Fabrication and photocatalytic properties of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching: effect of H2O2 concentration
© Liu et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 23 September 2012
Accepted: 22 November 2012
Published: 5 December 2012
In the current study, monocrystalline silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) were prepared through a metal-assisted chemical etching method of silicon wafers in an etching solution composed of HF and H2O2. Photoelectric properties of the monocrystalline SiNWs are improved greatly with the formation of the nanostructure on the silicon wafers. By controlling the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the etching solution, SiNWs with different morphologies and surface characteristics are obtained. A reasonable mechanism of the etching process was proposed. Photocatalytic experiment shows that SiNWs prepared by 20% H2O2 etching solution exhibit the best activity in the decomposition of the target organic pollutant, Rhodamine B (RhB), under Xe arc lamp irradiation for its appropriate Si nanowire density with the effect of Si content and contact area of photocatalyst and RhB optimized.
KeywordsSilicon nanowire arrays H2O2 Photocatalytic properties
Photocatalysis has attracted much interest due to its potential advantages in utilizing solar energy to degrade organic pollutants and develop new energy[1–4]. As a traditional photocatalyst, semiconductor TiO2 has enormous potential in photocatalysis, but its wide band gap (3.2 eV) limits the use of light energy[5, 6].
Silicon materials, which exhibit a wide optical adsorption range, high optical absorption efficiency, and high electron mobility, become a great potential photoelectric conversion material for its important applications in the field of photovoltaics and photocatalysis[7–10]. The realization of the silicon structure, especially the preparation of nanowire arrays, is very significant for the development and production of efficient quantum devices, photoelectric devices, and electronic and optical sensors[11–15]. Various methods have been developed to prepare one-dimensional silicon nanostructures, such as chemical vapor deposition, supercritical fluid-liquid–solid synthesis, laser ablation, thermal evaporation decomposition, and other processes.
In recent years, a simple catalytic etching technique with metal particles as catalyst to prepare large-area aligned monocrystalline silicon nanowire arrays on silicon wafers has been reported[20–27]. The technique is actually a wet chemical corrosion, the process of which is relatively simple, low cost, and controllable. Recent works on the etching method with depositions of two-dimensional (2-D) micro/nanoparticle arrays[28–33] or 2-D nanopattern fabrications[34, 35] with highly ordered configurations, which are applicable for enabling highly dense nanowire formation, have also been reported. The controlled depositions of micro/nanoparticles result in close-packed highly ordered 2-D arrays with monolayer configuration, and these methods had been implemented in photonic devices[28–33]. In addition, the use of diblock copolymer lithography methods had enabled the fabrication of highly ordered and ultrahigh-density 2-D nanopattern arrays[34, 35]. However, literatures about the influence of etching solution composition on the morphologies and properties of Si nanowire arrays are rarely reported.
In this paper, we use monocrystalline silicon wafers as the matrix, Ag as the catalyst, and hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the etching solution to prepare silicon nanowire arrays utilizing the wet chemical etching method. The photoelectric properties of the monocrystalline silicon nanowire arrays and the silicon wafers were also investigated. Additionally, in our study, we found that the increase of H2O2 concentration can influence the morphology and surface characteristics of the nanowires, which may affect their light absorption and photocatalytic properties.
Synthesis of SiNWs
In our experiment, (100)-oriented p-type silicon wafers were purchased and cut into 2 × 2 cm2 small pieces using a glass sword. A metal catalytic etching method was utilized to prepare monocrystalline silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs). In a typical process, the pieces of the selected silicon wafers were washed by sonication in acetone and deionized water. Then, the silicon wafers were dipped into HF/H2O solution (1:10) to remove the thin oxidation layer and dried by N2 blow. Subsequently, the silicon wafers were immersed in a solution of 0.14 M HF and 0.01 M AgNO3 for 30 s. After a uniform layer of Ag nanoparticles was coated, the wafers were then immersed in the etchant solution composed of HF, H2O2, and H2O (the volume ratios are 20:10:70, 20:20:60, and 20:30:50, so the H2O2 concentration can be recorded as 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively) at room temperature in a sealed Teflon vessel. The Si wafers were immersed in a solution of concentrated nitric acid solution to remove the excess Ag nanoparticles, rinsed with deionized water, and then dried in vacuum at 60°C.
