Photochemically reduced polyoxometalate assisted generation of silver and gold nanoparticles in composite films: a single step route

  • Sangaraju Shanmugam1,

    Affiliated with

    • Balasubramanian Viswanathan1Email author and

      Affiliated with

      • Thirukkallam K Varadarajan1

        Affiliated with

        Nanoscale Research Letters20072:175

        DOI: 10.1007/s11671-007-9050-z

        Received: 6 January 2007

        Accepted: 15 February 2007

        Published: 13 March 2007


        A simple method to embed noble metal (Ag, Au) nanoparticles in organic–inorganic nanocomposite films by single step method is described. This is accomplished by the assistance of Keggin ions present in the composite film. The photochemically reduced composite film has served both as a reducing agent and host for the metal nanoparticles in a single process. The embedded metal nanoparticles in composites film have been characterized by UV–Visible, TEM, EDAX, XPS techniques. Particles of less than 20 nm were readily embedded using the described approach, and monodisperse nanoparticles were obtained under optimized conditions. The fluorescence experiments showed that embedded Ag and Au nanoparticles are responsible for fluorescence emissions. The described method is facile and simple, and provides a simple potential route to fabricate self-standing noble metal embedded composite films.


        Polyoxometalates Organic–inorganic nanocomposite Silver Gold Fluorescence


        Authors’ Affiliations

        Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras


        1. S. Foster, M. Antonietii, Adv. Mater. 10, 195 (1998); R.P. Andres, J.C. Bielefeld, J.I. Henderson, D.B. Janes, V.R. Kolagunta, C.P. Kubiak, W.J. Mahoney, R.G. Osifchinm, Science 273, 1690 (1996); A.P. Alivasators, Science 271, 933 (1996)
        2. H. Hirai, H. Wakabayashi, M. Komiyama, Chem. Lett. 1047, 1983 (1983); K. Ghosh, S.N. Maiti, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 60, 323 (1996)
        3. Thomas JM: Pure Appl. Chem. 1988, 60: 1517. View Article
        4. Perenboom JAAJ, Wyder P, Meier P: Phys. Rep. 1981, 78: 173. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL38XmtFaktA%3D%3D] 10.1016/0370-1573(81)90194-0View Article
        5. Klabunde KJ: Nanoscale Materials in Chemistry. Wiley Interscience, New York; 2001.View Article
        6. T.S. Ahmadi, Z.L. Wang, T.C. Green, A. Henglein, M.A. El-Sayed, Science 272, 1924 (1996); P.Y. Silvert, R.H. Urbina, N. Duvauchelle, V. Vijayakrishnan, K.T. Elhsissen, J. Mater. Chem. 6, 573 (1996)
        7. P.V. Kamat, J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7729 (2002); Y. Zhou, C.Y. Wang, Y.R. Zhu, Z.Y. Chen, Chem .Mater. 11, 2310 (1999)
        8. Tu WX, Lin HF: Chem. Mater.. 2000, 12: 564. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjsVOi] 10.1021/cm990637lView Article
        9. Mizukoshi Y, Oshima R, Maeda Y, Nagata Y: Langmuir. 1999, 15: 2733. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXhvVeisbg%3D] 10.1021/la9812121View Article
        10. Henglein A, Giersig M: J. Phys. Chem. B. 1999, 103: 9533. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXmsVKntr4%3D] 10.1021/jp9925334View Article
        11. Stellacci F, Bauer CA, Meyer-Friedrichen T, Wenseleers W, Alain V, Kuebler SM, Pond SJ, Zhang Y, Marder SR, Perry JW: Adv. Mater. 2002, 14: 194. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xht1Ojurw%3D] 10.1002/1521-4095(20020205)14:3<194::AID-ADMA194>3.0.CO;2-WView Article
        12. Smith GB, Deller CA, Swift PD, Gentle A, Garrett PD, Fisher WK, Smith GB, Deller CA, Swift PD, Gentle A, Garrett PD, Fisher WK: J. Nanopart. Res. 2002, 4: 157. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XmvVOrtb0%3D] 10.1023/A:1020186701109View Article
        13. Park I-W, Yoon M, Kim YM, Kim Y, Yoon H, Song HJ, Volkov V, Avilov A, Park YJ: Solid State Commun. 2003, 126: 385. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXivVOgtbk%3D] 10.1016/S0038-1098(03)00189-3View Article
        14. F.P. Zamborini, M.C. Leopold, J.F. Hicks, P.J. Kulesza, M.A. Malik, R.W. Murray, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 8958 (2002); E.C. Walter, K. Ng, M.P. Zach, R.M. Penner, F. Favier, Microelectron. Eng. 61–62, 555 (2002)
        15. Rudoy VM, Ershov BG, Sukhov NL, Dement’eva OV, Zaitseva AV, Seliverstov AF, Kartseva ME, Ogarev VA: Colloid J. 2002, 64: 755. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XptlOjsL8%3D] 10.1023/A:1021510508346View Article
