Effect of Crystallographic Texture on Magnetic Characteristics of Cobalt Nanowires
- K Maaz^{1}Email author,
- S Karim^{1},
- M Usman^{2},
- A Mumtaz^{2},
- J Liu^{3},
- JL Duan^{3} and
- M Maqbool^{4}
DOI: 10.1007/s11671-010-9610-5
© The Author(s) 2010
Received: 15 February 2010
Accepted: 9 April 2010
Published: 23 April 2010
Abstract
Cobalt nanowires with controlled diameters have been synthesized using electrochemical deposition in etched ion-track polycarbonate membranes. Structural characterization of these nanowires with diameter 70, 90, 120 nm and length 30 μm was performed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The as-prepared wires show uniform diameter along the whole length and X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that [002] texture of these wires become more pronounced as diameter is reduced. Magnetic characterization of the nanowires shows a clear difference of squareness and coercivity between parallel and perpendicular orientations of the wires with respect to the applied field direction. In case of parallel applied field, the coercivity has been found to be decreasing with increasing diameter of the wires while in perpendicular case; the coercivity observes lower values for larger diameter. The results are explained by taking into account the magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies with respect to the applied field and domain transformation mechanism when single domain limit is surpassed.
Keywords
Co nanowires Electrodeposition Magnetic propertiesIntroduction
Nanostructured materials are the subject of immense interest because of their interesting electrical, optical, mechanical, chemical, and magnetic properties [1–7]. Fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanowires are of particular interest from both fundamental research and technological point of views. The interest in magnetic nanowires emerges due to their enhanced and novel properties when compared to their bulk counterparts that lead to potential applications in future high density magnetic devices and sensors, etc. [6, 8–11].
Cobalt is a well-known hard magnetic material and its compounds are widely used for variety of applications in computer, electronic, and medical industries [6, 9, 11]. It is one of the most interesting magnetic materials due to its large magnetocrystalline anisotropy that lies along the c-axis. Various parameters including shape, size, and texture strongly influence magnetic properties of cobalt nanowires. These parameters can be controlled during fabrication process, for example, fcc phase of cobalt nanowires can be changed to hcp phase only by varying pH of the solution during fabrication [12]. Strijkers et al. [13] have reported that the easy axis of magnetization can be tuned either perpendicular or parallel to the wire long axis by changing the length of wires. The influence of current density and wires’ diameter on magnetic properties is also documented in the literature [14–17].
In this work, arrays of cobalt nanowires have been fabricated by electrochemical deposition in porous polycarbonate membranes. This method is a versatile and suitable approach for large-scale production of nanowires with well-defined shape and crystallinity that are important for future applications [18–21]. This technique allows to independently vary the length, size, geometry and density of wires, making it feasible to investigate the influence of these parameters independently on physico-chemical characteristics. Specifically, in this work, we present a study on how the diameter affects the magnetic properties of Co wires with 70, 90, and 120 nm diameters by influencing the crystallographic texture. The results are explained by taking into account the magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies with respect to the external applied field and domain transformation mechanism when single domain limit is surpassed.
Experimental Procedure
Polycarbonate foils of thickness 30 μm were irradiated at normal incidence with ^{238}U ions (kinetic energy 11.4 meV/u, fluence 10^{8} ions cm^{−2}). While passing through the target, each ion creates a cylindrical damage zone along its trajectory which is further sensitized by UV light exposure for 2 h. The UV exposure enhances the track-etching rate supporting thus the formation of cylindrical tracks in polycarbonate membranes [18, 22]. Subsequently, the foils were etched in 5 M NaOH solution at 50°C to obtain the cylindrical nanochannels. Diameter of the etched pores was controlled by the etching time. Three different diameters 70, 90, and 120 nm were used in this study, which are prepared by etching the samples for different times. In the next step, a thin gold layer (~30 nm thickness) was sputtered onto one side of the membrane and subsequently reinforced by electrochemically deposited copper layer of ~5 micron thickness. This layer served as a cathode during the wires fabrication process, while a cobalt rod was used as an anode. The electrolyte consists of 1 M CoSO_{4}·7H_{2}O and the initial pH of this solution was adjusted to 6 by adding appropriate amount of H_{2}SO_{4}. The deposition of Co was performed using a constant voltage of −1 V at room temperature and electric current was monitored as a function of time. The electrolyte solution and deposition parameters were kept constant during all the experiments.
Morphology of the nanowires was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, JSM-6700F) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, JEM-3010, 300 kV), while composition of the wires was studied by means of energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). For analyzing texture of the nanowires, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X’Pert Pro, Cu-K_{α}, 1.54056Å) was used. Additionally, magnetic characterization has been performed by quantum design physical property measurement system (PPMS) up to a maximum field of 10 kOe. For SEM and TEM analyses, nanowires were liberated from the template by dissolving the polymer matrix in dichloromethane, on the other hand for magnetic and XRD characterizations the wires were left embedded in the template and Au/Cu substrate layer was removed.
