Effect of Peierls transition in armchair carbon nanotube on dynamical behaviour of encapsulated fullerene
© Poklonski et al; licensee Springer. 2011
Received: 31 July 2010
Accepted: 14 March 2011
Published: 14 March 2011
The changes of dynamical behaviour of a single fullerene molecule inside an armchair carbon nanotube caused by the structural Peierls transition in the nanotube are considered. The structures of the smallest C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes are computed using the spin-polarized density functional theory. Significant changes of the barriers for motion along the nanotube axis and rotation of these fullerenes inside the (8,8) nanotube are found at the Peierls transition. It is shown that the coefficients of translational and rotational diffusions of these fullerenes inside the nanotube change by several orders of magnitude. The possibility of inverse orientational melting, i.e. with a decrease of temperature, for the systems under consideration is predicted.
The structure and elastic properties of carbon nanotubes are studied in connection with the perspectives of their applications in nanoelectronic and nanoelectromechanical devices and composite materials, and are also of fundamental interest, particularly for physics of phase transitions. For example, superconductivity , commensurate-incommensurate phase transition in double-walled nanotubes , spontaneous symmetry breaking with formation of corrugations along nanotube axis  and structural Peierls transition in armchair nanotubes [4–9] have been considered. In the present Letter, we consider a fundamentally new phenomenon related to phase transitions in nanosystems. In other words, we consider the possibility of inverse orientational melting for molecules encapsulated inside nanotubes caused by structural Peierls transition in the nanotubes.
Note that density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the (5,5) nanotube of a finite length [10, 11] also gave a 60 atom periodicity of physical properties on the length of nanotube segment which is consistent with Kekule structure for infinite armchair nanotubes. Moreover, X-ray crystallographic analysis of chemically synthesized short (5,5) nanotubes  shows the Kekule bond length alternation pattern, which was in good agreement with DFT and PM3 calculations also performed in . By the example of the infinite (5,5) nanotube, it was demonstrated that the structural Peierls transition connected with spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place not only with an increase of temperature, but also can be controlled by uniaxial deformation of armchair nanotubes .
A dynamical behaviour of molecules encapsulated inside nanotubes can correspond to the following regimes: oscillations about a fixed position and/or a fixed orientation of the molecule (regime A), hindered motion along the nanotube axis and/or rotation of the molecule (regime B) and free motion and/or rotation of the molecule (regime C). In the present Letter, we show the possibility of changes of the dynamical behaviour of molecules encapsulated inside armchair nanotubes as a result of the Peierls transition in the nanotube structure. In other words, these changes can include switching between the regimes A and B, switching between the regimes B and C, and the changes in diffusion coefficients corresponding to the hindered motion and/or rotation of the molecule (regime B). The considered changes are possible in the case where the regime B takes place for at least one phase of the nanotube, i.e. the temperature T P of the Peierls transition should correspond to the temperature range of the regime B (the hindered motion and/or rotation of the molecule). In other words, the temperature T P should be of the same order of magnitude (or a few orders of magnitude less) as energy barriers ΔE for motion and/or rotation of the molecule inside the nanotube at this phase. Note that inverse melting of motion and/or rotation of the molecule is possible, if the Peierls transition from the high- to low-temperature phase of the nanotube occurs with switching from the regime B to the regime C or switching from the regime A to the regime B.
Estimations showed that the Peierls transition temperature is T P ≃ 1-15 K [4, 5, 8]. According to calculations [13, 14], the barriers of the value close to this temperature range were obtained for rotation of the fullerene C60 inside the C60@C240 nanoparticle. It was also found that the changes of bond lengths of the fullerene C240, the outer shell of these nanoparticles, within 0.06 Å lead to an increase of the barriers for rotation by more than an order of magnitude [13, 14]. The changes of the nanotube bond lengths caused by the Peierls distortions are of the same order of magnitude (about 0.03 Å for the (5,5) nanotube ). Note also that the size of an encapsulated molecule, and therefore, the nanotube radius cannot be too large, since the magnitude of the Peierls distortions decreases with an increase of the armchair nanotube radius .
Thus, taking into account the above considerations, we have chosen the smallest fullerene C20 and the magnetic endofullerene Fe@C20 to investigate changes in the dynamical behaviour of molecules inside nanotubes at the Peierls transition. It has been shown that the (8,8) nanotube is the smallest armchair carbon nanotube which can encapsulate the fullerene C20. A carbon nanotube with the fullerene C20 inside was also used as a model system to simulate a drug delivery via the nanotube .
