Thermosensitive Nanocables Prepared by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization
© to the authors 2008
Received: 6 October 2008
Accepted: 30 October 2008
Published: 19 November 2008
Thermosensitive nanocables consisting of Au nanowire cores and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) sheaths (denoted as Au/PNIPAAm) were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The formation of PNIPAAm sheath was verified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results confirmed the core/shell structure of nanohybrids. The thickness and density of PNIPAAm sheaths can be adjusted by controlling the amount of cross-linker during the polymerization. Signature temperature response was observed from Au/cross-linked-PNIPAAm nanocables. Such smart nanocables show immense potentials as building blocks for novel thermosensitive nanodevices in future.
KeywordsNanocables Gold nanowires Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization Thermoresponsive
Coaxial nanocables have received extensive attentions since they were first prepared in 1997 . In general, they comprise a nanowire core and a protective shell. Based on the nature of sheath materials, different synthetic routes are developed to prepare diverse core/shell nanocables. Roughly speaking, sheath materials can be divided into two groups: hard sheaths (e.g. C , SiO2, BN , CdSe , Au ) and soft sheaths (mainly polymers ). The main methods to form a hard or inorganic sheath are vapor transfer-based [8, 9] or electrochemical deposition , but the coating of nanowires with soft or organic sheaths, especially polymeric shells, needs much milder solution-based reactions. Polymeric sheaths are advantageous over inorganic sheaths in making insulated nanocables, which is essential in optoelectronic nanodevices fabrication and high-density microcircuit industry in order to separate different signal circuit. Moreover, the polymeric coatings would add multiple functions to nanocables, for example, the pH-, temperature- and ion strength-responsive properties, allowing the potential applications in smart nanomachines. Furthermore, polymeric sheaths facilitate a wide range of surface functionalization possibilities, such as biomolecule immobilization. Finally, many polymeric coatings are biocompatible, which promotes the introduction of the one-dimensional (1D) inorganic nanostructures into the biological systems.
The surface functionalization of nanowires with polymeric sheaths can be achieved via several routes: (1) “grafting” method. The as-prepared nanowires are used as templates to graft a polymeric coating. For example, Au/polystyrene (PS) cable-like structures were obtained via emulsion polymerization on as-prepared Au nanorods ; Ag nanofibers/PS nanocomposites were prepared by using the reverse micelle-gas antisolvent-ultrasound method . (2) “filling” method. Nanocables can be synthesized by filling core materials into existing polymeric or self-assembled peptide nanotubes . However, the fabrication of a polymeric nanotube template with desired diameter and length is quite challenging. (3) in situ formation. In this protocol, the nanowire cores and outlayers are formed simultaneously through a one-pot solution reaction. For instance, CdSe/poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) nanocables were synthesized from a heterogeneous system of vinyl acetate (VAc) monomer and precursor under γ-irradiation at room temperature ; Ag/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) , Te/PVA  and Pd/PVA  nanocables were prepared via one-step hydrothermal process. Besides, novel approaches including electrospinning , self-assembly of nanoparticles , and interfacial reaction  are also developed to prepare various nanocable structures.
Recently, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) has been demonstrated as a useful tool for coating different substrates with polymeric outlayers . However, there have been very few reports on the preparation of metal/polymer nanocables via SI-ATRP. John Arnold and Peidong Yang and et al. reported the synthesis of Si/SiO2/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocables via SI-ATRP . John Arnold and co-workers further applied this method to fabricate ZnO/PMMA and ZnO/PS nanocables . Moreover, except conducting polymers , few other types of functional polymeric sheaths have been integrated onto nanowire cores.
Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) is a widely used thermosensitive polymer which undergoes a coil-globule transition at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 32 °C . PNIPAAm coatings have been successfully grafted via SI-ATRP on gold nanoparticles [26–28], gold nanorods , silica beads , dextran particles , carbon nanotubes  and self-assembled peptide nanotubes . The coating of high aspect ratio 1D nanowires with PNIPAAm sheaths, however, has not been demonstrated and could be a novel kind of stimulation responsive materials.
