Comparison of anti-angiogenic properties of pristine carbon nanoparticles
© Wierzbicki et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 14 February 2013
Accepted: 15 April 2013
Published: 26 April 2013
Angiogenesis is vital for tumour formation, development and metastasis. Recent reports show that carbon nanomaterials inhibit various angiogenic signalling pathways and, therefore, can be potentially used in anti-angiogenic therapy. In the present study, we compared the effect of different carbon nanomaterials on blood vessel development. Diamond nanoparticles, graphite nanoparticles, graphene nanosheets, multi-wall nanotubes and C60 fullerenes were evaluated for their angiogenic activities using the in ovo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. Diamond nanoparticles and multi-wall nanotubes showed the greatest anti-angiogenic properties. Interestingly, fullerene exhibited the opposite effect, increasing blood vessel development, while graphite nanoparticles and graphene had no effect. Subsequently, protein levels of pro-angiogenic growth factor receptors were analysed, showing that diamond nanoparticles decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. These results provide new insights into the biological activity of carbon nanomaterials and emphasise the potential use of multi-wall nanotubes and diamond nanoparticles in anti-angiogenic tumour therapy.
KeywordsCarbon nanoparticles Angiogenesis Graphene Graphite Fullerene Diamond Nanotubes
Angiogenesis is the most common process of new blood vessel development. Growth of new vessels starts from pre-existing ones and consists of two main processes: sprouting (endothelial cell migration) and intussusception (splitting of vessels) [1, 2]. The growth of blood vessels depends on a balance between angiogenesis-promoting and angiogenesis-inhibiting signalling molecules. Vascular network growth is an essential process, especially during embryonic development, tissue remodelling and regeneration. However, disorders in blood vessel development may foster diseases like chronic inflammatory disorders. Development of new vessels is also essential for the growth and metastasis of tumours, in which pro-angiogenic molecules like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) play critical roles. Binding of FGF and especially VEGF, which is considered a major molecule controlling blood vessel morphogenesis, to their tyrosine kinase receptors activates multiple downstream molecules involved in different signalling pathways that lead to increased vascular permeability, cell migration and proliferation . The VEGF receptor KDR (also called Flk-1) and the FGF receptor FGFR are responsible for regulating angiogenesis (for reviews, see [4, 5]).
Therapeutic anti-angiogenic compounds have been extensively studied for anti-tumour therapy. VEGF inhibitors have been approved for clinical use in cancer diseases. However, anti-VEGF therapy is effective only in particular cases and can lead to serious toxicity [6, 7]. Angiogenesis is a complex process regulated by several regulators. Inhibiting only the VEGF signalling pathway seems to be insufficient. Hence, therapeutic agents affecting tumour cells without harming healthy cells are necessary to optimise cancer treatments. Carbon nanomaterials can be used as low-toxicity inhibitors of tumour angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that nanoparticles of diamond, graphite, graphene, nanotubes and fullerenes display low toxicity [8–11]. Recently, we showed that diamond nanoparticles and microwave-radiofrequency carbon decreased the vascular network in glioblastoma tumours and mRNA levels of VEGFA and bFGF . Furthermore, because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, carbon nanomaterials cause high biological activity and enable easy surface modification [13, 14]. We hypothesised that pristine carbon nanoparticles can affect VEGF and bFGF receptors and inhibit tumour angiogenesis, but the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic activity can vary between different carbon nanostructures. Consequently, the objective of this study was to explore the anti-angiogenic properties of different carbon nanomaterials to find the most efficient for anti-angiogenic tumour therapy.
Comparison of the physical characteristics of the carbon nanoparticles
6 to 8 nm/15 μm
3 to 4 nm
3 to 4 nm
Approximately 50 nm (aggregates)
8 nm/5 to 20 μm
Zeta potential (mV)
Specific surface area
120 to 150 m2/g
540 to 650 m2/g
Approximately 282 m2/g
0.07 to 0.17 m2/ga
CAM implants were made from sterile Waterman filter paper with a diameter of 10 mm. Water (control) or hydrocolloids of nanoparticles of a concentration of 500 mg/L were added to the implants (final amount of nanoparticles on the implant was 0.01 mg). The implants were pre-treated with 3 mg/mL of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) and air dried under sterile conditions. Fertilised eggs from Ross line 308 hens were obtained from a certified hatchery and kept for 4 days at 12°C. The eggs were cleaned, sterilised with UVC light and divided into six groups (6 × 20 eggs). Embryos were incubated at standard conditions (temperature 37°C, humidity 60% and turned once per hour). Embryonic day 0 (E0) started when the eggs were placed into the incubator. At day E6, small holes (1 cm2) were made on the shell above air space, the inner membrane was gently stripped off, and the implants were placed on CAM. The chicken embryos were incubated until day 7 of embryonic development, when implants with CAM were prefixed with 1.5 mL of 4% paraformaldehyde. After 30 min of incubation at 4°C, CAM with implants were cut out and fixed at 4°C in 4% paraformaldehyde for 60 min (total fixation time, 90 min). After fixation, the implants were gently stripped off. All measurements were repeated three times minimum.
