# Ferromagnetism and semiconducting of boron nanowires

- Jiling L Li
^{1}, - Tao He
^{1}and - Guowei Yang
^{1}Email author

**7**:678

**DOI: **10.1186/1556-276X-7-678

© Li et al.; licensee Springer. 2012

**Received: **12 November 2012

**Accepted: **10 December 2012

**Published: **17 December 2012

## Abstract

More recently, motivated by extensively technical applications of carbon nanostructures, there is a growing interest in exploring novel non-carbon nanostructures. As the nearest neighbor of carbon in the periodic table, boron has exceptional properties of low volatility and high melting point and is stronger than steel, harder than corundum, and lighter than aluminum. Boron nanostructures thus are expected to have broad applications in various circumstances. In this contribution, we have performed a systematical study of the stability and electronic and magnetic properties of boron nanowires using the spin-polarized density functional calculations. Our calculations have revealed that there are six stable configurations of boron nanowires obtained by growing along different base vectors from the unit cell of the bulk α-rhombohedral boron (α-B) and β-rhombohedral boron (β-B). Well known, the boron bulk is usually metallic without magnetism. However, theoretical results about the magnetic and electronic properties showed that, whether for the α-B-based or the β-B-based nanowires, their magnetism is dependent on the growing direction. When the boron nanowires grow along the base vector [001], they exhibit ferromagnetism and have the magnetic moments of 1.98 and 2.62 μ_{B}, respectively, for the α-c [001] and β-c [001] directions. Electronically, when the boron nanowire grows along the α-c [001] direction, it shows semiconducting and has the direct bandgap of 0.19 eV. These results showed that boron nanowires possess the unique direction dependence of the magnetic and semiconducting behaviors, which are distinctly different from that of the bulk boron. Therefore, these theoretical findings would bring boron nanowires to have many promising applications that are novel for the boron bulk.

### Keywords

Boron nanowires Ferromagnetism Semiconducting## Background

Boron is very special in the periodic table as the nearest neighbor of carbon and has exceptional properties of low volatility, high melting point, stronger than steel, harder than corundum, and lighter than aluminum. Hence, studies on boron nanostructures have become more and more attractive in the recent years[1–13]. Among them, boron one-dimensional nanostructures are expected to have broad applications for their high conductivity, high aspect ratios, and excellent performance in harsh conditions[14–20]. In the last several years, so many experimental studies have performed on the one-dimensional boron nanowires, and a great progress has been obtained up to now[21–27]. Just recently, the vertically aligned single-crystalline boron nanowire arrays have been especially prepared[21]. Therefore, further explorations theoretically and experimentally on the one-dimensional boron nanostructures appear to be timely and desirable. However, the possible configurations and stability, as well as the electronic and magnetic properties of boron nanowires, which are important for the experimental preparation and technological applications, have not been reported so far. As a result of the well-aligned single-crystalline boron nanowires reported[21], in this contribution, we perform a theoretical study on the stability and magnetic and electronic properties of boron nanowires growing from the unit cells of stable B bulks.

## Methods

Herein, we firstly get the different boron nanowires from the growth of the unit cell of the bulk boron, respectively, along different base vectors. Well known among the various boron allotropes, the most stable phases of the boron bulk are the α-rhombohedral (α-B) and β-rhombohedral (β-B) boron[28]. The α-B is the simplest one that consists of a distorted B_{12} icosahedron per unit cell, forming an fcc-like structure. The β-B is the most commonly found modification and can be considered as an fcc-like structure consisting of the B_{84} quasi-spheres together with the B_{10}-B-B_{10} chains located in the octahedral interstices formed by the B_{84} spheres[29]. In the following study, we respectively attain three different boron nanowires from the growth of the unit cell of the ground states of α-B and β-B along different base vectors. We then carry out the first-principles investigation of the stability and electronic and magnetic behaviors of the considered boron nanowires. Additionally, the dependence of the electronic and magnetic properties on the growth direction of boron nanowires is discussed. These investigations are expected to provide valuable information for future applications of boron nanostructures.