Here, we report the synthesis of thermosensitive nanocables by the SI-ATRP method. Gold nanowires (Au NWs) of 1.5–1.8 μm in length were prepared as the templates via a modified seeding growth method developed by our team. Two different sorts of PNIPAAm sheaths (noncross-linked and cross-linked) were directly grafted from the Au NW surface through the surface-initiated polymerization. The smart thermosensitive nanocables would become the fundamental materials for fabricating resistance sensitive/thermo sensitive nanodevices in future.
Chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 · 3H2O), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium borohydride (NaBH4), N,N,N′,N′,N′′-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) were used as received. NIPAAm monomer was purchased from Aldrich and purified by recrystallization with hexane. CuIBr was purified by dissolution in HBr and recrystallization done with water/ethanol. Deionized water was distilled twice again before use. All the glasswares were washed by aqua regia and repeatedly purified thrice by distilled water. The disulfide initiator [BrC(CH3)2COO(CH)11S]2 was prepared according to the literature .
Synthesis of Au NWs
Au NWs of 1.5–1.8 μm in length were synthesized by a pH-controlled growth method which has been developed by our team recently . In brief, the Au seed solution was prepared by mixing 5.0 mL 0.20 M CTAB with 5.0 mL of 0.50 mM HAuCl4. A quantity of 0.60 mL freshly prepared ice-cold NaBH4(0.010 M) was added all at once under vigourous stirring. The stirring was continued for 2 min and the seed solutions were used within 2–4 h after their preparation.
The growth solution was prepared by adding 10 mL 0.30 M CTAB to the same volume of 1.0 mM HAuCl4and 140 μL 0.10 M AA. After that, 0.30 mmol HCl was injected into the growth solution to lower the solution pH value to around 2.5. Finally, 24 μL seed solution were added rapidly, followed by gently mixing for about 1 min. The solution was then kept in 25 °C water bath overnight.
Preparation of Thermosensitive Nanocables
The first step of preparing PNIPAAm capped nanocables is to immobilize the disulfide-terminated initiator onto the surface of Au NWs. Excess surfactant in nanowire solution was removed by slow centrifugation (1,500 rpm, 15 min) After purification, 1.135 mL initiator/THF solution (0.02 mmol) was added dropwise to Au NWs. The site exchange reaction was left to proceed overnight before centrifugation. The precipitate was collected and washed by H2O/DMF (v: v = 1:1) and THF, respectively. Finally, the initiator-capped Au NWs were redispersed in 8 mL H2O/DMF (v: v = 1:1) solution.
For the formation of noncross-linked and cross-linked PNIPAAm shells on Au NWs, the above Au NWs at initiator solution (8 mL) was equally divided into two separate round-bottomed flasks (labelled with I and II). Then, 0.4526 g NIPAAm (4 mmol) and 10.0 μL PMDETA (0.04 mmol) were added to each flask. In flask II, 62 μL ethylene diacrylate (10 mol% with respect to NIPAAm) was added as the cross-linker. The mixture was degassed by three freeze-pump-thaw cycles with N2. Degassed CuIBr (5.7 mg, 0.04 mmol) was finally added to both systems to initiate the polymerization. The reaction was performed for 48 h and was terminated by opening the system to air. The nanocables were separated from the reaction solution by centrifugation. After repeating wash, centrifugation and redispersion, the samples were dispersed in water finally.
FTIR spectra were recorded by using a Bruker Vectro 22 instrument.1H NMR measurements were carried out on a DMX500 spectrometer (Bruker). TEM images of Au NWs and nanocables were obtained by using a JEM-1200EX transmission electron microscope. The nanocables were stained for TEM observation on copper grids by using 1.5% phosphotungstic acid. The transmittance of nanocables solution was measured on a Shimadzu UV-2550 spectrometer. A water bath was used to control the temperature of nanocable solutions.
