Impact of N on the atomic-scale Sb distribution in quaternary GaAsSbN-capped InAs quantum dots
© Reyes et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 2 November 2012
Accepted: 13 November 2012
Published: 27 November 2012
The use of GaAsSbN capping layers on InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) has recently been proposed for micro- and optoelectronic applications for their ability to independently tailor electron and hole confinement potentials. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the structural and compositional changes associated with the process of simultaneous Sb and N incorporation. In the present work, we have characterized using transmission electron microscopy techniques the effects of adding N in the GaAsSb/InAs/GaAs QD system. Firstly, strain maps of the regions away from the InAs QDs had revealed a huge reduction of the strain fields with the N incorporation but a higher inhomogeneity, which points to a composition modulation enhancement with the presence of Sb-rich and Sb-poor regions in the range of a few nanometers. On the other hand, the average strain in the QDs and surroundings is also similar in both cases. It could be explained by the accumulation of Sb above the QDs, compensating the tensile strain induced by the N incorporation together with an In-Ga intermixing inhibition. Indeed, compositional maps of column resolution from aberration-corrected Z-contrast images confirmed that the addition of N enhances the preferential deposition of Sb above the InAs QD, giving rise to an undulation of the growth front. As an outcome, the strong redshift in the photoluminescence spectrum of the GaAsSbN sample cannot be attributed only to the N-related reduction of the conduction band offset but also to an enhancement of the effect of Sb on the QD band structure.
KeywordsIII-V quantum dots, GaAsSb N incorporation Sb distribution, Strain state 73.21.La quantum dots 78.55.Cr III-V semiconductors 68.55.Ln defects and impurities: doping, implantation, distribution, concentration, etc. 68.55.Nq composition and phase identification
A noteworthy effort has been made over the last years to broaden the emission wavelength of InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) lasers towards 1.55 μm, i.e., the telecommunication band which better matches the transmission characteristics of optical fibers, providing higher data rates at longer distances. The utilization of different types of capping layers (CL), such as strain-reducing layers (SRL) [1, 2] or strain-compensating layers (SCL) , has been widely used to directly cover this issue by modifying the strain state of the QDs. Special attention has been paid to GaAsSb SRLs to take advantage of the surfactant role of Sb, which suppresses the defect generation and QD decomposition [4, 5]. Additionally, GaAsSb capping layers present an extra degree of freedom as the emission band alignment changes from type I to type II at a certain Sb content . A step forward is the addition of N in the CL to form a GaNAsSb quaternary system, which has been very recently realized . As N reduces only the conduction band (CB) of GaAs and Sb rises the valence band (VB) of GaAs, the quaternary alloy GaAsSbN used as a CL for InAs/GaAs QDs allows independent tailoring of the electron and hole confinement potentials in a wide range, which could be useful for many applications .
However, there is a lack of knowledge about the structural and compositional changes associated with the process of simultaneous Sb and N incorporation. On one hand, the difficulty of incorporating antimony inside GaAs structures has repeatedly been reported in literature . Indeed, the interdiffusion effects that affect the relative composition of In/Ga and As/Sb in and around the QD islands are still debated [9, 10]. On the other hand, arising from specific properties of N such as its large electronegativity and small atomic volume, it is well known that dilute nitride alloys create statistically large compositional fluctuations .
The aim of this work is to describe, by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, the atomic distribution in InAs QD capped by GaAsSb SRL with and without N and its effect on the photoluminescence spectra. The strain in the regions close and away from the InAs QDs is analyzed, allowing the estimation of the compositional distribution of the SRL and nanostructures. Moreover, we have qualitatively extracted chemical information from aberration-corrected Z-contrast images by calculation of integrated intensities of the atomic columns . Our results reveal that the incorporation of N induces significant changes in the Sb distribution in the InAs/GaAsSb QD system.
Equipment and techniques
Two samples (S-Sb and S-SbN) were grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy on Si-doped (100) n+ GaAs substrates. The QDs in both samples were grown by depositing 2.7 monolayers (ML) of InAs at 450°C and 0.04 ML/s on an intrinsic GaAs buffer layer. A nominally 5.0-nm-thick GaAs0.88Sb0.12 layer grown at 470°C was used to cover the QDs in sample S-Sb, followed by 250 nm of GaAs. Sample S-SbN was identical, but a nominal 2% N content was added to the 5.0-nm-thick CL. This active N was generated from a radio frequency (RF) plasma source with a 0.1-sccm flow of pure N2 (6 N) and a RF power of 60 W. The photoluminescence (PL) was measured at 15 K using a closed-cycle helium cryostat and a He-Ne laser as the excitation source. The emitted light was dispersed through a 1-m spectrometer and detected with a liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detector using standard lock-in techniques. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) were carried out in a JEOL 2011 LaB6 filament microscope (JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo, Japan) operating at 200 kV and by Z-contrast imaging using a high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) detector in a JEOL 2010 FEG microscope working at 200 kV in scanning TEM (STEM) mode. Additionally, high-resolution STEM (HRSTEM) studies were performed using X-FEG FEI Titan microscope (FEI, Hillsboro, OR, USA) at 300 kV. This last microscope is equipped with a spherical aberration (Cs) corrector for the electron probe (CEOS company, Heidelberg, Germany), allowing a probe size of 0.08 nm (mean size).