We perform the first-principles spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) using the SIESTA computation code[30–32], which is based on the standard Kohn-Sham self-consistent DFT. A flexible linear combination of numerical atomic-orbital basis sets is used for the description of valence electrons, and norm-conserving nonlocal pseudopotentials were adopted for the atomic cores. The pseudopotentials are constructed using the Trouiller-Martins scheme[33] to describe the interaction of valence electrons with atomic cores. The nonlocal components of pseudopotential are expressed in the fully separable form of Kleiman and Bylander[34, 35]. The Perdew-Burkle-Ernzerhof form generalized gradient approximation corrections are adopted for the exchange-correction potential[36]. The atomic orbital set employed throughout is a double-ζ plus polarization function. The numerical integrals are performed and projected on a real space grid with an equivalent cutoff of 120 Ry for calculating the self-consistent Hamiltonian matrix elements. For boron nanowires under study, periodic boundary condition along the wire axis is employed with a lateral vacuum region larger than 25 Å to avoid the image interactions. The supercell of boron nanowires respectively contains one unit cell of α-B and β-B as translational unit growing along different directions. To determine the equilibrium configurations of these boron nanowires, we relax all atomic coordinates involved using a conjugate gradient algorithm until the maximum atomic force of less than 0.02 eV/Å is achieved. In the calculations of the total energies and the energy band structures, we use four *k* sampling points along the tube axis according to the Monkhorst-Pack approximation. Cohesive energy (*E*_{
c
}) is calculated according to the expression, *E*_{
c
} *=* (*E*_{total} *− n* × *E*_{
B
}) / *n*, where *E*_{total} is the total energy of the considered boron nanowire, *n* is the number of B atoms, and *E*_{
B
} is the energy of an isolated B atom.

## Results and discussion

**Cohesive energies and total magnetic moments of considered boron nanowires and of bulk α-B and β-B**

Nanostructure | E | M (μ |
---|---|---|

α-a [100] | −6.88 | 0.02 |

α-b [010] | −6.94 | 0.00 |

α-c [001] | −6.84 | 1.98 |

β-a [100] | −6.75 | 0.00 |

β-b [010] | −6.74 | 0.00 |

β-c [001] | −6.76 | 2.62 |

α-B | −7.42 | 0.00 |

β-B | −7.39 | 0.00 |

To lend further understanding of the nature of the boron nanowires considered above, we studied the electronic structures of all configurations using the spin-polarized calculations. The calculated total magnetic moments of the six nanowires are listed in the second column of Table1. It is obvious that for the three boron nanowires obtained from the unit cell of α-B, the nanowires α-a [100] and α-b [010] have the total magnetic moments of approximately equal to zero, while the nanowire α-c [001] has a distinctly different total magnetic moment of 1.98 μ_{B}. Moreover, for the three boron nanowires obtained from the unit cell of β-B, the same trend about the total magnetic moments occurs. The nanowires β-a [100] and α-b [010] both have the total magnetic moments also approximately equal to zero, and the nanowire β-c [001] has the total magnetic moments of 2.62 μ_{B}. Additionally, in Table1, we also presented the calculated total magnetic moments of bulk α-B and β-B. Thus, these results indicate that both of the two kinds of boron bulks have no magnetism, with the total magnetic moments equal to zero.

*E*=

*E*

_{AFM}−

*E*

_{FM}) is 0.031 and 0.100 eV, respectively, corresponding to nanowires α-c [001] and β-c [001]. This result indicates that both of the two magnetic nanowires are in the FM ground state. To lend further understanding about magnetic properties of the considered boron nanowires, we calculate the projected total electronic density of states for all considered boron nanowires, as plotted in Figure2. Clearly, we can see that for both of the two magnetic nanowires, the majority (spin-up) state and minority (spin-down) state are not compensated, which resulted in the residue of net spin states, as seen in Figure2c,f. However, as shown in Figure2a,d,e,f, the other boron nanowires are spin-compensated, with the spin-up and spin-down states equally occupied.

^{3}. It thus is obvious that for the boron nanowire α-c [001], the total magnetic moment of the system is essentially contributed from the atoms near two vertexes of one diagonals of the cross section. The spin density is symmetrically distributed around the two ends of the diagonals. For the boron nanowire β-c [001], the spin density is mainly distributed near one vertex of the diagonals in the cross section, which is in agreement with the previous report[37]. The key to understand why the magnetic boron nanowires have the magnetic moments around the vertexes of one diagonals of the cross section is the atomic structural characteristic and especially the structural deformation of the magnetic boron nanowires tailored from the bulk boron. By analyzing, we find out that the reasons of the induced magnetic moments are mainly from two aspects. One is the unsaturated chemical bonds of the atoms at the vertexes of the diagonal, which make the electron states redistributed and cause the asymmetry of the spin-up and spin-down states. Another aspect is the local magnetic moments around the ends of the diagonal act by the interaction of spin-spin coupling, which enhances the total magnetic moments of the two magnetic boron nanowires and makes them show distinct and much larger total magnetic moments.

*E*

_{F}, as shown in Figure4. However, as seen in Figure4c, the band structure of the boron nanowire α-c [001] is obviously different from that of the other metallic nanowires. In detail, the boron nanowire α-c [001] is a narrow bandgap semiconductor with a direct energy gap of 0.19 eV at X point. Due to the well-known shortcoming of DFT in describing the excited states, DFT calculations are always used to understand the bandgaps of materials. Therefore, the bandgap value, 0.19 eV, obtained from the present calculations may be underestimated. However, this value clearly indicates that the electronic property of the boron nanowire α-c [001] is distinct from that of the bulk boron and other under-considered boron nanowires. In addition, the electronic properties of these considered boron nanowires obtained from the unit cell of the bulk α-B are also direction-dependent. Thus, these results of direction dependence of the electronic and magnetic properties of boron nanowires would be reflected on the photoelectronic properties of these materials and bring them to have many promising applications that are novel for the bulk boron.