This Letter is organized as follows: "Fullerene and nanotube structures" section presents the DFT calculations of the structure of the C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes and the PM3 calculations of the structure of the (8,8) nanotube. "Fullerene-nanotube interaction" section presents the semiempirical calculations of the barriers for motion and rotation of the fullerenes inside the nanotube. The section that succeeds the latter is devoted to the dynamical behaviour of molecules inside the nanotubes. Our conclusions are summarized in the final section.
Fullerene and nanotube structures
Structures of the C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes have been calculated using the spin-polarized density functional theory implemented in NWChem 4.5 code  with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange-correlation functional (B3LYP) [18, 19]. Eighteen inner electrons of the iron atom are emulated with the help of the effective core potential - CRENBS ECP  (only 8 valence s-d electrons are taken into account explicitly). The 6-31G* basis set is used for describing electrons of the carbon atoms.
The ground state of the fullerene C20 is found to be a singlet state and has D 2h symmetry. The calculated energy of the triplet state of the fullerene C20 is found to be 64 meV greater than the energy of the ground state. The ground state of the endofullerene Fe@C20 is found to be a septet state and has C 2h symmetry.
The semiempirical method of molecular orbitals modified for one-dimensional periodic structures  with PM3 parameterization  of the Hamiltonian has been used to calculate the structure of the (8,8) nanotube. The method was used previously for calculating the Kekule structure of the (5,5) nanotube ground state and for studying structural transitions controlled by uniaxial deformation of this nanotube . The adequacy of the PM3 parameterization of the Hamiltonian has been demonstrated  by the calculation of bond lengths of the C60 fullerene with I h symmetry: the calculated values of the bond lengths agree with the measured ones  at the level of experimental accuracy of 10-3 Å. The calculated Kekule structure of the (8,8) nanotube ground state is shown in Figure 1. The difference between the lengths of short and long bonds of this Kekule structure of the (8,8) nanotube is close to such a difference of the (5,5) nanotube . The Peierls distortions include also radial distortions of the armchair carbon nanotube with periodicity of half of the translational period of the nanotube (for details see ). In the case of the (8,8) nanotube, the longest nanotube radius is 0.547 nm, while the shortest radius is 0.544 nm.
with the parameters ε = 2.755 meV, σ = 3.452 Å. These parameters of the Lennard-Jones potential for the fullerene-nanotube interaction are obtained as the average values of the parameters  for fullerene-fullerene and fullerene-graphene interactions, in accordance with the procedure described in . Here, the Lennard-Jones potential is used for calculating the potential surface of the interaction energy E W between the fullerene and the infinite nanotube, and we believe that this gives adequate qualitative characteristics of the potential surface shape. The cut-off distance, r = r c of the Lennard-Jones potential is taken equal to r c = 15 Å. For this cut-off distance the errors of calculation of the interaction energy E W between the fullerenes and the (8,8) nanotube and the barriers for relative motion and rotation of the fullerenes inside the nanotube are less than 0.1%. Both the fullerenes and the nanotube are considered to be rigid. An account of structure deformation is not essential for the shape of the potential surface both for the interwall interaction of carbon nanotubes [25, 27] and the intershell interaction of carbon nanoparticles [13, 14]. For example, the account of the structure deformation of the shells of C60@C240 nanoparticle gives rise to changes of the barriers for relative rotation of the shells which are less than 1% [13, 14]. It should also be noted that the symmetry of interaction energy as a function of coordinates describing relative positions of interacting objects is determined unambiguously by symmetries of the isolated objects and does not change if the symmetries of the objects are broken because of their interactions.
The ground state interaction energies between the C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes, and the (8,8) nanotube with Kekule structure are found to be -1.596 and -1.598 eV, respectively. The angles between the C 2 symmetry axes of the C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes and the nanotube axis at the ground states are 49.6° and 53.1°, respectively. The metastable states with the C 2 symmetry axes of the fullerenes perpendicular to the nanotube axis are also found for both C20 and Fe@C20. At the metastable states, the interaction energies are greater by 4.58 and 3.04 meV than the ground state energies, for C20 and Fe@C20, respectively.
