Size-dependent visible absorption and fast photoluminescence decay dynamics from freestanding strained silicon nanocrystals
© Dhara and Giri; licensee Springer. 2011
Received: 24 February 2011
Accepted: 11 April 2011
Published: 11 April 2011
In this article, we report on the visible absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and fast PL decay dynamics from freestanding Si nanocrystals (NCs) that are anisotropically strained. Direct evidence of strain-induced dislocations is shown from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images. Si NCs with sizes in the range of approximately 5-40 nm show size-dependent visible absorption in the range of 575-722 nm, while NCs of average size <10 nm exhibit strong PL emission at 580-585 nm. The PL decay shows an exponential decay in the nanosecond time scale. The Raman scattering studies show non-monotonic shift of the TO phonon modes as a function of size because of competing effect of strain and phonon confinement. Our studies rule out the influence of defects in the PL emission, and we propose that owing to the combined effect of strain and quantum confinement, the strained Si NCs exhibit direct band gap-like behavior.
The discovery of unusual quantum-induced electronic properties, including photoluminescence (PL), from Si nanocrystals (NCs) has aroused huge scientific interest on Si nanostructures [1–3]. The origin of the PL in the Si NCs is still being debated because of difficulty in isolating the contributions of quantum confinement, surface states and embedding matrix have on the band structure in these materials [4, 5]. In general, Si NCs are embedded in other materials with different elastic constants and lattice parameters. In such a case, owing to the lattice mismatch, the consequent elastic strain is known to impact their properties . Lioudakis et al.  investigated the role of Si NCs size and distortion at the grain boundary on the enhanced optical properties of the nanocrystalline Si film with the thickness range of 5-30 nm using spectroscopic ellipsometry. They showed that, in the strong confinement regime (≤2 nm), the increase in interaction between fundamental band states and surface states due to distortion results in pinning up of absorption bands. Lyons et al.  studied the tailoring of the optical properties of embedded Si nanowires through strain. Thean and Leburton studied the strain effect in large Si NCs (10 nm) embedded in SiO2 and showed that coupling between the Si NCs and the strain potential can enhance the confinement . Thus, one would expect an enhanced quantum confinement effect resulting in increased band gap for strained Si NCs as compared with the unstrained Si NCs. Several authors have studied the role of strain and quantum confinement on the optical emission of semiconductor NCs, including Si NCs embedded in a SiO2 matrix [9, 10] and Ge NCs embedded in SiO2. While these studies find evident strain effects on the band gap, to our knowledge, no study has focused on the coupled effects of size and strain on freestanding Si NCs. Recent reports on the visible PL from freestanding core-shell Si quantum dots provide evidence of quantum confinement-induced, widened band gap-related transitions, and oxide-associated interface-state-related transitions [12, 13]. However, the effect of lattice strain in the observed PL emission had been completely ignored in these studies.
In this letter, we investigated the strain evolution and resulting changes in the optical properties of the freestanding strained Si NCs with size down to approximately 5 nm. Microstructure of the Si NCs is studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Si NCs size and anisotropy in strain are calculated from detailed analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) line profile. The optical properties are studied using UV-Vis-NIR absorption, PL, and Raman measurements. Mechanisms of visible PL and fast PL decay dynamics are discussed in the framework of anisotropic strain and confinement effects on Si NCs.
Commercial high purity Si powder (particle size approximately 75 μm, Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) was ball-milled at 450 rpm for a duration of 2-40 h in a zirconia vial (Retsch, PM100) under atmospheric condition using small zirconium oxide balls at a weight ratio of 20:1 for Si powder. Very fine Si NCs with few nanometer sizes obtained after every 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 h of ball-milling were studied. These samples are named as Si-2, Si-5, Si-10, Si-20, Si-30, and Si-40, respectively. The size, strain, microstructure, and related dislocation density were calculated from powder XRD (Seifert 3003 T/T) pattern and verified by HRTEM (JEOL, JEM-2100) imaging. For careful determination of average NCs size, internal lattice strain, and dislocation density, XRD data were collected at a slow rate at of 0.0025°/s. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra of all the samples were recorded using a commercial spectrometer (Shimadzu 3010PC) at room temperature. Steady-state PL (Thermo Spectronic, AB2) measurements were performed using a Xenon lamp source at different excitation wavelengths and also with a 488-nm Ar laser as an excitation source. The PL decay measurements were performed with 475-nm laser excitation using a commercial fluorimeter (Edinburgh, LifeSpecII,) with time resolution better than 50 ps. Raman scattering measurement was carried out with a 488-nm Ar+ laser excitation using a micro-Raman spectrometer (Jobin Yvon, LabRAM HR-800) equipped with a liquid nitrogen-cooled charge-coupled device detector.
