Combined plasma gas-phase synthesis and colloidal processing of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals
© Gresback et al; licensee Springer. 2011
Received: 24 August 2010
Accepted: 12 January 2011
Published: 12 January 2011
Indium phosphide nanocrystals (InP NCs) with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nm were synthesized with a scalable, flow-through, nonthermal plasma process at a rate ranging from 10 to 40 mg/h. The NC size is controlled through the plasma operating parameters, with the residence time of the gas in the plasma region strongly influencing the NC size. The NC size distribution is narrow with the standard deviation being less than 20% of the mean NC size. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) shells were grown around the plasma-synthesized InP NCs in a liquid phase reaction. Photoluminescence with quantum yields as high as 15% were observed for the InP/ZnS core-shell NCs.
Over the last two decades, semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted significant attention because of their various unique properties. Semiconductor NCs provide size-tunable optical and electrical properties, based on quantum confinement of charge carriers within them, high surface-to-volume ratios, and other attributes that have led to the development of a new generation of materials and devices [1, 2]. A significant amount of study has focused on compound semiconductor NCs of the II-VI and IV-VI systems because of the relative ease of synthesizing high quality materials using colloidal techniques [3, 4]. While synthesis and surface functionalization methods for these NC materials are well established and NCs have shown impressive optical and electronic properties, there exists considerable interest to produce systems consisting of NCs of other materials whose constituent elements pose less of an environmental concern, which are more radiation resistant, and less prone to photo-oxidation.
Compound semiconductor NCs of the III-V systems may offer some of these desirable attributes. While III-V semiconductors are known to be "radiation-hard," they also are direct bandgap semiconductors, which is a big advantage for optical applications compared to, for instance, group IV NC materials . Hence, there has been considerable interest in the synthesis of high quality III-V compound NCs, such as indium phosphide (InP). While synthesizing methods similar to those of II-VI semiconductor NCs can be applied to InP NCs, these have turned out to be very difficult and time consuming, often requiring days to produce NCs of high quality [6, 7]. More recently, synthesis of high quality InP NCs has been achieved with non-coordinating solvents  and weak-coordinating solvents . However, as these synthesizing methods require organic surfactants to stabilize NCs in solution during synthesis, they provide challenges for applications of the synthesized NCs in devices because of the often electrically insulating nature of the ligands.
Synthesis of NCs using nonthermal plasmas has become a viable method even for materials, which need to be produced in crystalline form requiring high temperatures, such as Si [10, 11] and Ge . An added advantage of plasma synthesis as compared to liquid phase routes is that the resulting material is free of ligands or surfactants, and that the ligands can be added later depending on the targeted application. This makes integration of plasma-produced NCs into devices easier, as it eliminates intermediate steps of ligand exchanges often required for II-VI and IV-VI NCs. In this article, we propose a method to synthesize InP NCs with a nonthermal plasma. In addition, we show that solution chemistry routes can be used for post-synthesis functionalization of the NCs with ligands and for growing an inorganic zinc sulfide (ZnS) shell around the plasma-synthesized InP NCs.
The precursors were dissociated in the plasma by the hot plasma electrons, leading to nucleation and growth of InP NCs. The NCs were transported out of the plasma region by gas drag and deposited on a stainless steel mesh as a dry powder. The powder was extremely sensitive to air exposure; therefore, all the processes were performed under the exclusion of oxygen and moisture. After the synthesis, the NC material was transferred under nitrogen to a glove box or Schlenk line for handling and further reactions. The NCs produced in the plasma were found to react readily with ligands and coordinating solvents, such as amines, phosphine oxides, and fatty acids in the presence of non-coordinating solvents at temperatures less than 200°C in less than 1 h.
Based on the article by Xie et al. , the ZnS shells were grown as follows: a known mass of dry InP NCs was transferred into a solution of octadecene (ODE) and myristic acid under nitrogen. Then, the solution was sonicated for 5 min and heated to 200°C for 30 min under a flow of nitrogen. Each monolayer of ZnS was grown by using preheated and deoxygenated solutions of 0.05 M zinc stearate in ODE and sulfur in ODE. The zinc and sulfur precursors were injected separately at 15-min intervals with stoichiometric ratios (based on a spherical volume thickness calculation) and heated to 220°C. The dispersion in ODE was then cooled and repeatedly washed with methanol, precipitated by the addition of acetone, and separated by centrifugation. The InP/ZnS NCs were then re-dispersed in toluene.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed by dropping a small amount of the InP colloid onto a thin carbon-coated TEM grid. A FEI Tecnai T12 (FEI Company, Hillsboro, OR, USA) operated at 120 kV was used. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed on a Bruker-AXS Microdiffractometer (Bruker Scientific Instruments, Billerica, MA, USA) with a 2.2-kW sealed Cu X-ray source. Raman spectroscopy was performed using a Witec Alpha300R (WITec GmbH, Ulm, Germany) confocal Raman microscope. Samples for XRD and Raman spectroscopy were prepared by casting drops of concentrated solutions onto glass substrates. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were preformed on a Photon Technology International QuantaMaster 40 UV-Vis (Photon Technology International, Inc. Birmingham, NJ, USA) spectrofluorometer. UV-Vis absorption measurements were performed using a HR2000 spectrometer (Ocean Optics, Inc. Dunedin, FL, USA) with a combination of deuterium and tungsten halogen lamps (DH-2000-BALL).
