Most of the organisms responsible for device-related infections including central venous catheters, joint devices, dialysis access devices, cardiovascular devices, urinary catheters, penile implants, voice prostheses, dentures, and ocular implants can grow in polysaccharide-rich extensive biofilms and are associated with drastically enhanced ability to express resistance against most antimicrobial agents [1–3]. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from device-related infections, inquiring sometimes the removal of the device [4–6]. However, when Candida albicans enters sterile cavities or tissues and causes infection, treatment may be difficult and prolonged. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil-coated magnetic nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of C. albicans and Candida tropicalis clinical strains  on the catheter surface, and usnic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of Staphylococcus aureus on the coverslips surface, opening new perspectives for the design of antimicrobial and antibiofilm surfaces based on hybrid functionalized nanostructured biomaterials .
Nanotechnology deals with the science and technology at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nm, although 100 nm presently is the practically attainable dimension for textile products and applications. The technology can be used in engineering-desired textile attributes, such as fabric softness, durability, and breathability and in developing advanced performance characteristics; namely, water repellency, fire retardancy, and antimicrobial resistance in fibers, yarns, and fabrics. The enhancement of textile materials by nanotechnology is expected to become a trillion-dollar industry in the next decade, with tremendous technological, economic, and ecologic benefits. Although textile industry is a small part of the global research in the emerging areas of nanotechnology, the fibers and textiles industries in fact were the first to have successfully implemented these advances and demonstrated the applications of nanotechnology for consumer usage .
The nanoparticles have been largely used for different biomedical applications, such as targeted drug delivery [10–12], magnetic resonance imaging , alternative drug and vaccine delivery mechanisms (e.g., inhalation or oral in place of injection), bone growth promoters, cancer treatments , biocompatible coatings for implants , sunscreens (e.g., using ZnO and TiO2)/cosmetics [16–18], biolabeling and detection (e.g., using Au) , carriers for drugs with low water solubility, fungicides (e.g., using ZnO), magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (e.g., using superparamagnetic iron oxide), new dental composites, biological binding agents (e.g., for high phosphate levels), antivirals, antibacterials (e.g., Ag) , anti-spore nonchemical creams, and powders (using surface tension energy on the nanoscale to destroy biological particles) . We have previously reported that magnetite nanosystems exhibited antimicrobial activity against planktonic, as well as adherent microbial cells . In this study, we assessed the potential of Fe3O4/C18 nanoparticles to improve the in vitro antibiofilm properties of textile dressings, using a monospecific fungal biofilm experimental model. The changes induced by the presence of nanoparticles in the C. albicans biofilm formation on textile dressing samples were assessed by quantitative, culture-based methods for viable cell counts (VCCs) assay, and qualitative analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).