Results and Discussions
In summary, two types of thermosensitive Au/PNIPAAm nanocables were successfully prepared via SI-ATRP method. FTIR,1H NMR and TEM results clearly demonstrate the formation of PNIPAAm sheath. The use of cross-linker in the polymerization process improved the density and thickness of the polymeric shell as estimated from the TEM images. The different thermoresponsive properties of Au/noncross-linked PNIPAAm and Au/cross-linked PNIPAAm nanocables were determined by transmittance measurement. These kinds of thermosensitive nanocables provide potential applications in resistance sensitive/thermosensitive nanodevices, smart drug delivery and other stimuli-responsive devices.
This research was financially supported by Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-05-0527), Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC-20774082,50830106) and National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (2006AA03Z329).
- Suenaga K, Colliex C, Demoncy N, Loiseau A, Pascard H, Willaime F: Science. 1997, 278: 653. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXmvVOrsLg%3D]; Bibcode number [1997Sci...278..653S] 10.1126/science.278.5338.653View Article
- Ma D, Zhang M, Xi G, Zhang J, Qian Y: Inorg. Chem.. 2006, 45: 4845. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XksFegtLg%3D] 10.1021/ic060126iView Article
- Yin Y, Lu Y, Sun Y, Xia Y: Nano Lett.. 2002, 2: 427. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xps1Wkuw%3D%3D] 10.1021/nl025508+View Article
- Zhu YC, Bando Y, Xue DF, Golberg D: J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 2003, 125: 16196. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXps1Sms74%3D] 10.1021/ja037965dView Article
- Li Q, Wang C: J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 2003, 125: 9892. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXls1ehu7o%3D] 10.1021/ja035787iView Article
- Wen X, Yang S: Nano Lett.. 2002, 2: 451. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XisVeis7c%3D] 10.1021/nl0202915View Article
- Lu X, Zhao Q, Liu X, Wang D, Zhang W, Wang C, Wei Y: Macromol. Rapid Commun.. 2006, 27: 430. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjsVCnsL4%3D] 10.1002/marc.200500810View Article
- W.S. Shi, H.Y. Peng, L. Xu, N. Wang, Y.H. Tang, S.T. Lee, Adv.Mater. 12, 1927 (2000). doi:10.1002/1521-4095(200012)12: 24<1927::AID-ADMA1927>3.0.CO;2-C
- Li Y, Bando Y, Golberg D: Adv. Mater.. 2004, 16: 93. 10.1002/adma.200306117View Article
- Ku JR, Vidu R, Talroze R, Stroeve P: J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 2004, 126: 15022. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXptVyru7w%3D] 10.1021/ja0450657View Article
- Obare SO, Jana NR, Murphy CJ: Nano Lett.. 2001, 1: 601. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmvFGksbw%3D] 10.1021/nl0156134View Article
- Zhang J, Liu Z, Han B, Jiang T, Wu W, Chen J, Li Z, Liu D: J. Phys. Chem. B. 2004, 108: 2200. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXksFOnug%3D%3D] 10.1021/jp036408aView Article
- Carny O, Shalev DE, Gazit E: Nano Lett.. 2006, 6: 1594. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xms1eqt7w%3D] 10.1021/nl060468lView Article
- Y. Xie, Z. Qiao, M. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Qian, Adv. Mater. 11, 1512 (1999). doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(199912)11:18<1512::AIDADMA1512>3.0.CO;2-S
- Luo LB, Yu SH, Qian HS, Zhou T: J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 2005, 127: 2822. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1yjsbo%3D] 10.1021/ja0428154View Article
- Xiong S, Fei L, Wang Z, Zhou HY, Wang W, Qian Y: Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.. 2006, 2006: 207. 10.1002/ejic.200500654View Article
- Lu X, Zhang G, Wang W, Li X: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.. 2007, 46: 5772. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXosFGmsL4%3D] 10.1002/anie.200701591View Article