Calculated characteristics of the dynamical behaviour of the C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes inside the (8,8) nanotube of different structure
Structure of metallic phase
ΔE d (meV)
ΔE r (meV)
ν d (GHz)
ν z (THz)
ν x (THz)
ν y (THz)
The frequencies of small vibrations of the fullerenes along the nanotube axis (ν d), rotational vibrations about the nanotube axis (ν z ) and rotational vibrations about two mutually perpendicular lateral axes (ν x , ν y ) are also calculated and listed in Table 1. The most remarkable change of frequency as a result of the structural phase transition corresponds to rotational vibrations of the Fe@C20 fullerene about the nanotube axis (this agrees with the changes of the barriers).
Dynamical behaviour of molecules inside nanotube
Let us consider the possible changes of the dynamical behaviour of the C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes inside the (8,8) nanotube caused by the structural phase transition. The Peierls instability transition temperature T P was estimated for the (5,5) nanotube to correspond to temperature range T P ≃ 1-15 K [4, 5, 8]. Both barriers ΔE d and ΔE r and the thermal energy k B T P are of the same order of magnitude at the structural Peierls phase transition (see Table 1). Therefore, dramatic changes of the diffusion and drift over these barriers can take place at the Peierls transition for the considered pairs of the encapsulated molecules and the nanotube.
where Ωd and Ωr are the pre-exponential multipliers in the Arrhenius formula for the frequency of jumps of the molecule between two neighbouring global minima of the potential surface E W(φ, z), δ d is the distance between neighbouring global minima for the motion of the molecule along the nanotube axis, δ r is the angle between neighbouring global minima corresponding to the molecule rotation about the nanotube axis and k B is the Boltzmann constant. The mobility B d for the motion along the axis can be easily obtained from the diffusion coefficient D d using the Einstein ratio D d/B d = k B T. Figure 3 shows that δ d = 0.123 nm and δ d = 0.37 nm for the (8,8) nanotube with the structure of the metallic phase and the Kekule structure, respectively, and δ r = 22.5° for the both structures of this nanotube.
The value of the pre-exponential multiplier Ω in the Arrhenius formula is usually considered to be related with the frequency ν of corresponding vibrations. We suppose that the ratio Ω/ν remains the same for relative motion of different carbon nanoobjects with graphene-like structure (nanotube walls and fullerenes). For reorientation of the fullerenes of the C60@C240 nanoparticle, the frequency multiplier Ω was estimated by molecular dynamics simulations having the value of 650 ± 350 GHz [13, 14]. We expand the potential surface of the intershell interaction energy near the minimum using the same empirical potential as in [13, 14], and calculate the frequencies of small relative librations of the shells. The calculated libration frequency has the value ν ≈ 50 GHz, an order of magnitude less than that of the frequency multiplier Ω. In the estimations of this study, we use the values Ωd ≈ 10ν d and Ωr ≈ 10ν z for the pre-exponential multipliers.
If a molecule is encapsulated inside a nanotube without a structural phase transition, the jump rotational diffusion takes place at low temperatures, ΔE r/k B T > 1, and the free rotation of the molecule occurs at high temperature, ΔE r/k B T < 1. Orientational melting (a loss of the orientational order with an increase of temperature) has a crossover behaviour if the structural phase transition is absent. Firstly, orientational melting was considered for two-dimensional clusters with shell structure [34–37] and later for double-shell carbon nanoparticles [13, 14], double-walled carbon nanotubes [25, 38, 39] and carbon nanotube bundles . In the case where a molecule is encapsulated inside a nanotube with a structural phase transition and the barrier ΔE r for rotation of the molecule is greater for the high-temperature phase than for the low-temperature phase, an inverse orientational melting (a loss of the orientational order with a decrease of temperature) is possible. In other words, the inverse orientational melting takes place if the Peierls transition temperature lies in the range ΔE rl < k B T P < ΔE rh, where ΔE rh and ΔE rl are the barriers for molecule rotation corresponding to high-temperature and low-temperature phases of the nanotube, respectively. For the considered molecules inside the (8,8) nanotube, these temperature ranges are estimated to be 3.8 < T P (K) < 10 and 0.58 < T P (K) < 5.1 for the C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes, respectively (see Table 1). As these temperature ranges are in agreement with the Peierls transition temperature estimates T P ≃ 1-15 K [4, 5, 8], we predict that the inverse orientational melting is possible for the systems considered. The inverse orientational melting should be more prominent for the case of the Fe@C20 fullerene with the greater ratio of the barriers ΔE rh/ΔE rl.