Results and discussion
where ΔK = (2β cos θ B)/λ, β is the FWHM (in radians) of the Bragg reflections; θ is the Bragg angle of the analyzed peak; λ is the wavelength of X-rays; D U is the average crystallite size; K = 2sin θ B /λ; e is the strain; and C is the dislocation contrast factor, respectively. Details of the calculation of size and strain evolution in Si NCs sizes and strain are reported elsewhere . Our analysis shows clear evidence for anisotropic strain in these NCs. If dislocations are the main contributors to strain (as evidenced from HRTEM image), then the average crystallite size and dislocation density are calculated from a linear fit to Equation 1 (see Figure 1f). The factor C explicitly incorporates the elastic anisotropy of lattice strain. Efficacy of this method has been demonstrated for several systems, including freestanding Ge NCs . Analysis shows that screw-type dislocations are main contributors to the strain in Si NCs. The evolution of crystallite size and dislocation density (strain) as a function of milling time is shown in Figure 1g. For comparison, size obtained from the HRTEM analysis is also shown in Figure 1g. The sizes obtained from both theses analyses are in close agreement. XRD analysis shows that the average NC size monotonically goes down from 43 to 8.2 nm as the milling time increases from 2 to 40 h. On the other hand, the strain/dislocation density first increases up to 10 h of milling and then it slowly decrease for higher milling time. This can be explained as follows: during milling, the strain and dislocations first develop; however, for prolonged milling when the dislocation density is high, the crystal breaks up along the slip plane and thus produces smaller sized NCs. In this way, strain is partly released for a prolonged milling time .
Figure 2b shows the absorption spectra of the strained Si NCs showing a strong absorption peak in the green portion of the visible spectrum. A systematic blue shift in absorption peak is observed with decrease in NCs sizes, which is an indication of band gap widening of the NCs. In case of Si-30 and Si-40, most of the Si NCs sizes are of the order of Bohr diameter (approximately 9.8 nm) of electron in Si, where a quantum confinement effect is expected [20, 22]. However, we observed blue shifts for all the NCs with sizes ranging from 4 to 40 nm. Though the as-prepared Si NCs are likely to have an ultrathin native oxide layer, the size-dependent absorption and low energy of the absorption peak cannot be ascribed to oxide layer or the oxygen-related-defect states. Therefore, strain-induced enhanced quantum confinement effect may play an important role for the band gap widening (as shown in inset of Figure 2b). Thean and Leburton  theoretically calculated the band gap widening of Si NCs as a function of strain and showed that the coupling between the Si NCs geometry and the symmetry generated by the strain potential can enhance the confinement in the quantum dot and can lift the degeneracy of the conduction band valleys for nonspherically symmetric NCs. In the present case, many of the anisotropically strained Si NCs are nonspherical (see Figure 1b). Hence, lattice strain may have caused enhanced confinement effect that gave rise to the widening of band gap in these Si NCs, as evident from the absorption spectra. Hadjisavvas and Kelires  have also theoretically shown the influence of strain and deformation to the pinning of the fundamental energy band gap of the Si NCs embedded in amorphous oxide matrix.