CAM tissue angiogenesis analysis
CAM tissue morphological analysis
CAM implant morphology and development of capillary vessels were determined with the stereomicroscope described above. CAM cross sections were made with a cryostat (CM 1900, Leica, Wetzlar, Germany). Blocks were cut into 5-μm-thick sections and observed under a light microscope (DM 750, Leica).
Protein levels of CAM KDR and FGFR were examined by Western blot analysis. Protein extracts were prepared with TissueLyser LT (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) using ice-cold RIPA buffer (150 mM NaCl, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, 1% NP-40, 0.1% SDS, 50 mM Tris, pH 7.4) with protease and phosphatase inhibitors (Sigma). The protein concentration was determined by the Total Protein Kit, Micro Lowry, Peterson's Modification (Sigma). An equal volume (50 mg) of samples was denatured by the addition of sample buffer (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Munich, Germany) and boiled for 4 min. Proteins were resolved under reductive conditions with SDS-PAGE and transferred onto PVDF membrane (Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). Protein bands were visualised with the GelDoc scanner (Bio-Rad Laboratories), using the fluorescent method of the WesternDot Kit (Life Technologies) and the primary antibodies bGFR (cat. no. F4305-08, USBiological, Swampscott, MA, USA), KDR (cat. no. SAB4300356, Sigma) and GAPDH (cat. no. NB300-327, Novus Biologicals, Cambridge, UK) as loading control (dilutions recommended by the producers). Protein bands were characterised using the Quantity One 1-D analysis software (Bio-Rad Laboratories).
A one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni post hoc test was used for multiple comparisons. Differences at P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results are shown as means and standard errors.
Comparison of angiogenesis parameters of vessels with a diameter between 100 and 200 μm
Mean vessel area (mm2)
Mean vessel length (mm)
Number of branch points
Comparison of angiogenesis parameters of vessels with a diameter less than 100 μm
Mean vessel area (mm2)
Mean vessel length (mm)
Number of branch points
Relative percentage of KDR and FGFR protein levels calculated with GAPDH as the loading control
In this work, we compared the anti-angiogenic properties of carbon-based nanomaterials. The measurements were performed using the well-established chicken embryo CAM model [17, 19]. CAM growth is essential for embryo development and is almost complete by 1 to 14 days of embryogenesis . Blood vessel development was examined in the phase of the most intensive vessel growth, which was on day 7 of chicken embryo development .
The present results are consistent with our previous research, demonstrating that ND and microwave-radiofrequency carbon allotrope decreased the vascular network in glioblastoma tumour and, consequently, their volume and weight. Moreover, diamond nanoparticles decreased the mRNA level of the main pro-angiogenic factors VEGFA and bFGF . ND also affected the transcription level of the human stress-responsive genes of cells exposed to stress (heat shock, cytotoxic and oxidative stress). It has been demonstrated that although ND did not show toxic effects on leukaemia cell line HL-60, it up-regulates the expression of the gene SOD1, responsible for the defence mechanism against reactive oxygen species, and down-regulates the genes JUN, GADD45A and FRAP1, responsible for protection against genotoxic and cellular stress . Moreover, the anti-angiogenic activity of nanoparticles has been related to their inhibitory effects on pro-angiogenic factors. Gold nanoparticles specifically bind to VEGFA and bFGF and inhibit their interaction with cell membrane receptors [23, 24].