Let us discuss the possibility of observing the changes of the dynamical behaviour of molecules inside armchair carbon nanotubes at the Peierls transition. We believe that the most promising method is high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This method was used for visualizing dynamics of processes inside nanotubes, such as reactions of fullerene dimerization with monitoring of time-dependent changes in the atomic positions  and rotation of fullerene chains . The rotational dynamics of C60 fullerenes inside carbon nanotube was studied also by analysing the intermediate frequency mode lattice vibrations using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy . The orientational melting in a single nanoparticle may be revealed also by IR or Raman study of the temperature dependence of width of spectral lines. A specific heat anomaly in multiwalled carbon nanotubes may be caused by the orientational order-disorder transition . In the case of encapsulated magnetic molecules (for example, the Fe@C20 endofullerene considered above), the study of the temperature dependence of the electron spin resonance spectra could yield information on the molecule rotational dynamics of these molecules .
In this letter, we consider the changes of dynamical behaviour of fullerenes encapsulated in armchair carbon nanotubes caused by the Peierls transition in the nanotube structure by the example of the C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes inside the (8,8) nanotube. We apply the DFT approach to calculate the structure of the C20 and Fe@C20 fullerenes. The ground state of the (8,8) nanotube is found to be the Kekule structure using the method of molecular orbitals. The Lennard-Jones potential is used for calculating the barriers for motion of the fullerenes along the axis and rotation about the axis of the (8,8) nanotube with the Kekule structure and the structure with all equal bonds corresponding to low-temperature and high-temperature phases, respectively. We show that the changes in the coefficients of diffusion of the fullerenes along the nanotube axis and their rotational diffusion at the Peierls transition can be as much as several orders of magnitude. The possibility of the inverse orientational melting at the Peierls transition is predicted. The analogous changes of dynamical behaviour are also possible for other large molecules inside armchair nanotubes. We believe that the predicted dynamical phenomena can be observed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, near-infrared Raman spectroscopy, specific heat measurements, and by study of electron spin resonance spectra for magnetic molecules.
density functional theory.
This work has been partially supported by the RFBR (Grants 11-02-00604-a and 10-02-90021-Bel) and BFBR (Grant Nos. F10R-062, F11V-001). The atomistic calculations are performed on the SKIF MSU Chebyshev supercomputer and on the MVS-100K supercomputer at the Joint Supercomputer Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
- Takesue I, Haruyama J, Kobayashi N, Chiashi S, Maruyama S, Sugai T, Shinohara H: Superconductivity in entirely end-bonded multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Phys Rev Lett 2006, 96(5):057001. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.057001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bichoutskaia E, Heggie MI, Lozovik YuE, Popov AM: Multi-walled nanotubes: Commensurate-incommensurate phase transition and NEMS applications. Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures 2006, 14(2):131–140. 10.1080/15363830600663412View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Connétable D, Rignanese GM, Charlier JC, Blase X: Room temperature Peierls distortion in small diameter nanotubes. Phys Rev Lett 2005, 94: 015503.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mintmire JW, Dunlap BI, White CT: Are fullerene tubules metallic? Phys Rev Lett 1992, 68(5):631–634. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.68.631View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sédéki A, Caron LG, Bourbonnais C: Electron-phonon coupling and Peierls transition in metallic carbon nanotubes. Phys Rev B 2000, 62(11):6975–6978.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Viet NA, Ajiki H, Ando T: Lattice instability in metallic carbon nanotubes. J Phys Soc Jpn 1994, 63(8):3036–3047. 10.1143/JPSJ.63.3036View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Harigaya K, Fujita M: Dimerization structures of metallic and semiconducting fullerene tubules. Phys Rev B 1993, 47(24):16563–16569. 