Characterization of SiNWs
The morphologies and microstructure of the as-synthesized SiNWs were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM; HITACHI-S4800, Chiyoda-ku, Japan) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM; JEOL JEM-2100, Akishima-shi, Japan). Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectra of the SiNWs were obtained using a UV–vis spectrometer (Shimadzu UV-3600, Kyoto, Japan).
The photoelectrochemical measurements were carried out in a three-electrode cell in a 0.5 M Na2SO4 electrolyte solution with Si nanowire arrays, Pt electrode, and saturated mercury electrode as the working electrode, counter electrode, and reference electrode, respectively, using a CHI electrochemical analyzer (CHI 660D, CH Instruments, Chenhua Co., Shanghai, China). A 500-W xenon lamp with a light intensity of 400 mW/cm2 was used as the light source.
Photocatalytic degradation of aqueous RhB over SiNWs
Photodegradation experiments were carried out in a 100-mL conical flask containing 50-mL Rhodamine B (RhB) solution with an initial concentration of 1 ppm under stirring. The prepared silicon substrate with Si nanowire arrays was put in a quartz device, and the reaction system was illuminated under a xenon lamp (light intensity of 400 mW/cm2). After every 1 h, 4 mL of the suspension was withdrawn throughout the experiment. The samples were analyzed using a UV–vis spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-3600) after removing the catalyst powders by centrifugation.
Results and discussion
Structure, optical properties, and photoelectric properties of SiNWs
SEM and TEM of SiNWs prepared with the etching solution containing 10% H2O2 (noted as 10% SiNWs)
UV–vis absorption and diffuse reflection spectra
Influence of H2O2 concentration on the structure and photocatalytic properties of SiNWs
As H2O2 is an important component in the etching solution, our results show that the increase of H2O2 concentration can affect the morphology and surface characteristics of the nanowires. As described in the above ‘Methods’ section, we change a single-variable condition - the concentration of H2O2 in the etching process to prepare different SiNWs noted as 20% and 30% SiNWs.
Characterization of 20% and 30% SiNWs
The morphological features above show that an appropriate improvement of the H2O2 concentration (20%) can enlarge the space of the prepared nanowires and influence their density which may affect the light absorption and photocatalytic properties. However, when the H2O2 concentration is too high (30%), a chaotic porous silicon structure, instead of nanowire arrays, is formed, caused by the horizontal etching speed overcoming Ag particle gravity and vertical etching speed under the influence of excessively high concentration of H2O2.
Photocatalytic activities of SiNWs
As shown in Figure6a,b,c, the typical absorption peak of RhB after degradation by 10%, 20%, and 30% SiNWs, respectively, was decreased with the extension of the irradiation time, especially in the first 1 h which may have resulted from the adsorption effect. As shown in Figure6d, the degradation rate of RhB reached to about 30%, 35%, and 20% for 10%, 20%, and 30% SiNWs, respectively, after 5 h of irradiation. The results clearly demonstrate that the silicon nanowires can function as effective photocatalysts with light irradiation and the 20% SiNWs exhibit the highest photocatalytic decomposition efficiency, while the 30% SiNWs with a chaotic porous structure was the worst. The enhanced catalytic activity of the 20% SiNWs could be attributed to their morphology characterization which possesses an appropriate nanowire density to optimize the effect of Si content and contact area of the photocatalyst and RhB.
Formation mechanism of SiNW arrays
In brief, the metal-assisted chemical etching method to prepare silicon nanowires is a process in which silicon is oxidized into SiO2 using metal nanoparticles (such as Au, Ag, Fe, etc.) as catalysts and H2O2 as oxidant and then etched using HF solution.
