S: Chem. Phys. Lett.. 2003, 374: 513. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXkvVWms70%3D], 10.1016/S0009-2614(03)00741-3View Article
  17. Shaijumon MM, Rajalakshmi N, Ryu H, Ramaprabhu S: Nanotechnology. 2005, 16: 518. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXkvVSrsLY%3D], 10.1088/0957-4484/16/4/031View Article
  18. Shaijumon MM, Bejoy N, Ramaprabhu S: Appl. Surf. Sci.. 2005, 242: 192. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXktFKktA%3D%3D], 10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.08.014View Article
  19. Piao L, Li Y, Chen J, Liu C, Lin JYS: Catal. Today. 2002, 74: 145. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XktVejsb8%3D], 10.1016/S0920-5861(01)00540-5View Article
  20. Saito R, Dresselhaus MS: Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes. Imperial College Press, London; 1998.View Article
  21. Moisala AA, Nasibulin G, Kauppinen EI: J. Phys: Condens. Matter.. 2003, 15: S3011. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXptFWms74%3D], 10.1088/0953-8984/15/42/003
  22. Leu IC, Hon MH, Lu YM: J. Electrochem. Society. 1999, 146: 184. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXnslWjtA%3D%3D], 10.1149/1.1391584View Article
  23. Li YD, Chen JL, Qin YN, Chang L: Energy Fuels. 2000, 14: 1188. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXnsFans74%3D], 10.1021/ef0000781View Article
  24. Wang HY, Baker RTK: J. Phys. Chem. B. 2004, 108: 20273. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVagtb%2FN], 10.1021/jp040496xView Article
  25. S. Ramaprabhu, M.M. Shaijumon, Patent filed (No:1129/CHE/05)
  26. Mo¨nch I, Meye A, Leonhardt A, Kra¨mer K, Kozhuharova R, Gemming T, et al.: J Magn Magn Mater.. 2005, 290: 276. 10.1016/j.jmmm.2004.11.208View Article
  27. Korneva G, Ye HH, Gogotsi Y, Halverson D, Friedman G, Bradley JC, Kornev KG: Nano Lett.. 2005, 5: 879. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXislWltb0%3D], 10.1021/nl0502928View Article
  28. Mu¨ller C, Hampel S, Elefant D, Biedermann K, Leonhardt A, Ritschel M, Bu¨chner B: Carbon. 2006, 44: 1746. 10.1016/j.carbon.2005.12.036View Article
  29. Yang CK, Zhao J, Lu JP: Phys. Rev. B.. 2003, 90: 257203.


© to the authors 2007