Results and discussion
Quantum yields between 10 and 15% were measured for InP/ZnS structures. This is lower than the best results reported by Xie et al.  for solution-grown InP capped by ZnS using zinc stearate and elemental sulfur, and the cause for this difference is unknown. In future studies, the authors will explore the use of more reactive precursors, such as diethylzinc and bis(trimethylsilyl)sulfide, which have also been found effective for coating solution-grown InP NCs resulting in higher emission QYs .
In summary, InP NCs with controllable size were successfully synthesized from the flow-through nonthermal plasma. Size control was achieved through adjusting the residence time of NCs in the plasma. This synthesis process yields NCs which are bare and free-standing, which may simplify device integration. In addition, we find that these NCs can easily form a colloid with a variety of ligands, which then enables application of well-established colloidal-processing techniques. After capping the InP NCs with a ZnS shell, PL QYs between 10 and 15% were observed. This study has demonstrated that it is possible to synthesize compound semiconductor NCs with plasma, opening up the possibility of a wider range of the plasma-synthesized NC materials.
This study was supported primarily by the MRSEC Program of the National Science Foundation under Award Number DMR-0819885. Partial support through the University of Minnesota Center for Nanostructure Applications is acknowledged. The authors utilized the University of Minnesota Characterization Facility which receives partial support from the NSF under the NNIN program.
- Murray CB, Norris DJ, Bawendi MG: Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites. J Am Chem Soc 1993, 115: 8706–8715. 10.1021/ja00072a025View Article
- Efros A, Rosen M, Kuno M, Nirmal M, Norris D, Bawendi M: Band-edge exciton in quantum dots of semiconductors with a degenerate valence band: Dark and bright exciton states. Phys Rev B 1996, 54: 4843–4856. 10.1103/PhysRevB.54.4843View Article
- Hines MA, Guyot-Sionnest P: Synthesis and Characterization of Strongly Luminescing ZnS-Capped CdSe Nanocrystals. J Phys Chem 1996, 100: 468–471. 10.1021/jp9530562View Article
- Alivisatos AP: Semiconductor Clusters, Nanocrystals, and Quantum Dots. Science 1996, 271: 933–937. 10.1126/science.271.5251.933View Article
- Yamaguchi M, Uemura C, Yamamoto A: Radiation damage in InP single crystals and solar cells. J Appl Phys 1984, 55: 1429–1436. 10.1063/1.333396View Article
- Micic OI, Curtis CJ, Jones KM, Sprague JR, Nozik AJ: Synthesis and Characterization of InP Quantum Dots. J Phys Chem 1994, 98: 4966–4969. 10.1021/j100070a004View Article
- Micic OI, Sprague JR, Curtis CJ, Jones KM, Machol JL, Nozik AJ, Giessen H, Fluegel B, Mohs G, Peyghambarian N: Synthesis and Characterization of InP, GaP, and GaInP2 Quantum Dots. J Phys Chem 1995, 99: 7754–7759. 10.1021/j100019a063View Article
- Battaglia D, Peng X: Formation of High Quality InP and InAs Nanocrystals in a Noncoordinating Solvent. Nano Lett 2002, 2: 1027–1030. 10.1021/nl025687vView Article
- Xu S, Kumar S, Nann T: Rapid Synthesis of High-Quality InP Nanocrystals. J Am Chem Soc 2006, 128: 1054–1055. 10.1021/ja057676kView Article
- Mangolini L, Thimsen E, Kortshagen U: High-Yield Plasma Synthesis of Luminescent Silicon Nanocrystals. Nano Lett 2005, 5: 655–659. 10.1021/nl050066yView Article
- Knipping J, Wiggers H, Rellinghaus B, Roth P, Konjhodzic D, Meier C: Synthesis of High Purity Silicon Nanoparticles in a Low Pressure Microwave Reactor. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2004, 4: 1039–1044. 10.1166/jnn.2004.149View Article
- Gresback R, Holman Z, Kortshagen U: Nonthermal plasma synthesis of size-controlled, monodisperse, freestanding germanium nanocrystals. Appl Phys Lett 2007, 91: 093119–3. 10.1063/1.2778356View Article
- Shenai-Khatkhate DV, DiCarlo RL Jr, Ware RA: Accurate vapor pressure equation for trimethylindium in OMVPE. J Cryst Growth 2008, 310: 2395–2398. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.11.196View Article
- Xie R, Battaglia D, Peng X: Colloidal InP Nanocrystals as Efficient Emitters Covering Blue to Near-Infrared. J Am Chem Soc 2007, 129: 15432–15433. 10.1021/ja076363hView Article
- Kruis FE, Fissan H, Peled A: Synthesis of nanoparticles in the gas phase for electronic, optical and magnetic applications--a review. J Aerosol Sci 1998, 29: 511–535. 10.1016/S0021-8502(97)10032-5View Article
- Guzelian AA, Katari JEB, Kadavanich AV, Banin U, Hamad K, Juban E, Alivisatos AP, Wolters RH, Arnold CC, Heath JR: Synthesis of Size-Selected, Surface-Passivated InP Nanocrystals. J Phys Chem 1996, 100: 7212–7219. 10.1021/jp953719fView Article
- Talapin DV, Gaponik N, Borchert H, Rogach AL, Haase M, Weller H: Etching of Colloidal InP Nanocrystals with Fluorides: Photochemical Nature of the Process Resulting in High Photoluminescence Efficiency. J Phys Chem B 2002, 106: 12659–12663. 10.1021/jp026380nView Article
- Langof L, Fradkin L, Ehrenfreund E, Lifshitz E, Micic O, Nozik A: Colloidal InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence. Chem Phys 2004, 297: 93–98. 10.1016/j.chemphys.2003.10.016View Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.