10.1103/PhysRevB.47.16563View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang Y, Okada M, Tanaka K, Yamabe T: Estimation of Peierls-transition temperature in metallic carbon nanotube. Solid State Commun 1996, 97(4):303–307. 10.1016/0038-1098(95)00529-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Poklonski NA, Kislyakov EF, Hieu NN, Bubel' ON, Vyrko SA, Popov AM, Lozovik YuE: Uniaxially deformed (5,5) carbon nanotube: Structural transitions. Chem Phys Lett 2008, 464(4–6):187–191. 10.1016/j.cplett.2008.09.011View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou Z, Steigerwald M, Hybertsen M, Brus L, Friesner RA: Electronic structure of tubular aromatic molecules derived from the metallic (5,5) armchair single wall carbon nanotube. J Am Chem Soc 2004, 126(11):3597–3607. 10.1021/ja039294pView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Matsuo Y, Tahara K, Nakamura E: Theoretical studies on structures and aromaticity of finite-length armchair carbon nanotubes. Org Lett 2003, 5(18):3181–3184. 10.1021/ol0349514View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakamura E, Tahara K, Matsuo Y, Sawamura M: Synthesis, structure, and aromaticity of a hoop-shaped cyclic benzenoid cyclophenacene. J Am Chem Soc 2003, 125(10):2834–2835. 10.1021/ja029915zView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lozovik YuE, Popov AM: Orientational melting of two-shell carbon nanoparticles: molecular dynamics study. Chem Phys Lett 2000, 328(4–6):355–362. 10.1016/S0009-2614(00)00971-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lozovik YuE, Popov AM: Molecular dynamics study of orientational melting and thermodynamic properties of C 60 @C 240 nanoparticles. Phys Solid State 2002, 44: 186–194. 10.1134/1.1434504View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou L, Pan ZY, Wang YX, Zhu J, Liu TJ, Jiang XM: Stable configurations of C 20 and C 28 encapsulated in single wall carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology 2006, 17(8):1891–1894. 10.1088/0957-4484/17/8/014View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen M, Zang J, Xiao D, Zhang C, Liu F: Nanopumping molecules via a carbon nanotube. Nano Res 2009, 2(12):938–944. 10.1007/s12274-009-9096-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Straatsma TP, Aprá E, Windus TL, Dupuis M, Bylaska EJ, de Jong W, Hirata S, Smith DMA, Hackler MT, Pollack L, Harrison RJ, Nieplocha J, Tipparaju V, Krishnan M, Brown E, Cisneros G, Fann GI, Früchtl H, Garza J, Hirao K, Kendall R, Nichols JA, Tsemekhman K, Valiev M, Wolinski K, Anchell J, Bernholdt D, Borowski P, Clark T, Clerc D, Dachsel H, Deegan M, Dyall K, Elwood D, Glendening E, Gutowski M, Hess A, Jaffe J, Johnson B, Ju J, Kobayashi R, Kutteh R, Lin Z, Littlefield R, Long X, Meng B, Nakajima T, Niu S, Rosing M, Sandrone G, Stave M, Taylor H, Thomas G, van Lenthe J, Wong A, Zhang Z: NWChem, A Computational Chemistry Package for Parallel Computers, Version 4.5. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory;
- Becke AD: Density-functional thermochemistry. III. The role of exact exchange. J Chem Phys 1993, 98(7):5648–5652. 10.1063/1.464913View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee C, Yang W, Parr RG: Development of the Colle-Salvetti correlation-energy formula into a functional of the electron density. Phys Rev B 1988, 37(2):785–789. 10.1103/PhysRevB.37.785View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ross RB, Powers JM, Atashroo T, Ermler WC, LaJohn LA, Christiansen PA: Ab initio relativistic effective potentials with spin-orbit operators. IV. Cs through Rn. J Chem Phys 1990, 93(9):6654–6670. 10.1063/1.458934View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stewart JJP: MNDO cluster model calculations on organic polymers. New Polymeric Materials 1987, 1: 53–61.Google Scholar
- Stewart JJP: Optimization of parameters for semiempirical methods. J Comp Chem 1989, 10(2):209–264. 10.1002/jcc.540100208View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bubel' ON, Vyrko SA, Kislyakov EF, Poklonski NA: Totally symmetric vibrational modes of fullerene C 60 . JETP Lett 2000, 71(12):506–508.Google Scholar
