The effect of magnetic field on the impurity binding energy of shallow donor impurities in a Ga1−xIn x N y As1−y/GaAs quantum well
© Yesilgul et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 16 July 2012
Accepted: 28 September 2012
Published: 24 October 2012
Using a variational approach, we have investigated the effects of the magnetic field, the impurity position, and the nitrogen and indium concentrations on impurity binding energy in a Ga1−xIn x N y As1−y/GaAs quantum well. Our calculations have revealed the dependence of impurity binding on the applied magnetic field, the impurity position, and the nitrogen and indium concentrations.
KeywordsImpurities Quantum well Dilute nitride
Over the past decade, the GaInNAs-based quantum-well structures have emerged as a subject of considerable theoretical and experimental research interest due to their very unique physical properties and due to a wide range of possible device applications. GaInNAs exhibits interesting new properties and differs considerably from the conventional III to V alloys. Significant changes occur in the electronic band structure compare with GaInAs with incorporation of small amounts of nitrogen into GaInAs. These include a large redshift of the bandgap, a highly nonlinear pressure dependence of the bandgap, an increase in the electron effective mass, and the N-induced formation of new bands [1–10]. This new material has received considerable attention due to the growing interest in its basic physical properties. Shan et al. showed that interaction between the conduction band and narrow resonant band formed by nitrogen states in GaInNAs alloys leads to a splitting of conduction band into sub-bands and a reduction of the fundamental bandgap . Fan et al. have investigated the electronic structures of strained Ga1−xIn x N y As1−y/GaAs quantum wells . Hetterrich et al. investigated the electronic states in strained Ga0.62In0.38N0.015As0.985/GaAs multiple quantum-well structures . Pan et al. have investigated the optical transitions in Ga1−xIn x N y As1−y/GaAs single and multiple quantum wells using photovoltaic measurements at room temperature . Several studies have been done on detailed optical characterization of Ga1−xIn x N y As1−y. These papers include the temperature dependence of photoluminescence, absorption spectrum, and low-temperature photoluminescence [15–19].
There are many studies associated with the hydrogenic binding of an electron to a donor impurity which is confined within low-dimensional heterostructures [20–25]. The understanding of the electronic and optical properties of impurities in such systems is important because the optical and transport properties of devices made from these materials are strongly affected by the presence of shallow impurities. Also, it is well known that a magnetic field considerably affects the optical and electronic properties of semiconductors. Thus, the effects of magnetic field on the impurity binding energy are a very important problem [26–28]. However, up to now, to the best of our knowledge, no theoretical studies have been focused on impurity binding energies in single GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well (QW) under the magnetic field.
In this paper, using a variational technique within the effective mass approximation, we have investigated the effects of the magnetic field, the impurity position, and the nitrogen (N) and indium (In) concentrations on impurity binding energy in a Ga1 − xIn x N y As1 − y/GaAs QW.
with L as the well width, and V0 is the conduction band offset which is taken to be 80% of the total discontinuity between the bandgap of GaAs and Ga1 − xIn x N y As1 − y grown on GaAs .
Parameters of the binary compounds used for the calculation
Electron effective mass m*(m0)
Energy gap Eg (eV)
where E z is the confinement ground state energy of the electron.
Results and discussion
In this paper, we have theoretically investigated the effects of the magnetic field, the impurity position, and the nitrogen and indium concentrations on impurity binding energy in a Ga1 − xIn x N y As1 − y/GaAs QW.
As a summary, we have investigated the effects of the magnetic field, the impurity position, and the nitrogen and indium concentrations on the impurity binding energy in a Ga1−xIn x N y As1−y/GaAs quantum well in this study. The calculations were performed within the effective mass approximation. We have found the impurity binding energy on the magnetic field, the impurity position, and the nitrogen and indium concentrations. This case gives a new degree of freedom in device applications, such as near-infrared electro-absorption modulators and quantum well infrared detectors, and all optical switches. We hope that our results will stimulate further investigations of the related physics as well as device applications of group III nitrides.