Results and Discussion
Figure 2d shows a TEM micrograph and corresponding selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern (in the inset) of a segment of a randomly selected 70-nm-diameter Co wire. Analysis by TEM confirms the cylindrical morphology and uniform contour of the wires as observed in SEM. In general, no grain boundaries were observed in these nanowires by TEM or in SAED patterns confirming thus that wires consist of at least several micrometers long single crystals.
Texture coefficients of (100), (002), and (101) planes for cobalt wires of diameter 70, 90, and 120 nm, respectively
Diameter | TC _{ 100 } | TC _{ 002 } | TC _{ 101 } |
---|---|---|---|
70 | 0.89 | 1.94 | 0.16 |
90 | 1.39 | 1.43 | 0.17 |
120 | 1.66 | 1.01 | 0.33 |
In the case of d = 70 nm, TC _{ 002 } is 1.94 while TC _{ 100 } and TC _{ 101 } are less than 1, indicating that the cobalt nanowires of 70 nm diameter are strongly [002] textured. However, TC _{ 002 } decreases to 1.01 and the values of TC _{ 100 } and TC _{ 101 } increase as the diameter increases from 70 to 120 nm. Thus, the [002] texture diminishes and [100], and [101] texture enhances with increasing diameter. In particular, the gain in TC _{ 100 } is more when compared to TC _{ 101 }. These results are consistent with literature that the diameter of the nanowires influences strongly the texture [18, 28]. The geometrical confinement of small diameter pores favors the growth of single crystals whereas relatively larger pores allows the growth of defects and multi-domain more readily therefore decreasing the texture. In addition, pores with large diameters lead to high current density during electrodeposition. This involves smaller ad-atom mobility and thus a less distinct wire texture [18].
On the other hand, according to Darques et al. [15] wire diameter plays an important role in the final preferred texture also by inducing local changes of the pH within the pores. They distinguished between “local pH” and “solution pH”, the pH inside the pores (local pH) is higher than the pH in the solution outside the pores (solution pH) and this difference increases as the pore diameter decreases. It is suggested in reference [15] that an increasing proportion of trapped hydrogen bubbles in smaller pores lead to high OH^{−} ions that increases pH in these pores, which can influence the orientation of crystal planes.
It has been reported earlier that in hcp cobalt, the direction of easy axis of magnetization (i.e., magnetocrystalline anisotropy) is parallel to wire long axis in case of [002] texture, perpendicular in case of [100] texture and at an angle of 45° in case of [101] texture as shown in schematic diagram (Fig. 5) [16]. Thus, in [002] texture, the directions of shape and crystalline anisotropies are parallel and reinforcing each other that resultantly increases the coercivity of nanowires [16, 32]. From the XRD diffractogram depicted in Fig. 4, [002] texture increases with decreasing diameter therefore when the field was applied parallel to the long axis, the coercivity increases with decreasing diameter and maximum value was observed at d = 70 nm (Fig. 4g).
When the field was applied perpendicular to wire long axis the coercivity increases with increasing wire diameter from 70 to 90 nm and then decreases for d = 120 nm (Fig. 4 h). The increase in coercivity with diameter is due to the rise in [100] texture with diameter that favors the coercivity in perpendicular direction. However, this increasing trend of coercivity is not continued for large diameter wires (i.e., for 120 nm). For such wires, the appearance of magnetic multi-domains may come into play their role; therefore, the resultant coercivity arises from the two competing mechanisms, namely, the effect of increasing [100] texture (that favors the coercivity) and the domain transformation from single domain to multi-domain region when diameter of the wires surpasses critical size of single domain that reduces the coercivity of thicker nanowires. The later effect (domain transformation) is probably more dominant here that resultantly decreases the net coercivity of 120 nm nanowires [12, 16, 17, 33].
It is worthy to note that in case of perpendicular applied field, coercivity is smaller than the parallel case, particularly for diameter 70 nm. For parallel applied field, strong [002] texture in 70-nm-diameter wires means that magnetocrystalline anisotropy augments the shape anisotropy thereby increasing the effective anisotropy and hence the coercivity (refer to the Fig. 5). However, when field is applied perpendicular to the wire axis, due to strong [002] texture (with anisotropy along the parallel direction) it is difficult for the spins (moments) to align in perpendicular direction (i.e., along the hard axis) as both directions of shape anisotropy and magnetocrystalline anisotropy are pointing to the wire long axis. This resultantly decreases the coercivity in this case.
