Large size self-assembled quantum rings: quantum size effect and modulation on the surface diffusion
© Tong et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 23 August 2012
Accepted: 18 September 2012
Published: 24 September 2012
We demonstrate experimentally the submicron size self-assembled (SA) GaAs quantum rings (QRs) by quantum size effect (QSE). An ultrathin In0.1 Ga0.9As layer with different thickness is deposited on the GaAs to modulate the surface nucleus diffusion barrier, and then the SA QRs are grown. It is found that the density of QRs is affected significantly by the thickness of inserted In0.1 Ga0.9As, and the diffusion barrier modulation reflects mainly on the first five monolayer . The physical mechanism behind is discussed. The further analysis shows that about 160 meV decrease in diffusion barrier can be achieved, which allows the SA QRs with density of as low as one QR per 6 μm2. Finally, the QRs with diameters of 438 nm and outer diameters of 736 nm are fabricated using QSE.
KeywordsQuantum rings Self-assemble Quantum size effect Surface diffusion
Quantum rings (QRs), being viewed as the artificial benzene analogs, have attracted the increasing interests due to their novel magnetic and optoelectronic properties[1–4] and the potential applications as high performance THz detectors[5, 6], solar cells, lasers, and single photon sources. As a kind of low dimensional nanostructures, the physical properties of QRs are governed by their configuration. Hence, manipulate atoms to control the size and shape of QRs are strongly pursued. The conventional approaches including the different growth temperature, the annealing time, the arsenic pressure used in the annealing, and partially capping growth had been applied to fabricate the different shape self-assembled (SA) QRs. However, there are few investigations from the surface energy or diffusion barriers point of view which also affects the atom diffusion from the well-known Arrhenius relation of diffusion coefficient.
Surface energy and diffusion barriers had been demonstrated to be sensitive to the thickness of ultrathin epitaxy layer on the surface[14–17] due to the quantum size effect (QSE). In the ultrathin epitaxy layer, the energy levels are discrete and the surface free energy of film is dependent on the position of these discrete levels. It has been found that the diffusion barrier is sensitive to the number of atom layers in the film, and the density and energy stability of metallic nanostructures also show a bi-layer oscillation behavior. Hence, QSE has been recognized as a strong driving force for self-assembly and used to select certain preferred sizes and geometry of the nanostructures in the growth process. In this paper, we demonstrated the submicron size GaAs QRs by modulating the surface energy, which were achieved by the QSE of InGaAs nanolayer. It was found that the size and density of QRs can be controlled by changing the deposition thickness of low surface energy layer. The dependence of diffusion barrier on the thickness of InGaAs is studied and the mechanism behind is discussed.
The QRs were grown using a Riber 32P solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. After oxide desorption, a 300-nm GaAs buffer layer was deposited on the semi-insulating GaAs (100) wafers at 580°C. Then, the substrate was cooled down to 480°C, the In0.1 Ga0.9As layer was grown with the thickness regime from 1 to 14 monolayer (ML). After that, the arsenic valve was closed for 3 min. Subsequently, gallium atoms equivalent to form 10 ML GaAs were supplied to the substrate surface to form the gallium droplets at the setting temperature. The growth rate was 1 ML/s. Then, the gallium droplets were annealed in the As4 ambient with the arsenic pressure of 1 × 10−6 Torr, which is equivalent to the V/III ratio of 16. Annealing time is 100 s to make sure all the gallium atoms crystallize to form the GaAs. The growth temperature of QRs is 480°C for the different thicknesses of In0.1 Ga0.9As. The QRs with different growth temperatures on the 5-ML In0.1 Ga0.9As are also grown to analyze the surface diffusion. After quenching, the sample was taken out from the MBE chamber for analysis using a Shimadzu SPM 9500 atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Shimadzu Scientific Instruments, Japan) in tapping mode.
Results and discussions
In summary, we had demonstrated the controlling of SA GaAs QRs' configuration by the QSE of InGaAs layer. By varying the thickness of InGaAs epitaxy layer underneath QRs, a drastic change of the shape, size, and density of the QRs was observed. It had been shown that the nucleus diffusion barrier can be decreased 14%, and the QR density can be lowered down to one QR per 6 μm2. Using this approach, the large size QR with the diameter of 438 nm and outer diameter of 736 nm had been achieved. We believed these results will contribute to the development of QR material and devices.
TC and WL are the professors of Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics (CIOMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China. YSF is a professor in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
The authors acknowledge the financial supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos.: 61076064 and 61176046), the Hundred Talents Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Open Project of the State Key Lab on Integrated Optoelectronics.
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