We note that 585-nm peak is very strong as compared to the 640-nm peak in Si-30 and this shows a blue shift and higher intensity peak at 580 nm for Si-40, because of to size reduction. Further, the 585-nm peak in Si-30 is found to be completely independent of the excitation wavelength, whereas the 640-nm peak shifts to lower wavelength (higher energy) of 629 nm when excited at a lower wavelength, as shown in the inset of Figure 3a. This excitation energy dependence of the 640-nm peak strongly indicates its origin as surface/interface defect-related states. On the other hand, 585-nm peak cannot originate from defect-related state. Wilcoxon et al.  reported on the appearance of PL peaks in the range 1.8-3.6 eV for different sizes of Si NCs. The intense violet peak was assigned to direct electron-hole recombination, whereas the less intense PL peak (approximately 600 nm) was attributed to the surface states and phonon-assisted recombination. Lioudakis et al.  showed that L-point indirect gap of nanocrystalline Si film increases monotonically with decreasing film thickness down to 5 nm, as exactly predicted from the quantum confinement theory. Since the excitation wavelength of 460 nm is above the L-point gap (indirect) of Si-30, phonon-assisted recombination is likely to contribute to the 640-nm PL peak in Si-30. Similarly, Ray et al.  ascribed the PL bands at approximately 600 and 750 nm from core-shell Si/SiO2 quantum dots to oxide-related interface defect states. Therefore, phonon-assisted recombination is most likely to be responsible for the low intensity peak at 613-640 nm. However, the strong emission at 580-585 nm cannot arise from such a process. It is noted that in the literature, less intense PL peak at around approximately 600 nm from Si NCs is generally attributed to surface states only for very small NCs (<3-4 nm).
PL excitation measurements for Si-30 and Si-40 at their corresponding emission wavelengths (585/580 nm) show that Stokes shift is very insignificant (approximately 0.067 eV). This is also obvious from the relatively close position of the absorption and emission peaks for Si-30 and Si-40. Such a small shift again rules out the involvement of defects or interface states being responsible for the observed PL. This may indicate a direct transition from valence band to conduction band in the Si NCs. Further, if the interface defects or oxide layer contribute to the 585 nm PL, then one would expect this band from all the samples that show absorption in the visible region, which is contrary to the observation. Therefore, strain-induced enhanced quantum confinement may responsible for the observed PL band at 580-585 nm.
To further understand the nature of transition, we studied the PL decay dynamics of the observed band at 580/585 nm (Figure 3c,d). For Si-30, the decay profile fits to a single exponential decay with time constant τ1 = 3.67 ns, while for Si-40, it fits to a bi-exponential decay with time constants τ1 = 2.34 ns, τ2 = 8.69 ns. It is noted that for Si-40, amplitude of the fast decay component (τ1) is about six orders of magnitude higher than that of the slow component (τ2). This is consistent with the steady-state PL spectra that show a very strong peak at 580 nm as compared to the weak band at 613 nm. Further, reduction in τ1 from 3.67 to 2.34 ns with size reduction in Si-40 is consistent with the quantum confinement effect, and this minimizes the possibility of the fast decay dynamics to be attributed to defect states. Most of the reported PL decay behavior of Si NCs has lifetime values in the range of microseconds to a few milliseconds and the NCs are usually embedded in SiO2 matrix [25–28], while some studies reported decay in the nanosecond time scale [29, 30]. In the present case, Si NCs are freestanding with minimum influence of native oxide layer, and emission is monitored specifically at 580/585 nm. Since the 580/585-nm PL band does not originate from defects, the observed properties are believed to be intrinsic to the strained Si NCs core. We believe that this fast decay dynamics is a signature of formation of quasi-direct energy bands in the band structure of the Si NCs, since in the case of quasi-direct nature of transition the electron-hole recombination process is very fast . However, possible contribution of non-radiative decay channel in the observed fast PL decay cannot be fully ruled out. Othonos et al.  showed that surface-related states in the oxidized Si NCs can enhance the carrier relaxation process and Auger recombination does not play a significant role even in small NCs. It may be noted that this study deals with Si NCs that are freestanding and not oxidized (intentionally).
Based on these observations and recent reports [12, 13], we are inclined to suggest that dominant transition involving strain-induced, enhanced quantum confinement-related, widened band gap states are responsible for the distinct visible absorption and an intense visible PL at 580-585 nm from the freestanding Si NCs. While the absorption/photoexcitation of carriers is certainly a band-to-band transition process, higher wavelength emission bands are though to be defect mediated. Such transitions can take place via a three-step process: (i) creation of electron-hole pairs inside the crystalline core, followed by (ii) nonradiative relaxation of electrons within the band, and (iii) subsequent radiative de-excitation of the electron to the valence band of the core. As the Stokes shift is very small for the 580/585 nm band, the thermal relaxation loss is very small. Hence, the photoexcited carriers in this case are not at all relaxing at the band edge or at the interface states, they are possibly relaxing within the band. The higher size as-prepared Si NCs did not exhibit the approximately 585-nm PL band partly because of the absence of quantum confinement effect and partly because of the presence of high density of dislocations, as evident from Figure 1. These dislocations usually quench the PL, and hence no PL signal was detected.