As shown in Figure 7a, when the silicon wafer is immersed into AgNO3/HF mixture solution, silver ions in the vicinity of the silicon surface capture electrons from silicon and deposit on the silicon substrate surface in the form of metallic silver nuclei; at the same time, the silicon around the silver nuclei is oxidized to SiO2. The process is the same as the mechanism of the deposition of copper nanoparticles on silicon substrate surface , which is the replacement reaction, and can be divided into two synchronous reaction steps (the cathode reaction and the anode reaction):
Si + 2H2O = SiO2 + 4H+ + 4e−E θ = 0.91 V
Si + 6HF + 4Ag+ = 4Ag + SiF62− + 6H+
As shown in Figure 8a, when the silicon substrate deposited with silver nanoparticles is immersed in HF-H2O2 etching solution, SiO2 is continuously formed from the silicon contacted with silver nanoparticles with H2O2 as hole donor and oxidant and dissolved by HF, leading to the sinking of the silver grains. With the silicon around the silver nanoparticles constantly oxidized and dissolved, the silicon substrate is etched to form silicon nanowires (Figure 8b):
Si + 6HF + n / 2H2O2 → H2SiF6 + nH2O + [2 − n / 2]H2
In the process, AgNO3 plays an important role in forming silver grains as a catalyst to promote the etching reaction. Previous research shows that in metal auxiliary etching, the formation of vertical nanowires is relative to etching limitation around silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles on silicon surface could catalyze the etching reaction around and below the silicon substrate to form pits and then sink into the pits as a result of gravity, so the etching reaction is along the vertical direction.
With the increase of H2O2 concentration which acts as hole donor and oxidant in the etching process, the oxidation speed of the silicon around the Ag nanoparticles increases, resulting in the increase of the horizontal etching speed of the silicon. When the H2O2 concentration reaches 20% in the etching solution, as shown in Figure8c, more silicon around Ag nanoparticles will be oxidated into SiO2 and then dissolved by HF, leading to an increased horizontal etching speed, which results in the 20% SiNWs possessing a diffusion configuration and low nanowire density with the nanowires space enlarged (Figure8d). When the concentration of H2O2 is further increased to 30%, the horizontal etching speed increases in a higher degree and overcomes the Ag nanoparticle gravity to shift its position, deviating from the vertical direction (Figure8e). Finally, the prepared SiNWs do not present an expected morphology of silicon nanowire arrays but a chaotic porous structure on the silicon substrate (Figure8f).
SiNWs have been prepared successfully through a simple, convenient, and controllable metal-assisted chemical etching method. The formation mechanisms, electrical properties, and optical properties as well as photocatalytic performances have also been studied. The photoelectrochemical results show that the formation of the Si nanowire structure greatly improved the photoelectric performances. By changing the H2O2 concentration in the etching solution, we get 10%, 20%, and 30% SiNWs with different morphologies of high-density nanowire arrays, low-density nanowire arrays, and a chaotic porous nanostructure, respectively. The photocatalytic research shows that 20% SiNWs exhibit an enhanced photocatalytic activity than 10% and 30% SiNWs, which could be ascribed to the appropriate nanowire density with the effect of Si content and contact area of photocatalyst and RhB optimized.
The work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 51172109 and 61106011), the Jiangsu Province Natural Science Foundation (no. BK2010497), the Funding of Jiangsu Innovation Program for Graduate Education (no. CXLX12_0148), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.