Maps of the strain along the growth direction (εzz) were determined from HRTEM images acquired on the  pole axis using the geometrical phase analysis (GPA). The GPA is based on the calculation of the displacement field and subsequently the strain map by numerical derivatives, from the phase images for different and non-collinear vectors. A full description of the methodology can be found elsewhere . The tensile strain along the (001) direction, εzz, due to the tetragonal distortion in pseudomorphic samples under biaxial stress could be used to determine the in-plane strain εxx through the biaxial strain coefficient, RB = −εzz/εxx, which in the case of cubic materials is equal to RB = 2C12/C11, with C ij being the Voigt values stiffness tensor. As GaAs and GaSb have the same biaxial strain coefficient (RB = 0.899), the measurement of εxx allows us an assessment of the composition, assuming a compliance with Vegard's law at these contents.
High-resolution Z-contrast analysis
The used method is based on the analysis of normalized integrated intensities (R) of high-resolution aberration-corrected Z-contrast images. The R values are calculated as the quotient of the integrated intensity around the cationic and anionic columns with respect to a binary compound (the substrate), which is chosen as a reference . In our case, InAs QDs in GaAsSb(N) is a suitable system for Z-contrast analysis due to the difference in the atomic number of Sb (ZSb=51) with respect to As (ZAs=33), and In (ZIn=49) with respect to Ga (ZGa=31), and their almost linear dependency on the composition . Firstly, local intensity maxima of each dumbbell are located by applying the peak detection tool of the Peak Pairs Analysis software . Secondly, intensities from pixels corresponding to the cationic (In+Ga) and anionic (As+Sb) columns are integrated from the raw (unfiltered) image. From this point, we assume that the chemical information extracted from a single atomic column is weakly affected by the neighboring ones when using a sub-angstrom electron probe, and therefore, the signal is essentially related to the composition of the selected atomic column. In this case, two integrated intensity quotients (Ri) were determined for every dumbbell in the image: R1, as the ratio between the integrated intensity in the anionic As/Sb column and the averaged integrated intensity of the As columns in the GaAs substrate within the same image; and R2 as the ratio between the integrated intensity in the cationic Ga/In column and the average integrated intensity of the Ga column in the GaAs region. The results of the R i values are plotted over the HRSTEM image using a color scale where the reddest values are associated with a higher proportion of heavier elements, and the bluest, the contrary.
Results and discussion
Certainly, the presence of N (with Z = 7) should give rise to a small decrease of the anionic R1 quotient. However, the number of anionic columns with R1 > 1 in S-SbN amply exceeds the observed ones in sample S-Sb. In this sense, statistical analysis in dilute nitrides of GaAsN had shown that the incorporation of N at low contents causes negligible changes in the brightness of the atomic columns but a strong increase in the valleys between them . This fact does not affect our measurements since the pixels selected to calculate the R quotients just avoid the area between atomic columns . However, the impossibility to detect the position and content of N around the QD, together with the non-negligible influence of static atomic displacements in the Z-signal, disables any attempt to quantify the Sb concentration in sample S-SbN by this technique .
All these results indicate that the addition of N to the GaAsSb capping layer increases the amount of Sb on top and around the QDs, inducing an undulation in the capping layer which tends to adapt to the morphology of the QD below it. Though this migration leads to an enrichment of Sb around the QDs, the strain-compensating effect of N gives rise to similar strain fields around and inside of the S-SbN QDs to those for the S-Sb ones. When the CL covers a QD, nitrogen fosters the Sb to accumulate on top of the partially relaxed InAs QDs since GaSb has a very similar lattice constant with InAs. On the other hand, as the composition threshold for the total restraint of GaAsSb/InAs QD dissolution in the capping process is around 11% to 14% of Sb [26, 27], we could assume that the dissolution process of InAs QDs during the capping growth is completely suppressed for both samples and that the In atoms are not being relocated from the top of the QDs to the QD base [1, 7, 28]. This explains why no significant differences in the size and morphology of the QDs are seen in both samples. The addition of N greatly enhances the lateral Sb segregation, and this fact could even induce to a transition to a type II band alignment in the VB, which is expected for Sb contents of 14% to 17% [1, 28]. Further work is in progress to clarify this issue.
In summary, we have presented PL results and compositional distribution analysis of two InAs/GaAs QD samples capped by GaAsSb SRL with and without N incorporation. First, the addition of N produces a long redshift in the PL spectra, but it also reduces its efficiency by increasing the FWHM and reducing the intensity. However, the TEM results show that the PL behavior is not due to modifications in the QD sizes or to an increase in the extended defect density. On the other hand, the deformation analysis displays important changes in the nanostructure when N is added: (1) a large strain reduction in the CL regions away from the QDs and (2) an enhancement of the miscibility gap that gives rise to strong composition fluctuations and reduces the carrier injection efficiency in the InAs QDs. On the contrary, the average strain within the core of QDs and in the CL region above the QDs was also similar in both cases, which suggests a strong Sb migration towards the top of the QDs in the S-SbN sample (approximately 17%). Certainly, compositional maps of column resolution from aberration-corrected HAADF HRSTEM images corroborated the preferential deposition of Sb above the InAs QD together with an undulation of the growth front by the addition of N. Together with the reduction of the CB offset by the N incorporation, an additional redshift is induced due to a Sb accumulation on top of the QDs. Therefore, the N implementation could boost the features of GaAsSb capping layers on InAs QDs since it multiplies the Sb content around the QDs.
This work has been supported by MICINN (Project No. MAT2010-15206), CAM (Project Nos. P2009/ESP-1503 and CCG10-UPM/TIC-4932), JA (Project No. P09-TEP-5403), and by the EU (COST Action MP0805). J. M. Ulloa was supported by MICINN through the ‘Ramón y Cajal’ program.
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