This work supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) for a research grant COST 109T650 and was partially supported by the Scientific Research Project Fund of Cumhuriyet University under the project number F-360. MEMR acknowledges support from Mexican CONACYT through Research Grant CB-2008-101777 and 2011-2012 Sabbatical Grant No. 180636. He is also grateful to the Universidad de Antioquia for hospitality during his sabbatical stay. This research was partially supported by Colombian Agencies: CODI-Universidad de Antioquia (Estrategia de Sostenibilidad 2013-2014 de la Universidad de Antioquia) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales-Universidad de Antioquia (CAD-exclusive dedication project (2012-2013). The authors thank CONACYT (Mexico) and COLCIENCIAS (Colombia) for support under the 2012-2013 Bilateral Agreement "Estudio de propiedades opticas, electronicas y de transporte en sistemas de baja dimension basados en carbono y semiconductores III-V: efectos de campos externos,temperatura y presion hidrostatica". The work was developed with the help of CENAPAD-SP, Brazil.
- Ribeiro F, Latge A: Impurities in a quantum dot: a comparative study. Phys Rev B 1994, 50: 4913. 10.1103/PhysRevB.50.4913View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Porras N, Perez S, Latge A: Binding energies and density of impurity states in spherical GaAs‐(Ga, Al)As quantum dots. J Appl Phys 1993, 74: 7624. 10.1063/1.354943View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Movilla J, Planelles J: Off-centering of hydrogenic impurities in quantum dots. Phys Rev B 2005, 71: 075319.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miller A, Chemla D, Schmitt S: Electroabsorption of highly confined systems: theory of the quantum–confined Franz–Keldysh effect in semiconductor quantum wires and dots. Appl Phys Lett 1988, 52: 2154. 10.1063/1.99562View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nomura S, Kobayashi T: Clearly resolved exciton peaks in CdSxSe1−x microcrystallites by modulation spectroscopy. Solid State Commun 1990, 73: 425. 10.1016/0038-1098(90)90044-CView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Porras-Montenegro N, Perez-Merchancano S: Hydrogenic impurities in GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum dots. Phys Rev B 1992, 46: 9780. 10.1103/PhysRevB.46.9780View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu J: Exact solutions for hydrogenic donor states in a spherically rectangular quantum well. Phys Rev B 1989, 39: 8780. 10.1103/PhysRevB.39.8780View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu J, Xiong J, Gu B: Confined electron and hydrogenic donor states in a spherical quantum dot of GaAs-Ga1−xAl x As. Phys Rev B 1990, 41: 6001. 10.1103/PhysRevB.41.6001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pozina G, Ivanov I, Monemar B, Thordson J, Andersson T: Properties of molecular-beam epitaxy-grown GaNAs from optical spectroscopy. J Appl Phys 1998, 84: 3830. 10.1063/1.368562View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bi W, Tu C: Bowing parameter of the band-gap energy of GaN x As1−x. Appl Phys Lett 1997, 70: 1608. 10.1063/1.118630View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shan W, Walukiewicz W, Ager J, Haller E, Geisz J, Friedman D, Olson J, Kurtz S: Band anticrossing in GaInNAs alloys. Phys Rev Lett 1999, 82: 1221. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1221View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fan W, Yoon S: Electronic band structures of GaInNAs/GaAs compressive strained quantum wells. J Appl Phys 2001, 90: 843. 10.1063/1.1378336View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hetterich M, Dawson M, Egorov A, Bernklau D, Riechert H: Electronic states and band alignment in GalnNAs/GaAs quantum-well structures with low nitrogen content. Applied Physics Lett 2000, 76: 1030. 10.1063/1.125928View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pan Z, Li L, Lin Y, Sun B, Jiang D, Ge W: Conduction band offset and electron effective mass in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum-well structures with low nitrogen concentration. Appl Phys Lett 2001, 78: 2217. 10.1063/1.1362335View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tournie E, Pinault M, Vezian S, Massies J, Tottereau O: Long wavelength GaInNAs/GaAs quantum-well heterostructures grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy Appl. Phys Lett 2000, 77: 2189.Google Scholar
