Mechanically activated catalyst mixing for high-yield boron nitride nanotube growth
© Li et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 19 June 2012
Accepted: 14 July 2012
Published: 24 July 2012
Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have many fascinating properties and a wide range of applications. An improved ball milling method has been developed for high-yield BNNT synthesis, in which metal nitrate, such as Fe(NO3)3, and amorphous boron powder are milled together to prepare a more effective precursor. The heating of the precursor in nitrogen-containing gas produces a high density of BNNTs with controlled structures. The chemical bonding and structure of the synthesized BNNTs are precisely probed by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The higher efficiency of the precursor containing milling-activated catalyst is revealed by thermogravimetric analyses. Detailed X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations disclose that during ball milling the Fe(NO3)3 decomposes to Fe which greatly accelerates the nitriding reaction and therefore increases the yield of BNNTs. This improved synthesis method brings the large-scale production and application of BNNTs one step closer.
KeywordsBoron nitride nanotube Mechanical milling Nanostructured materials Synthesis X-ray absorption fine structure PACS 81.07.De 81.16.Be 68.55.A-.
Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are a promising nanomaterial with many fascinating properties and a wide range of applications. BNNTs have high thermal and chemical stabilities [1, 2] and can be reinforced into composites working in harsh environments. BNNTs have a wide bandgap close to 6 eV and strong deep ultraviolet light emission [3, 4], useful in fabricating optoelectronic devices at nanoscale. Transistor behaviour has been predicted from BNNTs due to their giant stark effect . In addition, BNNTs have many potential bioapplications, including drug delivery, nanofluidics and nanoscaled biosensors [6–8].
BNNTs were first produced using arc discharge and laser ablation methods [9, 10]. Later on, other synthesis routes, including ball milling and annealing [11–14], chemical vapour deposition [15–17] and other thermal chemical methods [6, 18], were demonstrated. The ball milling and annealing method has been shown to be able to produce larger quantities of BNNTs and more easily to scale up [11–13]. In this process, metal nanoparticles from repeated collisions between milling jar and balls during ball milling act as catalysts for BNNT growth [11–13]. The recent B ink process added metal nitrate (e.g. Fe(NO3)3 or Co(NO3)2) to the milled B powder in the form of ethanol solution, and the additional nitrate catalyst showed a more efficient catalytic effect and greatly boosted the growth of BNNTs [19, 20], especially in the case of the growth of BNNT thin films on different surfaces .
Here, we report an improved ball milling and annealing method for BNNT synthesis, which shows a better BNNT yield compared to the original ball milling method as well as the B ink method. The method involves ball milling of metal nitrate with B powder, and the subsequent thermal annealing of the milled powder in nitrogen-containing gases grows a high density of BNNTs.
Amorphous B powder (95% to 97%, Fluka, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, St. Louis, MO, USA) and 10 wt.% Fe(NO3)3•9H2O (98%, Pronalys, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) were sealed in a stainless milling jar with several hardened steel balls. The weight ratio of ball to powder was 80:1. Dehydrated NH3 gas was filled into the jar at a pressure of 250 kPa. The ball milling was conducted on a custom-built vertical milling machine and lasted for 150 h at a speed of 110 rpm at room temperature. The milled powder was then heated up to 1,100°C in N2 + 15% H2 or 1,300°C in NH3 for 3 to 6 h to produce BNNTs.
The morphology and chemical composition of the products were investigated using a Supra 55VP scanning electron microscope (SEM; Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen, Germany) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) system. A JEOL-2100 transmission electron microscope (TEM; JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo, Japan) was used to check the structure of the nanotubes. The material phases were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD; PANalytical B.V., Almelo, The Netherlands). The nitriding reaction rates of different samples were compared by thermogravimetric analyses (TGA; Netzsch, Hanau, Germany) which monitored the sample weight changes up to 1,300°C (with a temperature increasing rate of 10°C/min) in a pure N2 atmosphere. A Thermo Fischer Scientific K-alpha X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) system was used to measure the chemical compositions of the milled B powders. Pass energies of 100 and 20 eV were used in survey and high-resolution scans. All XPS data were corrected using the binding energy of C-C at 284.6 eV. The near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements were performed in the ultrahigh vacuum chamber (approximately 10−10 mbar) at the undulator soft X-ray spectroscopy beamline of the Australian Synchrotron, Victoria, Australia. The raw NEXAFS data were normalized to the photoelectron current of the photon beam, measured on an Au grid.
Results and discussion
The above analysis results reveal the following enhancing mechanism of ball milling Fe(NO3)3 with B powder. During the milling, Fe(NO3)3 was first decomposed to iron oxide under milling collisions, and the iron oxide was then reduced to Fe by either NH3 or B. These reduced Fe was much more reactive than the steel particles from the collisions between the steel milling jar and balls, due to both the more stable nature of steel and the smaller particle sizes of the chemically reduced Fe. During the heating up to 1,300°C in nitrogen-containing gases, the Fe became quasi-liquid at lower temperature than the steel particles and provides a better catalytic effect. BNNTs started to form from the BN layers precipitating on the surface of the metal particles diffused with excessive B and N atoms, following the VLS growth mechanism . As a result, a strong BN phase XRD peak was observed after the heating (Figure 5 (iv)). The Fe(NO3)3 + B milled powder showed even better BNNT yield than the B ink, possibly thanks to the 71% more N content of the Fe(NO3)3 milled powder. The amorphous B-N phase produced by milling is unstable and can directly provide N source for BNNT growth with little aid from the nitrogen-containing gas. This can reduce the temperature of BNNT formation and result in a better yield of BNNTs.
The ball milling of amorphous B powder and metal nitrate, such as Fe(NO3)3, produces a more effective precursor for BNNT production. The detailed XRD and XPS investigations reveal that during the milling of B powder and Fe(NO3)3, Fe(NO3)3 is first decomposed to iron oxide which is further reduced to Fe. The reduced Fe greatly increases the nitriding reaction of the B powder during ball milling in ammonia (NH3) atmosphere, evidenced by 71% more N content. The pre-formed amorphous BN is much more reactive than crystallined hBN and can directly provide N source for the formation of BNNTs; therefore it lowers the BNNT formation temperature and improves the nitriding rate. The homogeneously mixed additional Fe reduced from Fe(NO3)3 also acts as effective catalysts and assists the growth of BNNTs. As a result, a higher yield of BNNTs can be synthesized. Other metal nitrates, such as Mg(NO3)2 and Co(NO3)2, can also be used in this method.
We thank Dr. Bruce Cowie from Australian Synchrotron for the experimental support, and scientific and technical assistance from the XPS facility in RMIT University Part of this research was undertaken on the soft X-ray beamline at the Australian Synchrotron, Victoria, Australia. Financial support from the Australian Research Council under the centre of excellence and discovery programmes as well as Deakin University under CRGS are gratefully acknowledged.
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