In conclusion, we synthesized anisotropically strained freestanding Si NCs with sizes approximately 5-42 nm that are freestanding and studied the optical absorption and PL emission from these NCs as a function of its size. The Raman studies show that besides the local heating effect that causes a substantial downshift, TO modes upshift because of compressive strain in all the NCs, while the phonon confinement-induced downshift is observed for NCs with average size below 10 nm. The observed enhanced visible absorption and the systematic blue shift in absorption peak with size reduction are believed to be caused by the combined effect of lattice strain and quantum confinement effects. Size-dependent strong PL band at 585 nm and the fast PL decay dynamics for this band are believed to be caused by the quasi-direct energy bands in the strained Si NCs. Role of defects in the 585-nm PL emission was ruled out. These results imply that strain engineering of Si NCs would enable tunable visible light emission and fast-switching light-emitting devices.
high-resolution transmission electron microscopy
- de Boer WDAM, Timmerman D, Dohnalova K, Yassievich IN, Zhang H, Buma WJ, Gregorkiewicz T: Red spectral shift and enhanced quantum efficiency inphonon-free photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals. Nat Nanotechnol 2010, 5: 878–884. 10.1038/nnano.2010.236View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pavesi L, Negro LD, Mazzoleni FG, Priolo F: Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals. Nature 2000, 408: 440–444. 10.1038/35044012View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cullis AG, Canham LT: Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon. Nature 1991, 353: 335–338. 10.1038/353335a0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Godefroo S, Hayne M, Jivanescu M, Stesmans A, Zacharias M, Lebedev OI, Tendeloo GV, Moschalkov VV: Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals. Nat Nanotechnol 2008, 3: 174–178. 10.1038/nnano.2008.7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ledoux G, Guillois O, Porterat D, Reynaud C, Huisken F, Kohn B, Paillard V: Photoluminescence properties of silicon nanocrystals as a function of their size. Phys Rev B 2000, 62: 15942–15951. 10.1103/PhysRevB.62.15942View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Peng XH, Ganti S, Alizadeh A, Sharma P, Kumar SK, Nayak SK: Strain-engineered photoluminescence of silicon nanoclusters. Phys Rev B 2006, 74: 035339. 10.1103/PhysRevB.74.035339View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lioudakis E, Antoniou A, Othonos A, Christofides C, Nassiopoulou AG, Lioutas CB, Frangis N: The role of surface vibrations and quantum confinement effect to the optical properties of very thin nanocrystalline silicon films. J Appl Phys 2007, 102: 083534. 10.1063/1.2800269View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lyons DM, Ryan KM, Morris MA, Holmes JD: Tailoring the optical properties of silicon nanowire arrays through strain. Nano Lett 2002, 2: 811–816. 10.1021/nl0256098View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thean A, Leburton JP: Strain effect in large silicon nanocrystal quantum dots. Appl Phys Lett 2001, 79: 1030–1032. 10.1063/1.1392309View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu XL, Xue FS: Optical transition in discrete levels of Si quantum dots. Appl Phys Lett 2004, 84: 2808–2810. 10.1063/1.1704872View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zheng F, Choi WK, Lin F, Tripathy S, Zhang JX: Stress tuning of Ge nanocrystals embedded in dielectrics. J Phys Chem C 2008, 112: 9223–9228. 10.1021/jp801529jView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ray M, Sarkar S, Bandyopadhyay NR, Hossaion SM, Pramanik AK: Silicon and silicon oxide core-shell nanoparticles: structural and photoluminescence characteristics. J Appl Phys 2009, 105: 074301. 10.1063/1.3100045View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ray M, Hossaion SM, Kile RF, Banerjee K, Ghosh S: Free standing luminescent silicon quantum dots: evidence of quantum confinement and defect related transitions. Nanotechnology 2010, 21: 50560. 10.1088/0957-4484/21/50/505602View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ungar T, Borbely A: The effect of dislocation contrast on x-ray line broadening: a new approach to line profile analysis. Appl Phys Lett 1996, 69: 3173–3175. 10.1063/1.117951View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dhara S, Giri PK: Size dependent anisotropic strain and optical properties of strained Si nanocrystals. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011, in press.Google Scholar