- Leclercq F, Damay P, Foukani M, Chieux P, Bellissent-Funel MC, Rassat A, Fabre C: Precise determination of the molecular geometry in fullerene C 60 powder: A study of the structure factor by neutron scattering in a large momentum-transfer range. Phys Rev B 1993, 48(4):2748–2758. 10.1103/PhysRevB.48.2748View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Belikov AV, Lozovik YuE, Nikolaev AG, Popov AM: Double-wall nanotubes: classification and barriers to walls relative rotation, sliding and screwlike motion. Chem Phys Lett 2004, 385(1–2):72–78. 10.1016/j.cplett.2003.12.049View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Girifalco LA, Hodak M, Lee RS: Carbon nanotubes, buckyballs, ropes, and a universal graphitic potential. Phys Rev B 2000, 62(19):13104–13110. 10.1103/PhysRevB.62.13104View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kolmogorov AN, Crespi VH: Smoothest bearings: Interlayer sliding in multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Phys Rev Lett 2000, 85(22):4727–4730. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.4727View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lozovik YuE, Minogin AV, Popov AM: Nanomachines based on carbon nanotubes. Phys Lett A 2003, 313(1–2):112–121. 10.1016/S0375-9601(03)00649-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lozovik YuE, Minogin AV, Popov AM: Possible nanomachines: Nanotube walls as movable elements. JETP Lett 2003, 77(11):631–635. 10.1134/1.1600820View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Damnjanović M, Dobardžić E, Milošević I, Vuković T, Nikolić B: Lattice dynamics and symmetry of double wall carbon nanotubes. New J Phys 2003, 5: 148.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Damnjanović M, Vuković T, Milošević I: Super-slippery carbon nanotubes. Eur Phys J B 2002, 25(2):131–134.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vuković T, Damnjanović M, Milošević I: Interaction between layers of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Physica E 2003, 16(2):259–268.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Matsushita K, Matsukawa H, Sasaki N: Atomic scale friction between clean graphite surfaces. Solid State Commun 2005, 136: 51–55. 10.1016/j.ssc.2005.05.052View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lozovik YuE: Ion and electron clusters. Sov Phys Usp 1987, 30(10):912–913. 10.1070/PU1987v030n10ABEH002971View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lozovik YuE, Mandelshtam VA: Coulomb clusters in a trap. Phys Lett A 1990, 145(5):269–271. 10.1016/0375-9601(90)90362-RView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bedanov VM, Peeters FM: Ordering and phase transitions of charged particles in a classical finite two-dimensional system. Phys Rev B 1994, 49(4):2667–2676. 10.1103/PhysRevB.49.2667View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lozovik YuE, Rakoch EA: Energy barriers, structure, and two-stage melting of microclusters of vortices. Phys Rev B 1998, 57(2):1214–1225. 10.1103/PhysRevB.57.1214View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kwon YK, Tománek D: Electronic and structural properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes. Phys Rev B 1998, 58(24):R16001-R16004. 10.1103/PhysRevB.58.R16001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bichoutskaia E, Heggie MI, Popov AM, Lozovik YuE: Interwall interaction and elastic properties of carbon nanotubes. Phys Rev B 2006, 73(4):045435. 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.045435View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kwon YK, Tománek D: Orientational melting in carbon nanotube ropes. Phys Rev Lett 2000, 84(7):1483–1486. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.1483View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koshino M, Niimi Y, Nakamura E, Kataura H, Okazaki T, Suenaga K, Iijima S: Analysis of the reactivity and selectivity of fullerene dimerization reactions at the atomic level. Nat Chem 2010, 2(2):117–124. 10.1038/nchem.482View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Warner JH, Ito Y, Zaka M, Ge L, Akachi T, Okimoto H, Porfyrakis K, Watt AAR, Shinohara H, Briggs GAD: Rotating fullerene chains in carbon nanopeapods. Nano Lett 2008, 8(8):2328–2335. 10.1021/nl801149zView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zou Y, Liu B, Wang L, Liu D, Yu S, Wang P, Wang T, Yao M, Li Q, Zou B, Cui T, Zou G, Wagberg T, Sundqvist B, Mao HK: Rotational dynamics of confined C 60 from near-infrared Raman studies under high pressure. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2009, 106(52):22135–22138. 10.1073/pnas.0911963106View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jorge G, Bekeris V, Escobar M, Goyanes S, Zilli D, Cukierman A, Candal R: A specific heat anomaly in multiwall carbon nanotubes as a possible sign of orientational order-disorder transition. Carbon 2010, 48(2):525–530. 10.1016/j.carbon.2009.09.073View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Simon F, Kuzmany H, Náfrádi B, Fehér T, Forró L, Fülöp F, Jánossy A, Korecz L, Rockenbauer A, Hauke F, Hirsch A: Magnetic fullerenes inside single-wall carbon nanotubes. Phys Rev Lett 2006, 97(13):136801. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.136801View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.