- Shao GS, Wang FY, Ren TZ, Liu YP, Yuan ZY: Hierarchical mesoporous phosphorus and nitrogen doped titania materials: synthesis, characterization and visible-light photocatalytic activity. Appl Catal B 2009, 92: 61–67. 10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.07.024View Article
- Shao GS, Liu L, Ma TY, Wang FY, Ren TZ, Yuan ZY: Synthesis and characterization of carbon-modified titania photocatalysts with a hierarchical meso-/macroporous structure. Chem Eng J 2010, 160: 370–377. 10.1016/j.cej.2010.03.011View Article
- Pardeshi SK, Patil AB: Solar photocatalytic degradation of resorcinol a model endocrine disrupter in water using zinc oxide. J Hazard Mater 2009, 163: 403–407. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.111View Article
- Pan HB, Wang F, Huang JL, Chen NS: Binding characteristics of CoPc/SnO2 by in-situ process and photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. Acta Phys-Chim Sin 2008, 24: 992–996. 10.1016/S1872-1508(08)60045-5View Article
- Yoo KH, Kang KS, Chen Y, Han KJ, Kim J: The TiO2 nanoparticle effect on the performance of a conducting polymer Schottky diode. Nanotechnology 2008, 19: 505202. 10.1088/0957-4484/19/50/505202View Article
- Zhang HJ, Chen GH, Bahneman DW: Photoelectrocatalytic materials for environmental applications. J Mater Chem 2009, 19: 5089–5121. 10.1039/b821991eView Article
- Kang ZH, Tsang CHA, Wong NB, Zhang ZD, Lee ST: Silicon quantum dots: a general photocatalyst for reduction, decomposition, and selective oxidation reactions. J Am Chem Soc 2007, 129: 12090–12091. 10.1021/ja075184xView Article
- Kang ZH, Liu Y, Tsang CHA, Ma DDD, Fan X, Wong NB, Lee ST: Water-soluble silicon quantum dots with qavelength-tunable photoluminescence. Adv Mater 2009, 21: 661–664. 10.1002/adma.200801642View Article
- Shao MW, Cheng L, Zhang X, Ma DDD, Lee ST: Excellent photocatalysis of HF-treated silicon nanowires. J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131: 17738–17739. 10.1021/ja908085cView Article
- Megouda N, Cofininier Y, Szunerits S, Hadjersi T, ElKechai O, Boukherroub R: Photocatalytic activity of silicon nanowires under UV and visible light irradiation. Chem Commun 2011, 47: 991–993. 10.1039/c0cc04250aView Article
- Chan CK, Peng H, Liu G, McIlwrath K, Zhang XF, Huggins RA, Cui Y: High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires. Nat Nanotechnol 2008, 3: 31–35. 10.1038/nnano.2007.411View Article
- Kelzenberg MD, Boettcher SW, Petykiewicz JA, Turner-Evans DB, Putnam MC, Warren EL, Spurgeon JM, Briggs RM, Lewis NS, Atwater HA: Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications. Nat Mater 2010, 9: 239–244.View Article
- Hochbaum AI, Chen R, Delgado RD, Liang W, Garnett EC, Najarian M, Majumdar A, Yang P: Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires. Nature 2008, 451: 163–167. 10.1038/nature06381View Article
- Hochbaum AI, Gargas D, Hwang YJ, Yang P: Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires. Nan Lett 2009, 9: 3550–3554. 10.1021/nl9017594View Article
- Föll H, Hartz H, Ossei-Wusu E, Carstensen J, Rienmenschneider O: Si nanowire arrays as anodes in Li ion batteries. Phys Status Solidi RRL 2010, 4: 4–6. 10.1002/pssr.200903344View Article
- Ball J, Reehal HS: The influence of substrate orientation on the density of silicon nanowires grown on multicrystalline and single crystal substrates by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapour deposition. Thin Solid Films 2012, 520: 2467–2473. 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.10.019View Article
- Liu L, Shao MW, Lee ST: Silicon nanowires for catalysts and sensors. J Nanoeng Nanomanuf 2012, 2: 102–111.View Article
- Morales AM, Lieber CM: A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires. Science 1998, 279: 208–211. 10.1126/science.279.5348.208View Article
