Origin of the blueshift of photoluminescence in a typeII heterostructure
 Masafumi Jo^{1, 2, 4}Email author,
 Mitsuru Sato^{1},
 Souta Miyamura^{1},
 Hirotaka Sasakura^{1},
 Hidekazu Kumano^{1} and
 Ikuo Suemune^{1, 3}
DOI: 10.1186/1556276X7654
© Jo et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 4 October 2012
Accepted: 14 November 2012
Published: 27 November 2012
Abstract
Blueshifts of luminescence observed in typeII heterostructures are quantitatively examined in terms of a selfconsistent approach including excitonic effects. This analysis shows that the main contribution to the blueshift originates from the well region rather than the variation of triangular potentials formed in the barrier region. The power law for the blueshift, ΔE_{ PL } ∝ P_{ laser }^{ m }, from m = 1/2 for lower excitation P_{laser} to m = 1/4 for higher excitation, is obtained from the calculated results combined with a rate equation analysis, which also covers the previously believed m = 1/3 power law within a limited excitation range. The present power law is consistent with the blueshift observed in a GaAsSb/GaAs quantum well.
Keywords
Quantum well typeII Blueshift Excitons GaSb GaAs Photoluminescence 71.35.y: Excitons 78.55.Cr: Photoluminescence of IIIV semiconductor 81.15.Hi: Molecular beam epitaxyBackground
Interest has recently been increasing in typeII heterostructures in which electrons and holes are separated in adjacent different materials, thereby forming spatially indirect excitons [1–9]. The wavefunction of the indirect exciton is significantly extended in space compared with that of a direct exciton in a typeI system where both electrons and holes are confined in the same layer, which allows large controllability of the wavefunction distribution. In addition, the long radiative lifetime originating from spatially indirect recombination is attractive for applications such as optical memories [10, 11].
The separation of charge carriers in a typeII system also induces electrostatic potential (Hartree potential), which causes band bending and a resultant significant change in the exciton wavefunction distribution. Experimentally, this bandbending effect has been observed in powerdependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements, in the blueshift of PL peaks with increasing excitation power [1, 2, 5, 6, 12]. The mechanism of this effect has been discussed in terms of a triangular potential model in which photogenerated electrons and holes form a dipole layer, creating a triangularlike potential at the interface [1]. With increasing excitation power, the potential becomes steeper and the quantization energy increases, giving rise to a blueshift of the recombination energy. Following this model, the blueshift is proportional to the cube root of the excitation power, which has been generally accepted for the characterization and distinction of typeII heterostructures.
However, detailed examinations of the observed power dependency sometimes show deviations from the cube root of power law. This is especially noticeable when the excitation power dependence is examined over a wide range. Here, we reexamine the characteristic blueshift in a typeII system using a GaAsSb/GaAs quantum well (QW). We observe that the blueshift does not obey a singleexponent power law, but instead tends to saturate with increasing excitation power. This is analyzed on the basis of a selfconsistent band calculation. The dominant contribution to the blueshift originates from the variation of the QW energy level rather than the variation of the triangular potentials formed in the barrier layers, which modifies the cuberoot power law.
Methods
The sample containing a 6nm GaAsSb QW was grown on a GaAs(001) substrate by MOMBE. The Sb composition of GaAsSb was set at 8%, which was confirmed by XRD. At this Sb concentration, the band lineup between GaAs and GaAsSb becomes a typeII alignment with holes confined in the GaAsSb well [13, 14]. The excitation power dependence of the PL was measured at 23 K using the 633 nm line of a HeNe laser with an intensity range of 1 to 100 W cm^{2}. The incident beam was chopped using an optical chopper to avoid heating.
Results and discussion
The sheet charge density n_{s} is a parameter which is an increasing function of the excitation power. Equations 1, 2 and 3 are solved iteratively until they converge.
Material parameters used for the calculation of a GaAsSb/GaAs QW
GaAs  GaAs_{0.92}Sb_{0.08}  

m_{ez}  0.067  0.065 
m_{eρ}  0.067  0.065 
m_{hz}  0.35  0.342 
m_{hρ}  0.11  0.105 
ε  13.1  13.3 
V_{e} (meV)  38  
V_{h} (meV)  148 
To see how the transition energy shifts with the excitation, we calculated the energy shifts of the electron and heavy hole as a function of the sheet charge density Figure 2b. The energy shift of the optical transition, ΔE_{PL}, is given by the difference between the two energy shifts: ΔE_{PL} = ΔE_{e}  ΔE_{hh}. As the sheet charge density increases, both the electron and heavyhole energy levels monotonically decrease due to the increasing Hartree potential. Furthermore, the heavyhole energy shift is always larger than the electron energy shift. As a result, the transition energy shift ΔE_{PL} shows a blueshift with increasing excitation. Indeed, this trend is generally true for a typeII structure; the confined carrier (here the hole) is more susceptible to the Hartree potential. This response is partly because the potential well for the electrons is formed at the skirt of the Hartree potential, while holes are affected by the peak height of the Hartree potential. In addition, an increase in the steepness of the triangular well for the electrons raises the quantization energy, compensating for the energy decrease due to the increased well depth.
Again, the sheet charge density n_{s} is a parameter.
with the power factor m’ depending on the excitation power. We show again the experimental PL peak shift in the inset of Figure 3b, along with the new power law. Transition from the low excitation regime (m’ = 1/2) to the high excitation regime (m’ = 1/4) is obvious. Between the two extremes, we can see the conventionally applied m’ = 1/3 power law regime.
Conclusions
We have analyzed the blueshift of the PL peak in a typeII QW. A oneband calculation shows that the blueshift is mainly caused by the energy shift of the confined carrier in the well. More quantitative analysis based on a selfconsistent calculation including excitonic effects illustrated the transition from a linear to a sublinear increase in the blueshift with increasing sheet charge density. Combining the calculated result with the carrier rate equation, the blueshift was found to be proportional to the mth root of the excitation power density, in which m = 1/2 ~ 1/4 and is dependent on the excitation power. The more comprehensive theory presented here predicts the 1/3power law in the literature over a limited range of carrier density only. The above power law is consistent with the experimental results obtained from a typeII GaAsSb/GaAs QW.
Abbreviations
 MOMBE:

Metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy
 PL:

Photoluminescence
 QW:

Quantum well
 XRD:

Xray diffraction.
Declarations
Acknowledgements
This work was supported in part by Hokkaido University and Hokkaido Innovation through Nano Technology Support (HINTS).
Authors’ Affiliations
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