- Giri PK: Strain analysis on freestanding germanium nanocrystals. J Phys D Appl Phys 2009, 42: 245402. 10.1088/0022-3727/42/24/245402View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Piscanec S, Cantoro M, Ferrari AC, Zapien JA, Lifshitz Y, Lee ST, Hofmann S, Robertson J: Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires. Phys Rev B 2003, 68: 241312(R). 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.241312View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Konstantinovic MJ, Bersier S, Wang X, Hayne M, Lievens P, Silverans RE, Moshchalkov VV: Raman scattering in cluster-deposited nanogranular silicon films. Phys Rev B 2002, 66: 161311(R).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lioudakis E, Othonos A, Nassiopoulou AG, Lioutas CB, Frangis N: Influence of grain size on ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin nanocrystalline silicon films. Appl Phys Lett 2007, 90: 191114. 10.1063/1.2738383View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alonso MI, Mercus IC, Garriga M, Goni AR: Evidence of quantum confinement effects on interband optical transitions in Si nanocrystals. Phys Rev B 2010, 82: 045302. 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.045302View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lioudakis E, Othonos A, Nassiopoulou AG: Ultrafast transient photoinduced absorption in silicon nanocrystals: coupling of oxygen-related states to quantized sublevels. Appl Phys Lett 2007, 90: 171103. 10.1063/1.2728756View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fojtik A, Henglein A: Surface chemistry of luminescent colloidal silicon nanoparticles. J Phys Chem B 2006, 110: 1994–1998. 10.1021/jp058176gView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hadjisavvas G, Kelires PC: Structure and energetics of Si nanocrystals embedded in a -SiO2. Phys Rev Lett 2004, 93: 226104. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.226104View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wilcoxon JP, Samara GA, Provencio PN: Optical and electronic properties of Si nanoclusters synthesized in inverse micelles. Phys Rev B 1999, 60: 2704–2714. 10.1103/PhysRevB.60.2704View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guillois O, Herlin-Boime N, Reynaud C, Ledoux G, Huisken F: Photoluminescence decay dynamics of noninteracting silicon nanocrystals. J Appl Phys 2004, 95: 3677–3782. 10.1063/1.1652245View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meier C, Gondorf A, Lüttjohann S, Lorke A, Wiggers H: Silicon nanoparticles: absorption, emission, and the nature of the electronic bandgap. J Appl Phys 2007, 101: 103112. 10.1063/1.2720095View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bustrarret E, Mihalcescu I, Ligeon M, Romestain R, Vial JC, Madeore F: Comparison of room temperature photoluminescence decays in anodically oxidized crystalline and X-ray-amorphous porous silicon. J Lumin 1993, 57: 105–109. 10.1016/0022-2313(93)90115-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mihalcescu I, Vial JC, Romestain R: Absence of carrier hopping in porous silicon. Phys Rev Lett 1998, 80: 3392–3395. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.3392View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dhara S, Lu CY, Nair KGM, Chen KH, Chen CP, Huang YF, David C, Chen LC, Raj B: Mechanism of bright red emission in Si nanoclusters. Nanotechnology 2008, 19: 395401. 10.1088/0957-4484/19/39/395401View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dinh LN, Chase LL, Balooch M, Siekhaus WJ, Wooten F: Optical properties of Si nanocrystals and SiO x nanostructures. Phys Rev B 1996, 54: 5029–5037. 10.1103/PhysRevB.54.5029View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Othonos A, Lioudakis E, Nassiopoulou AG: Surface-related states in oxidized silicon nanocrystals enhance carrier relaxation and inhibit Auger recombination. Nanoscale Res Lett 2008, 3: 315–320. 10.1007/s11671-008-9159-8View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.