## Conclusions

In summary, we have performed a systematic study of the stability and electronic and magnetic properties of boron nanowires using the spin-polarized density functional calculations and found that the considered boron nanowires possess the direction dependence of ferromagnetic and semiconducting behaviors, which are distinctly different from those of the boron bulk that is metallic and not magnetic. The physical origins of ferromagnetic and semiconducting properties of boron nanowires were pursued and attributed to the unique surface structures of boron nanowires. Thus, these theoretical findings seem to open a window toward the applications of boron nanowires in electronics, optoelectronics, and spin electronics.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

This work was supported by NSFC (U0734004 and 11004254), China Postdoc. Sci. Fund (201003387), GDNSF (S2011040004850), and partially by Shanghai Supercomputer Center.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Evans MH, Joannopoulos JD, Pantelides ST: Electronic and mechanical properties of planar and tubular boron structures.
*Phys Rev B*2005, 72: 045434–045439.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Kunstmann J, Quandt A: Broad boron sheets and boron nanotubes: an ab initio study of structural, electronic, and mechanical properties.
*Phys Rev B*2006, 74: 035413–035426.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Lau KC, Pati R, Pandey R, Pineda AC: First-principles study of the stability and electronic properties of sheets and nanotubes of elemental boron.
*Chem Phys Lett*2006, 418: 549–554. 10.1016/j.cplett.2005.10.104View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Cabria I, López MJ, Alonso JA: Density functional calculations of hydrogen adsorption on boron nanotubes and boron sheets.
*Nanotechnology*2006, 17: 778–786. 10.1088/0957-4484/17/3/027View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Szwacki NG, Sadrzadeh A, Yakobson BI: B80 fullerene: an ab initio prediction of geometry, stability, and electronic structure.
*Phys Rev Lett*2007, 98: 166804–166807.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Tang H, Ismail-Beigi S: Novel precursors for boron nanotubes: the competition of two-center and three-center bonding in boron sheets.
*Phys Rev Lett*2007, 99: 115501–115504.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Yang X, Ding Y, Ni J: Ab initio prediction of stable boron sheets and boron nanotubes: structure, stability, and electronic properties.
*Phys Rev B*2008, 77: 041402–041405. R.Google Scholar - Singh AK, Sadrzadeh A, Yakobson BI: Probing properties of boron α-tubes by ab initio calculations.
*Nano Lett*2008, 8: 1314–1317. 10.1021/nl073295oView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Prasad DLVK, Jemmis ED: Stuffing improves the stability of fullerenelike boron clusters.
*Phys Rev Lett*2008, 100: 165504–165507.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Szwacki NG: Boron fullerenes: a first-principles study.
*Nanoscale Res Lett*2008, 3: 49–54. 10.1007/s11671-007-9113-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Lau KC, Orlando R, Pandey R: First-principles study of crystalline bundles of single-walled boron nanotubes with small diameter.
*J Phys Condens Matter*2008, 20: 1–10. 125202 125202View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Yan QB, Zheng QR, Su G: Face-centered-cubic B80 metal: density functional theory calculations.
*Phys Rev B*2008, 77: 224106–224110.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Zope RR, Baruah T, Lau KC, Liu AY, Pederdon MR, Dunlap BI: Boron fullerenes: from B80 to hole doped boron sheets.
*Phys Rev B*2009, 79: 161403R.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Otten CJ, Lourie OR, Yu MF, Cowley JM, Dyer MJ, Ruoff RS, Buhro WE: Crystalline boron nanowires.
*J Am Chem Soc*2002, 124: 4564–4565. 10.1021/ja017817sView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Wang YQ, Duan XF, Cao LM, Wang WK: One-dimensional growth mechanism of amorphous boron nanowires.
*Chem Phys Lett*2002, 359: 273–277. 10.1016/S0009-2614(02)00732-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Wang DW, Lu JG, Otten CJ, Buhro WE: Electrical transport in boron nanowires.
*Appl Phys Lett*2003, 83: 5280–5282. 10.1063/1.1630380View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Yun SH, Dibos A, Wu JZ, Kim DK: Effect of quench on crystallinity and alignment of boron nanowires.
*Appl Phys Lett*2004, 84: 2892–2894. 10.1063/1.1705720View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Gindulyte A, Lipscomb WN, Massa L: Proposed boron nanotubes.
