Hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 Heterostructure Nanowire Arrays
© to the authors 2009
Received: 1 August 2009
Accepted: 14 October 2009
Published: 29 October 2009
Novel hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays were fabricated on silicon substrates by a one-step thermal evaporation of CdS powder. The as-grown products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Studies reveal that a typical hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire is composed of a single crystalline Cd4SiS6 nanowire core sheathed with amorphous SiO2 sheath. Furthermore, secondary nanostructures of SiO2 nanowires are highly dense grown on the primary Cd4SiS6 core-SiO2 sheath nanowires and formed hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays which stand vertically on silicon substrates. The possible growth mechanism of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays is proposed. The optical properties of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays are investigated using Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy.
KeywordsCd4SiS6/SiO2 Nanowire arrays Thermal evaporation Optical property
One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with modulated compositions have recently become of particular interest with respect to potential applications in nanoscale building blocks of future optoelectronic devices and systems [1–3]. Among them, core/shell(or sheath) nanostructure materials can prevent oxidation of semiconductor 1D nanostructures and thus forestall interference in the building blocks of complex nanoscale circuits [4, 5]. Therefore, core/shell(or sheath)structures, such as nanocables, have attracted recent research focused on nanodevice applications such as field-effect transistors (FET) and light-emitting diodes (LED) [6, 7]. Very recently, significant progress has been made on the synthesis of complex 1D core/shell(or sheath) nanostructures such as Zn/ZnS core/shell (or sheath) fibers , TiO2/SiO2 nanocables , ZnS/SiO2 core/shell(or sheath)nanowires [10, 11], and ZnO/SiO2 core/shell nanorods . Among these reports, most SiO2 based 1D core/sheath (or core/shell) nanostructures were synthesized via complicated methods, such as high-temperature thermal evaporation of mixed materials  or two-step process .
However, the extensive reports of 1D core/shell(or sheath)structure growth have revealed several challenges that remain before these tools may practically be applied to commercial or industrial needs . The first challenge is how to fabricate long nanostructures that can be easily integrated and manipulated post-synthesis through simple methods. The second challenge is how to organize the long nanostructures in ordered or aligned patterns and in high densities. The third challenge is how to form SiO2 protective layer which is coated on 1D semiconductor nanostructures forms core/shell structures in order to protect the active layer in nanoelectronic circuits and obtain the noteworthy properties of the corresponding nanodevices [13, 14].
Cd4SiS6, a wide band gap semiconductor (E. g = 2.50 eV at 300 K), is a potential material used in electroluminescent devices (ELD) as its emission of visible light. To date, only few works have been successfully completed on Cd–Si–S system. For example, Odin et al.  have reported the cathodoluminescence property of Cd4SiS6 crystal. Zhan et al.  have documented the synthesis and microstructure of Cd4SiS6/Si composite nanowires. In this paper, we report on the fabrication, structure, and properties of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays via a simple one-step thermal evaporation of CdS powder. The present work may be a rational route for meeting the earlier mentioned three obstacles.
The as-grown hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays were synthesized using a high-temperature vacuum-tube furnace, as described in detail elsewhere . Briefly, CdS powder (1.5 g) was placed on an alumina boat in the center region of a quartz tube. Silicon substrates that were covered with Au thin film were placed in downstream to collect the products in the quartz tube. The tube was then pumped down to a base pressure of ~2×10−2 Torr (1 Torr ≈ 133 Pa). Argon gas was introduced into the tube at a constant flow rate of 200 sccm. The total pressure was kept at 2 × 10−2 Torr during the experimental process. The furnace was maintained at 900 °C for two hours before it was cooled to room temperature. A large yield of light yellow product was deposited on the silicon substrates.
The morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FEI SIRION 200). The crystallographic structures of the as-grown product were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, RIGAKU D/Max-2550), transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEOL JEM-2010, operated at 200 kV), and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM, JEOL JEM-2010F, operated at 200 kV) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) The Raman spectrum was recorded on Raman spectrometer (NEXUS-670) with 514.5 nm radiations at room temperature. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was performed using the Xe lamp spectrophotometer (970CRT) at 350-nm line.
Results and Discussions
Based on the earlier mentioned experimental result, we conducted the experiment with different parameters, that is, changed the position of silicon substrate, but kept the other parameters identical. And we obtained hierarchical of Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays.
In summary, hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowires arrays have been prepared on silicon substrates via simple thermal evaporation with CdS powder. Studies indicate that the hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 nanowires heterostructure arrays consist of a single crystalline Cd4SiS6 core coated amorphous SiO2 and adjacent amorphous SiO2 nanowires. The formation process of the hierarchical nanowires arrays was also discussed on the basis of thermodynamic aspect. The properties of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowires were characterized by RS and PL. The Raman peaks can be assigned to the modes of Cd–S and Si–S. In PL spectra, the peak at 483 nm can be identified as the near-band-edge emission of Cd4SiS6 cores. The long and uniform Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowires arrays may be applied as potential building blocks in nanodevices.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 20671018, 10775031, and 10835004.