- Holmes JD, Johnston KP, Doty RC, Korgel BA: Control of thickness and orientation of solution-grown silicon nanowires. Science 2000, 287: 1471–1473. 10.1126/science.287.5457.1471View Article
- Kim J, Kim YH, Choi SH, Lee W: Curved silicon nanowires with ribbon-like cross sections by metal-assisted chemical etching. ACS Nano 2011, 5: 5242–5248. 10.1021/nn2014358View Article
- Qu YQ, Liao L, Li YJ, Zhang H, Huang Y, Duan XF: Electrically conductive and optically active porous silicon nanowires. Nano Lett 2009, 9: 4539–4543. 10.1021/nl903030hView Article
- Qu YQ, Zhou HL, Duan XF: Porous silicon nanowires. Nanoscale 2011, 3: 4060–4068. 10.1039/c1nr10668fView Article
- Huang Z, Geyer N, Werner P, de Boor J, Gösele U: Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: a review. Adv Mater 2011, 23: 285–308. 10.1002/adma.201001784View Article
- Tang J, Shi JW, Zhou LL, Ma ZQ: Fabrication and optical properties of silicon nanowires arrays by electroless Ag-catalyzed etching. Nano-Micro Lett 2011, 3(2):129–134.View Article
- Li X: Metal assisted chemical etching for high aspect ratio nanostructures: a review of characteristics and applications in photovoltaics. Curr Opin in Solid State Mater Sci 2012, 16: 71–81. 10.1016/j.cossms.2011.11.002View Article
- Shin JC, Zhang C, Li XL: Sub-100 nm Si nanowire and nano-sheet array formation by MacEtch using a non-lithographic InAs nanowire mask. Nanotechnology 2012, 23: 305305–305310. 10.1088/0957-4484/23/30/305305View Article
- Shin JC, Chanda D, Chern W, Yu KJ, Rogers JA, Li X: Experimental study of design parameters in silicon micropillar array solar cells produced by soft lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching. IEEE J Photovoltaics 2012, 2: 129–133.View Article
- Ee YK, Arif RA, Tansu N, Kumnorkaew P, Gilchrist JF: Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays. Appl Phys Lett 2007, 91: 221107. 10.1063/1.2816891View Article
- Kumnorkaew P, Ee YK, Tansu N, Gilchrist JF: Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays. Langmuir 2008, 24: 12150–12157. 10.1021/la801100gView Article
- Li XH, Song R, Ee YK, Kumnorkaew P, Gilchrist JF, Tansu N: Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios. IEEE Photonics Journal 2011, 3: 489–499.View Article
- Koo WH, Youn W, Zhu P, Li XH, Tansu N, So F: Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array. Adv Funct Mater 2012, 22: 3454–3459. 10.1002/adfm.201200876View Article
- Ee YK, Biser JM, Cao WJ, Chan HM, Vinci RP, Tansu N: Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode. IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron 2009, 15: 1066–1072.View Article
- Ee YK, Kumnorkaew P, Arif RA, Tong H, Gilchrist JF, Tansu N: Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures. Opt Express 2009, 17: 13747–13757. 10.1364/OE.17.013747View Article
- Liu G, Liu GY, Zhao HP, Zhang J, Park JH, Mawst LJ, Tansu N: Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography. Nanoscale Res Lett 2011, 6: 342–352. 10.1186/1556-276X-6-342View Article
- Kuech TF, Mawst LJ: Nanofabrication of III–V semiconductors employing diblock copolymer lithography. J Phys D Appl Phys 2010, 43: 183001. 10.1088/0022-3727/43/18/183001View Article
- Pan ZW, Dai ZR, Xu L, Lee ST, Wang ZL: Temperature-controlled growth of silicon-based nanostructures by thermal evaporation of SiO powders. J Phys Chem B 2001, 105: 2507–2514. 10.1021/jp004253qView Article
- Ye S, Ichihara T, Uosaki K: Spectroscopic studies on electroless deposition of copper on a hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surface in fluoride solutions. J Electrochem Soc 2001, 148: C421–426. 10.1149/1.1370964View Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.