Conclusion
Cobalt nanowires of diameter 70, 90, and 120 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition in polycarbonate templates. Structural analysis of the wires confirms the formation of pure phase hcp cobalt nanowires with narrow size distribution. XRD studies of the samples reveal that 70-nm-diameter wires are strongly [002] textured, however, with increasing diameter, [100] and [101] textures also become strong. Coercivity of the nanowires along the wire long axis decreases with increasing diameter most probably due to the effect of decreasing [002] texture that favors the coercivity in a direction parallel to the wire long axis. In perpendicular case, the coercivity was found to increase with increasing diameter due the increasing [100] and [101] textures and then decreases for 120 nm wire due the dominant role of domain transformation (from single- to multi-domain) in thicker wires.
Declarations
Acknowledgments
J. Liu and J. L. Duan acknowledge support by National NSF of China (Grant Nos. 10775161, 10805062, 10775162) and the West Light Foundation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PR China. K. Maaz acknowledges the PCSIR of Pakistan for providing 6 months research fellowship.
Open Access
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
Authors’ Affiliations
References
- Kline TR, Tian M, Wang J, Sen A, Chan MWH, Mallouk TE: Inorg. Chem.. 2006, 45: 7555. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xpt1ektbY%3D] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xpt1ektbY%3D] 10.1021/ic0601384View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xia Y, Yang P, Sun Y, Wu Y, Mayers B, Gates B, Yin Y, Kim F, Yan H: Adv. Mater.. 2003, 15: 353. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXisFemtro%3D] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXisFemtro%3D] 10.1002/adma.200390087View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- El-Kouedi M, Keating CD: Nanobiotechnology: concepts, applications and perspectives. Wiley; 2004:429–443.Google Scholar
- Tartaj P, Morales MD, Sabino VV: J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 2003, 36: R-182.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bader SD: Rev. Mod. Phys.. 2006, 78: 1. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xls1SksL4%3D]; Bibcode number [2006RvMP...78....1B] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xls1SksL4%3D]; Bibcode number [2006RvMP...78....1B] 10.1103/RevModPhys.78.1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ross CA: Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.. 2001, 31: 203. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmsFGqsb8%3D]; Bibcode number [2001AnRMS..31..203R] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmsFGqsb8%3D]; Bibcode number [2001AnRMS..31..203R] 10.1146/annurev.matsci.31.1.203View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wood RW, Miles J, Olson T: IEEE Trans. Magn.. 2002, 38: 1711. Bibcode number [2002ITM....38.1711W] Bibcode number [2002ITM....38.1711W] 10.1109/TMAG.2002.1017761View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Whitney TM, Searson PC, Jiang JS, Chien CL: Science. 1993, 261: 1316. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXmtFGqsL4%3D]; Bibcode number [1993Sci...261.1316W] COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXmtFGqsL4%3D]; Bibcode number [1993Sci...261.1316W] 10.1126/science.261.5126.1316View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Basu S, Chatterjee S, Saha M, Bandyopadhyay M, Mistry K, Sengupta K: Sens. Actuat. B Chem.. 2001, 79: 182–185. 10.1016/S0925-4005(01)00872-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meng G, Cao A, Cheng JY, Vijayaraghavan A, Jung YJ, Shima M, Ajayan PM: J. Appl. Phys.. 2005, 97: 064303. Bibcode number [2005JAP....97f4303M] Bibcode number [2005JAP....97f4303M] 10.1063/1.1846942View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vila L, Vincent P, Pra LD-D, Pirio G, Minoux E, Gangloff L, Demoustier-Champagne S, Sarazin N, Ferain E, Legras R: Nano Lett.. 2004, 4: 521. 10.1021/nl0499239View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cho JU, Wu J-H, Min JH, Ko SP, Soh JY, Liu QX, Kim YK: J. Magn. Magn. Mater.. 2006, 303: e281. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xktlehu7g%3D]; Bibcode number [2006JMMM..303E.281C] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xktlehu7g%3D]; Bibcode number [2006JMMM..303E.281C] 10.1016/j.jmmm.2006.01.082View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Strijkers GJ, Dalderop JHJ, Broeksteeg MAA, Swagten HJM, de Jonge WJM: J. Appl. Phys.. 1999, 86: 5141. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXms1eqs7s%3D]; Bibcode number [1999JAP....86.5141S] COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXms1eqs7s%3D]; Bibcode number [1999JAP....86.5141S] 10.1063/1.371490View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kashi MA, Ramzani A, Khayyatian A: J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.. 2006, 39: 4130. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtFSitrzL]; Bibcode number [2006JPhD...39.4130A] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtFSitrzL]; Bibcode number [2006JPhD...39.4130A] 10.1088/0022-3727/39/19/002View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Darques M, Piraux L, Encinas A: IEEE Trans. Magnet.. 