- Wang ZY, Huang BB, Dai Y, Qin XY, Zhang XY, Wang P, Liu HX, Yu JX: J. Phys. Chem. C. 2009, 113: 4612. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXitlyrsb4%3D] 10.1021/jp8107683View Article
- Gudiksen MS, Lauhon LJ, Wang J, Smith DC, Lieber CM: Nature. 2002, 415: 617. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhsVCjsL4%3D]; Bibcode number [2002Natur.415..617G] 10.1038/415617aView Article
- Shen GZ, Chen D, Zhou CW: Chem. Mater.. 2008, 20: 3788. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXmsVKhs7c%3D] 10.1021/cm8008557View Article
- Xu J, Li XL, Liu JF, Wang X, Peng Q, Li YD: J. Polym. Sci. A. 2005, 43: 2892. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXls1Gku7c%3D] 10.1002/pola.20769View Article
- He JH, Zhang YY, Liu J, Moore D, Bao G, Wang ZL: J. Phys. Chem. C. 2007, 33: 12152. 10.1021/jp074772uView Article
- Qian F, Gradecak S, Li Y, Wen CY, Lieber CM: Nano Lett.. 2005, 5: 2287. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVeqtLfF]; Bibcode number [2005NanoL...5.2287Q] 10.1021/nl051689eView Article
- Xiang J, Lu W, Hu YJ, Wu Y, Yan H, Lieber CM: Nature. 2006, 441: 489. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XkvVyku7Y%3D]; Bibcode number [2006Natur.441..489X] 10.1038/nature04796View Article
- Shen GZ, Chen D, Lee CJ: J. Phys. Chem. C. 2007, 111: 5673. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXjt1ylsbk%3D] 10.1021/jp0702907View Article
- Wu JM: J. Phys. Chem. C. 2008, 112: 13192. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXptlCjsbw%3D] 10.1021/jp804173yView Article
- Moore D, Morber JR, Snyder RL, Wang ZL: J. Phys. Chem. C. 2008, 112: 2895. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsVWjsLc%3D] 10.1021/jp709903bView Article
- Shen GZ, Bando Y, Tang CC, Golberg D: J. Phys. Chem. B. 2006, 110: 7199. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XisFWitrk%3D] 10.1021/jp060006wView Article
- Zhao JW, Wu LZ, Zhi JF: J. Mater. Chem.. 2008, 18: 2459. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXlvFKks7s%3D]; Bibcode number [2003JMatR..18.2459Z] 10.1039/b800029hView Article
- Liao L, Li JC, Wang DF, Liu C, Liu CS, Fu Q, Fan LX: Nanotechnology. 2005, 16: 985. Bibcode number [2005Nanot..16..985L] Bibcode number [2005Nanot..16..985L] 10.1088/0957-4484/16/6/061View Article
- Zou CX, Zhang XZ, Jing GY, Zhang JM, Liao ZM, Yu DP: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2008, 92: 253102. Bibcode number [2008ApPhL..92y3102Z] Bibcode number [2008ApPhL..92y3102Z] 10.1063/1.2948897View Article
- Odin IN, Chukichev MV, Ivanov VA, Rubina ME: Inorg. Mater.. 2001, 37: 445. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXktF2it7k%3D] 10.1023/A:1017560313477View Article
- Zhan JH, Bando Y, Hu JQ, Golberg D: J. Elect. Micro.. 2005, 54: 485. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjsFWjur8%3D] 10.1093/jmicro/dfi077View Article
- Wang CR, Hou JM, Hou JO, Li Q: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.. 2004, 43: 7798. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVGlt7%2FK]; Bibcode number [2004JaJAP..43.7798W] 10.1143/JJAP.43.7798View Article
- Cai Y, Chan SK, Sou IK, Chan YF, Su DS, Wang N: Small. 2007, 3: 111. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXptlOitQ%3D%3D] 10.1002/smll.200600266View Article
- Adhikari H, Marshall AF, Chidsey CED, McIntyre PC: Nano Lett.. 2006, 6: 318. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XlvFWmtQ%3D%3D]; Bibcode number [2006NanoL...6..318A] 10.1021/nl052231fView Article
- Ng HT, Chen B, Li J, Han J, Meyyappan M: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2003, 82: 2023. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXisVyksbw%3D]; Bibcode number [2003ApPhL..82.2023N] 10.1063/1.1564870View Article
- Wang CR, Wang J, Li Q, Yi GC: Adv. Funct. Mater.. 2005, 15: 1471. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVCgtb3I] 10.1002/adfm.200400564View Article
- Jandl S, Harbec JY, Carlone C: Solid State Commun.. 1978, 27: 1441. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE1MXmtl2htg%3D%3D]; Bibcode number [1978SSCom..27.1441J] 10.1016/0038-1098(78)91591-0View Article
- de las Heras C, AgullÓ-Rueda F: J. Phys. Condens. Mater. 2000, 12: 5317. Bibcode number [2000JPCM...12.5317D] Bibcode number [2000JPCM...12.5317D] 10.1088/0953-8984/12/24/320View Article
- Wang CR, Tang KB, Yang Q, Shen GZ, Hai B, An CH, Zuo J, Qian YT: J. Solid State Chem.. 2001, 160: 50. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXlt1Smu7Y%3D]; Bibcode number [2001JSSCh.160...50W] 10.1006/jssc.2001.9183View Article
- Ishii M, Onoda M, Shibata K: Solid State Ionics.. 1999, 121: 11. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjsVaitbs%3D] 10.1016/S0167-2738(98)00305-1View Article
- Fu XL, Li LH, Tang WH: Solid State Commun.. 2006, 138: 139. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjsFGntbk%3D]; Bibcode number [2006SSCom.138..139F] 10.1016/j.ssc.2006.02.015View Article
- Nesheva D, Raptis C: Phys. Rev. B. 1998, 58: 7913. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmtVCnsbo%3D]; Bibcode number [1998PhRvB..58.7913N] 10.1103/PhysRevB.58.7913View Article
- Tell B, Damen TC, Porto SPS: Phys. Rev.. 1966, 144: 771. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaF28XotFSqsw%3D%3D]; Bibcode number [1966PhRv..144..771T] 10.1103/PhysRev.144.771View Article
- Liu J, Wang CR, Ren GP, Wang J, Xu XF: The Open Nanoscience Journal. 2008, 2: 43. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhvVWnsLc%3D]; Bibcode number [2008ONJ.....2...43L] 10.2174/1874140100802010043View Article