*Inorg Chem*1998, 37: 6544–6545. 10.1021/ic980559oView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Boustani I, Quandt A, Hernandez E, Rubio A: New boron based nanostructured materials.
*J Chem Phys*1999, 110: 3176–3185. 10.1063/1.477976View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Kunstmann J, Quandt A: Constricted boron nanotubes.
*Chem Phys Lett*2005, 402: 21–26. 10.1016/j.cplett.2004.11.130View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Liu F, Tian JF, Bao LH, Yang TZ, Shen CM, Lai XY, Xie WG, Deng SZ, Chen J, She JC, Xu NS, Gao HJ: Fabrication of vertically aligned single-crystalline boron nanowire arrays and investigation of their field-emission behavior.
*Adv Mater*2008, 20: 2609–2615. 10.1002/adma.200800137View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Yun SH, Wu JZ, Dibos A, Zou XD, Karlsson UO: Self-assembled boron nanowire Y-junctions.
*Nano Lett*2006, 6: 385–389. 10.1021/nl052138rView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Cao LM, Zhang Z, Sun LL, Gao CX, He M, Wang YQ, Li YC, Zhang XY, Li G, Zhang J, Wang WK: Well-aligned boron nanowire arrays.
*Adv Mater*2001, 13: 1701–1704. 10.1002/1521-4095(200111)13:22<1701::AID-ADMA1701>3.0.CO;2-QView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Sun LL, Matsuoka T, Tamari Y, Tian JF, Tian Y, Zhang CD, Shen CM, Yi W, Gao HJ, Li JQ, Dong XL, Zhao ZX: Pressure-induced superconducting state in crystalline boron nanowires.
*Phys Rev B*2009, 79: 140505–140508. R.Google Scholar - Li ZZ, Baca J, Wu J: In situ switch of boron nanowire growth mode from vapor–liquid–solid to oxide-assisted growth.
*Appl Phys Lett*2008, 92: 113104–113106. 10.1063/1.2890165View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Yun SH, Wu JZ, Dibos A, Zou XD, Karlsson UO: Growth of inclined boron nanowire bundle arrays in an oxide-assisted vapor–liquid–solid process.
*Appl Phys Lett*2005, 87: 113109–113111. 10.1063/1.2046728View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Cao LM, Hahn K, Scheu C, Ruhle M, Wang YQ, Zhang Z, Gao CX, Li YC, Zhang XY, He M, Sun LL, Wang WK: Template-catalyst-free growth of highly ordered boron nanowire arrays.
*Appl Phys Lett*2002, 80: 4226–4428. 10.1063/1.1483131View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Setten MJV, Uijttewaal MA, Wijs GAD, Groot RAD: Thermodynamic stability of boron: the role of defects and zero point motion.
*J Am Chem Soc*2007, 129: 2458–2465. 10.1021/ja0631246View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Shang SL, Wang Y, Arroyave R, Liu ZK: Phase stability in α- and β-rhombohedral boron.
*Phys Rev B*2007, 75: 092101–092104.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Ordejón P, Artacho E, Soler JM: Self-consistent order-N density-functional calculations for very large systems.
*Phys Rev B*1996, 53: R10441-R10444. 10.1103/PhysRevB.53.R10441View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Sánchez-Portal D, Ordejón P, Artacho E, Soler JM: Density-functional method for very large systems with LCAO basis sets.
*Int J Quantum Chem*1997, 65: 453–461. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-461X(1997)65:5<453::AID-QUA9>3.0.CO;2-VView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Soler JM, Artacho E, Gale JD, Garcia A, Junquera J, Ordejón P, Sánchez-Portal D: The SIESTA method for ab initio order-N materials simulation.
*J Phys Condens Matter*2002, 14: 2745–2779. 10.1088/0953-8984/14/11/302View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Troullier N, Martins JL: Efficient pseudopotentials for plane-wave calculations.
*Phys Rev B*1991, 43: 1993–2006. 10.1103/PhysRevB.43.1993View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Bylander DM, Kleinman L: 4f Resonances with norm-conserving pseudopotentials.
*Phys Rev B*1990, 41: 907–912. 10.1103/PhysRevB.41.907View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Perdew JP, Burke K, Ernzerhof M: Generalized gradient approximation made simple.
*Phys Rev Lett*1996, 77: 3865–3868. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3865View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Monkhorst HJ, Pack JD: Special points for Brillouin-zone integrations.
*Phys Rev B*1976, 13: 5188–5192. 10.1103/PhysRevB.13.5188View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Zhang A, Zhu ZM, He Y, Ou YG: Structure stabilities and transitions in polyhedral metal nanocrystals: an atomic-bond-relaxation approach.
*Appl Phys Lett*2012, 100: 1–5. 171912 171912Google Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.