2005, 41: 3415. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1artbnF]; Bibcode number [2005ITM....41.3415D] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1artbnF]; Bibcode number [2005ITM....41.3415D] 10.1109/TMAG.2005.855221View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ren Y, Liu QF, Li SL, Wang JB, Han XH: J. Magn. Magn. Mater.. 2009, 321: 226. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtlCkur7P]; Bibcode number [2009JMMM..321..226R] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtlCkur7P]; Bibcode number [2009JMMM..321..226R] 10.1016/j.jmmm.2008.08.111View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ali G, Ahmad M, Akhter JI, Maaz K, Karim S, Maqbool M, Yang SG: IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol.. 2010,9(2):223.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Karim S, Ensinger W, Cornelius TW, Khan EU, Neumann R: J. Nanosci. Nanotech.. 2008, 8: 5659. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXlsFansg%3D%3D] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXlsFansg%3D%3D] 10.1166/jnn.2008.258View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Toimil-Molares ME, Buschmann V, Dobrev D, Neumann R, Scholz R, Schuchert IU, Vetter J: Adv. Mater.. 2001, 13: 62. 10.1002/1521-4095(200101)13:1<62::AID-ADMA62>3.0.CO;2-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martin CR: Science. 1993, 266: 1961. Bibcode number [1994Sci...266.1961M] Bibcode number [1994Sci...266.1961M] 10.1126/science.266.5193.1961View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schuchert IU, Toimil-Molares ME, Dobrev D, Vetter J, Neumann R, Martin M: J. Electrochem. Soc.. 2003, 150: C189. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXhvFahsbY%3D] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXhvFahsbY%3D] 10.1149/1.1554722View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- DeSorbo W: Nucl. Tracks. 1979, 3: 13. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE1MXkvFyktbw%3D] COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE1MXkvFyktbw%3D] 10.1016/0191-278X(79)90026-XView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schönenberger C, van der Zande BMI, Fokkink LGJ, Henny M, Schmid C, Krueger M, Bachtold A, Huber A, Birk H, Staufer U: J. Phys. Chem. B. 1997, 101: 5497. 10.1021/jp963938gView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Karim S, Toimil-Molares ME, Maurer F, Miehe G, Ensinger W, Liu J, Cornelius TW, Neumann R: Appl. Phys. A. 2006, 84: 403. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XmslSnt7s%3D]; Bibcode number [2006ApPhA..84..403K] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XmslSnt7s%3D]; Bibcode number [2006ApPhA..84..403K] 10.1007/s00339-006-3645-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferain E, Legras R: Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B. 2001, 174: 116. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXhtlWgsL0%3D]; Bibcode number [2001NIMPB.174..116F] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXhtlWgsL0%3D]; Bibcode number [2001NIMPB.174..116F] 10.1016/S0168-583X(00)00455-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Apel PY, Blonskaya IV, Orelovich OL, Akimenko SN, Sartowska B, Dmitriev SN: Colloid J.. 2004, 66: 725.Google Scholar
- Maurer F, Bröetz J, Karim S, Toimil-Molares ME, Trautmann C, Fuess H: Nanotechnology. 2007, 18: 135709. Bibcode number [2007Nanot..18m5709M] Bibcode number [2007Nanot..18m5709M] 10.1088/0957-4484/18/13/135709View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang XW, Fei GT, Xu XJ, Jin Z, Zhang LD: J. Phys. Chem. B. 2005, 109: 24326. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1KktrfN] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1KktrfN] 10.1021/jp053627iView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stoner EC, Wohlfarth EP: Philos. Trans. R Soc. London. 1948, A240: 599.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mumtaz A, Maaz K, Janjua B, Hasanain SK, Bertino MF: J. Magn. Magn. Mater.. 2007, 313: 266. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXktFyitbo%3D]; Bibcode number [2007JMMM..313..266M] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXktFyitbo%3D]; Bibcode number [2007JMMM..313..266M] 10.1016/j.jmmm.2007.01.007View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferré R, Ounadjela K, George JM, Piraux L, Dubois S: Phys. Rev. B. 1997, 56: 14066. Bibcode number [1997PhRvB..5614066F] Bibcode number [1997PhRvB..5614066F] 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.14066View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Duan J, Liu J, Cornelius TW, Yao H, Mo D, Chen Y, Zhang L, Sun Y, Hou M, Trautmann C, Neumann R: Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B. 2009, 267: 2567. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXpvFChtL0%3D]; Bibcode number [2009NIMPB.267.2567D] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXpvFChtL0%3D]; Bibcode number [2009NIMPB.267.2567D] 10.1016/j.nimb.2009.05.015View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Darques M, Encinas A, Vila L, Piraux L: J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.. 2004, 37: 1411. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXksFChu7o%3D] COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXksFChu7o%3D] 10.1088/0022-3727/37/10/001View ArticleGoogle Scholar