- Polimeni A, Capizzi M, Geddo M, Fischer M, Reinhardt M, Forchel A: Effect of temperature on the optical properties of (InGa)(AsN)/GaAs single quantum wells. Appl Phys Lett 2000, 77: 2870. 10.1063/1.1320849View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perlin P, Winiewski P, Skierbiszewski C, Suski T, Kaminska E, Subramanya S, Weber E, Mars D, Walukiewicz W: Solar cells with 1.0 eV band gap, lattice matched to GaAs. Appl Phys Lett 2000, 76: 1279. 10.1063/1.126008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pinault M, Tournie E: On the origin of carrier localization in Ga InNAs/GaAs quantum wells. Appl Phys Lett 2001, 78: 1562. 10.1063/1.1354153View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shirakata S, Kondow M, Kitatani T: Photoluminescence and photoreflectance of GaInNAs single quantum wells. Appl Phys Lett 2001, 79: 54. 10.1063/1.1374221View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ungan F, Kasapoglu E, Sari H, Somken I: Dependence of impurity binding energy on nitrogen and indium concentrations for shallow donors in a GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well under intense laser field. The European Physical Journal B 2011, 82: 313. 10.1140/epjb/e2011-20081-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sali A, Fliyou M, Loumrhari H: Photoionization of shallow donor impurities in finite-barrier quantum-well wires. Physica B 1997, 233: 196. 10.1016/S0921-4526(97)00305-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Duque C, Kasapoglu E, Sakiroglu S, Sari H, Sökmen I: Intense laser effects on donor impurity in a cylindrical single and vertically coupled quantum dots under combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field. Appl Surf Sci 2010, 256: 7406. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.05.081View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ruihaoi W, Wenfang X: Optical absorption of a hydrogenic impurity in a disc-shaped quantum dot. Curr Appl Phys 2010, 10: 757. 10.1016/j.cap.2009.09.010View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kasapoglu E, Yesilgul U, Sari H, Sökmen I: The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the photoionization cross-section and binding energy of impurities in quantum-well wire under the electric field. Physica B 2005, 368: 76. 10.1016/j.physb.2005.06.039View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yesilgul U, Kasapoglu E, Sari H, Sökmen I: Photoionization cross-section and binding energy of shallow donor impurities in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wires. Solid State Communications 2011, 151: 1175. 10.1016/j.ssc.2011.04.029View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sari H, Sökmen I, Yesilgul U: Photoionization of donor impurities in quantum wires in a magnetic field. J Phys D: Appl Phys 2004, 37: 674. 10.1088/0022-3727/37/5/005View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Terzis A, Baskoutas S: Binding energy of donor states in a GaAs quantum dot: effect of electric and magnetic field. J Phys Conf Ser 2005, 10: 77.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kasapoglu E, Sari H, Sökmen I: Binding energy of impurity states in an inverse parabolic quantum well under magnetic field. Physica B 2007, 390: 216. 10.1016/j.physb.2006.08.016View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu J, Shan W, Walukiewicz W: Band anticrossing in highly mismatched III-V semiconductor alloys. Semicond Sci Technol 2002, 17: 860. 10.1088/0268-1242/17/8/315View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Skierbiszewski C: Experimental studies of the conduction-band structure of GaInNAs alloys. Semicond Sci Technol 2002, 17: 803. 10.1088/0268-1242/17/8/309View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ng ST, Fan W, Dang Y, Yoon S: Comparison of electronic band structure and optical transparency conditions of In x Ga1−xAs1−yN y /GaAs quantum wells calculated by 10-band, 8-band, and 6-band k·p models. Phys Rev B 2005, 72: 115341.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chuang SL: Physics of Optoelectronic Devices. New York: Wiley; 1995.Google Scholar
- Vurgaftman I, Meyer J, Ram-Mohan L: Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys. J Appl Phys 2001, 89: 5815. 10.1063/1.1368156View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vurgaftman I, Meyer J: Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors. J Appl Phys 2003, 94: 3675. 10.1063/1.1600519View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chow W, Wright A, Nelson J: Theoretical study of room temperature optical gain in GaN strained quantum wells. Appl Phys Lett 1996, 68: 296. 10.1063/1.116064View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gavrilenko V, Wu R: Linear and nonlinear optical properties of group-III nitrides. Phys Rev B 2000, 61: 2632. 10.1103/PhysRevB.61.2632View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.