- Li Z, Huang H, Wang C: Macromol. Rapid Commun.. 2006, 27: 152. 10.1002/marc.200500627View Article
- Qi Y, Chen P, Wang T, Hu X, Zhou S: Macromol. Rapid Commun.. 2006, 27: 356. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjtVans7k%3D] 10.1002/marc.200500758View Article
- Lu G, Li C, Shen J, Chen Z, Shi G: J. Phys. Chem. C. 2007, 111: 5926. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXjslWgt7k%3D] 10.1021/jp070387tView Article
- Pyun J, Kowalewski T, Matyjaszewski K: Macromol. Rapid Commun.. 2003, 24: 1043. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhsVOkuw%3D%3D] 10.1002/marc.200300078View Article
- Mulvihill MJ, Rupert BL, He R, Hochbaum A, Arnold J, Yang P: J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 2005, 127: 16040. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtFKgsL%2FO] 10.1021/ja056242mView Article
- Rupert BL, Mulvihill MJ, Arnold J: Chem. Mater.. 2006, 18: 5045. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XpvFSmurs%3D] 10.1021/cm061387tView Article
- Huang K, Zhang Y, Long Y, Yuan J, Han D, Wang Z, Niu L, Chen Z: Chem. Eur. J.. 2006, 12: 5314. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XntFGntLk%3D] 10.1002/chem.200501527View Article
- Wu C, Wang X: Phys. Rev. Lett.. 1998, 80: 4092. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXislOjtLo%3D] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.4092View Article
- Kim DJ, Kang SM, Kong B, Kim W-J, H-j Paik, Choi H, Choi IS: Macromol. Chem. Phys.. 2005, 206: 1941. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtFOns7zO] 10.1002/macp.200500268View Article
- Li D, He Q, Cui Y, Wang K, Zhang X, Li J: Chem. Eur. J.. 2007, 13: 2224. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXjsVagtLk%3D] 10.1002/chem.200600839View Article
- Li D, Cui Y, Wang K, He Q, Yan X, Li J: Adv. Funct. Mater.. 2007, 17: 3134. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtlKktLzJ] 10.1002/adfm.200700427View Article
- Wei Q, Ji J, Shen J: Macromol. Rapid Commun.. 2008, 29: 645. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXlsl2gsL8%3D] 10.1002/marc.200800009View Article
- Seino M, Yokomachi K, Hayakawa T, Kikuchi R, Kakimoto M-a, Horiuchi S: Polymer (Guildf). 2006, 47: 1946. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xitlejtrk%3D] 10.1016/j.polymer.2006.01.027View Article
- Kim DJ, Heo J-y, Kim KS, Choi IS: Macromol. Rapid Commun.. 2003, 24: 517. 10.1002/marc.200390076View Article
- Kong H, Li W, Gao C, Yan D, Jin Y, Walton DRM, Kroto HW: Macromolecules. 2004, 37: 6683. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmt1Sntrg%3D] 10.1021/ma048682oView Article
- Couet J, Biesalski M: Macromolecules. 2006, 39: 7258. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xps1aktrw%3D] 10.1021/ma061200jView Article
- Shah RR, Merreceyes D, Husemann M, Rees I, Abbott NL, Hawker CJ, Hedrick JL: Macromolecules. 2000, 33: 597. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhs1GhsA%3D%3D] 10.1021/ma991264cView Article
- Wei Q, Ji J, Shen J: J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.. 2008, 8: 5708. 10.1166/jnn.2008.302View Article
- Nikoobakht B, El-Sayed MA: Langmuir. 2001, 17: 6368. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmsF2ltr8%3D] 10.1021/la010530oView Article
- Kreke PJ, Magid LJ, Gee JC: Langmuir. 1996, 12: 699. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK28Xmt1GqtQ%3D%3D] 10.1021/la9509662View Article
- S. Nuß, H. Bo¨ttcher, H. Wurm, M.L. Hallensleben, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 4016 (2001). doi:10.1002/1521-3773(20011105) 40:21<4016::AID-ANIE4016>3.0.CO;2-J
- Zhu MQ, Wang LQ, Exarhos GJ, Li ADQ: J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 2004, 126: 2656. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVyqtbk%3D] 10.1021/ja038544zView Article