        16. C. Aymonier, U. Schlotterbeck, L. Antonietti, P. Zacharias, R. Thomann, J.C. Tiller, S. Mecking, Chem. Commun. 3018 (2002); S. Shanmugam, B. Viswanathan, T.K. Varadarajan, Mater. Chem. Phys. 95, 51 (2006)
        17. V.M. Rudoay, B.G. Ershov, N.L. Sukhov, O.V. Dement’eva, A.V. Zaitseva, A.F. Seliverstov, M.E. Kartseva, V.A. Ogarev, Colloid J. 64, 755 (2002)
        18. Y. Zhang, F. Chen, J. Zhuang, Y. Tang, D. Wang, Y. Wang, A. Dong, N. Ren, N. Chem. Commun. 2814 (2002); Y. Zhou, H. Itoh, T. Uemura, K. Naka, Y. Chujo, Chem. Commun. 613 (2001); S.K. Mandal, R.K. Roy, A.K. Pal, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 261 (2003); L. Yang, G.H. Li, J.G. Zhang, L.D. Zhang, Y.L. Liu, Q.M. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 102 (2001); Y. Dirix, C. Bastiaansen, W. Caseri, P. Smith, J. Mater. Sci. 34, 3859 (1999); L. Yang, G.H. Li, L.D. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1537 (2000); G. Mitrikas, C.C. Trapalis, G. Kordas, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 8098 (1999); T. He, A. Kunitake, O. Nakao, Chem. Mater.15, 4401 (2003)
        19. Pope MT: Heteropoly and Isopoly Oxometalates. Springer, Berlin; 1983.View Article
        20. Pope MT, Muller A: Angew. Chem. 1991, 30: 34. 10.1002/anie.199100341View Article
        21. Sadakane M, Steckhan E: Chem. Rev. 1998, 98 : 219. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXotVSgsQ%3D%3D] 10.1021/cr960403aView Article
        22. Troupis A, Hiskia A, Papaconstantinou E: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2002, 41: 1911. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XkslWmtbY%3D] 10.1002/1521-3773(20020603)41:11<1911::AID-ANIE1911>3.0.CO;2-0View Article
        23. Mandal S, Selvakannan PR, Pasricha R, Sastry M: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125: 8440. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXkslensL0%3D] 10.1021/ja034972tView Article
        24. Shanmugam S, Viswanathan B, Varadarajan TK: J. Mol. Catal. A. 2005, 241: 52. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVymtrbJ] 10.1016/j.molcata.2005.06.063View Article
        25. Vagara MG, Papaconstantinou E, Pope MT: Inorg. Chem. 1970, 9: 662. 10.1021/ic50085a045View Article
        26. Shanmugam S, Viswanathan B, Varadarajan TK: J. Member. Sci. 2006, 275: 105. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xitlaqsrw%3D] 10.1016/j.memsci.2005.09.009View Article
        27. Dirix Y, Bastiaansen C, Caseri W, Smith P: Adv. Mater. 1999, 11: 223. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXhvFKqtb4%3D] 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(199903)11:3<223::AID-ADMA223>3.0.CO;2-JView Article
        28. Hussian I, Brust M, Papworth AJ, Cooper AI: Langmuir. 2003, 19: 4831. 10.1021/la020710dView Article
        29. Kreibig U, Vollmer M: Optical Properties of Metal Clusters. Springer, Berlin; 1995.View Article
        30. Shin HS, Choi HC, Jung Y, Kim SB, Song HJ, Shin HJ: Chem. Phys. Lett. 2004, 383: 418. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXpvF2gtLw%3D] 10.1016/j.cplett.2003.11.054View Article
        31. Wertheim, GK, Dicenzo, SB 1986D.N.E. Buchanan, Phys. Rev. B5384G.K. Wertheim, S.B. Dicenzo, S.E. Youngquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2310 (1983)
        32. Henglein A, Linnert T, Mulvaney P: Ber.der Bunsen-Gesellschaft. 1990, 94: 1449. View Article
        33. Zheng J, Dickson RM: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124: 13982. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XotlCqu7c%3D] 10.1021/ja028282lView Article
        34. Gao J, Fu J, Lin C, Lin J, Han Y, Yu X, Pan C: Langmuir. 2004, 20: 9775. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXnvFGns78%3D] 10.1021/la049197pView Article
        35. Geddes CD, Parfenov A, Gryczynski I, Lakowicz JR: Chem. Phys. Lett. 2003, 380: 269. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXotVygurc%3D] 10.1016/j.cplett.2003.07.029View Article
        36. Arnold GW, Borders JA: J. Appl. Phys. 1977, 48: 1488. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE2sXhvFyjtb0%3D] 10.1063/1.323867View Article
        37. Lee L, Wang JX, Adzic RR, Robinsion IK, Gewirth AA: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123: 8838. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXlslyksbk%3D] 10.1021/ja0161352View Article


        © to the authors 2007