Among all the tested nanoparticles, only MWNT and more significantly ND showed anti-angiogenic activity. Nanomaterials with graphite structure (NG and GNS) did not alter blood vessel development. There are only a few studies on the biological activity of GNS. Wang et al.  showed that GNS oxide exhibited low toxicity in mice and human fibroblast cells. Furthermore, GNS displayed low cytotoxicity in erythrocytes and fibroblasts , which together with our results suggests that GNS is highly biocompatible with the vascular system. Similarly, NG had no effect on CAM angiogenesis, although they have the same shape and similar size and are produced in the same way (but under different conditions) as ND , which had the strongest anti-angiogenic activity (Table 1). The strongest inhibition of vessel growth by ND may be linked to the inhibition of VEGF receptor (KDR) expression. VEGF is a major pro-angiogenic factor essential for the development of the blood vessel network. It is controlled by the release of growth factors dependent on the oxygen level, with HIF-1 being one of the most important . Hypoxia leads to the up-regulation of VEGF and, thus, the formation of new blood vessels, which consequently normalises the oxygen status. In tumours, high activity and fast divisions of tumour cells lead to oxygen deficiency that enhances vessel growth. KDR is also regulated by various signalling molecules in response to changes in oxygen concentration [28, 29]. Hypoxia leads to KDR up-regulation and activation of the angiogenic signalling cascade [30, 31]. Down-regulation of KDR by ND may decrease hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis and exert efficient and long-lasting anti-angiogenic effects. Moreover, chronic hypoxia can lead to further down-regulation of KDR . MWNT showed anti-angiogenic activity, inhibiting the branching of vessels with a diameter smaller than 100 μm. This indicates that MWNT inhibits the development of smaller/younger vessels only. Our report is consistent with the results of another study showing that pristine MWNT displayed an anti-angiogenic effect on an in vivo VEGFA/bFGF-induced model  and in in vitro HUVEC tubule formation assays . However, doxorubicin conjugated with single-wall nanotubes had the opposite effects .
As expected, nanoparticles had less impact on the development of older vessels. Only ND, which exerted the strongest anti-angiogenic properties, induced a significant decrease in vessel length and the number of branch points. However, ND did not change the area of older vessels (100 to 200 μm). Reduced length and branching without significant changes in vessel area suggest that ND can inhibit the development of vessels with dimensions that slightly exceed 100 μm and smaller. The present results give new insights into the bioactive properties of ND and clearly show that this carbon nanoparticle can be considered for use in low-toxicity anti-angiogenic therapy.
Interestingly, our results demonstrated pro-angiogenic activity of pristine C60, which increased the number of branch points and vessel length. Fullerene C60 has been used to inhibit cancer growth  and is used as photosensitisers in photodynamic therapy . However, Zogovic et al.  studied the effect of nanocrystaline fullerene on melanoma tumour and showed that fullerene, probably by immunosuppression, had tumour-promoting activity and increased the production of nitric oxide (NO), which can promote angiogenesis . Furthermore, other reactive oxygen species can also induce angiogenesis . The ability of C60 to generate reactive oxygen species has been previously demonstrated [41, 42]. NO promotes angiogenesis by up-regulating the expression of the VEGFA receptor , which is consistent with our report. This appears to be the most probable mechanism underlying fullerene pro-angiogenic effects and may only be specific for pristine nanoparticles. Hydroxylated C60 has been shown to protect cells in vitro form oxidative stress, while pristine nanoparticles show pro-oxidant capacity [44, 45]. Moreover, C60 modified with multihydroxylated metal can simultaneously down-regulate more than ten angiogenic factors and significantly decrease the capillary vessels of tumours (average size 1.2 cm in diameter) . Murugesan et al.  demonstrated that pristine MWNT and C60 inhibited the angiogenesis induced by exogenous VEGFA or bFGF. Our results indicated that C60 had the opposite effect on vessels not stimulated by exogenous pro-angiogenic factors. This suggests that C60 can have both anti- and pro-angiogenic activity depending on the physiological state of blood vessels.
We compared the anti-angiogenic properties of pristine carbon nanomaterials. According to our results, the carbon nanomaterials showing the most anti-angiogenic to pro-angiogenic properties were as follows: diamond nanoparticles (anti-angiogenic) - multi-wall nanotubes - graphite nanoparticles (no activity) - graphene nanosheets - fullerene C60 (pro-angiogenic). Only diamond nanoparticles, multi-wall nanotubes and fullerenes showed statistically significant results. Nanoparticles showing anti-angiogenic effects also changed the morphology of CAM by decreasing its thickness. Diamond nanoparticles and fullerene changed the expression level of KDR, but not FGFR, thereby affecting the angiogenic potential of CAM. Multi-wall nanotubes and especially diamond nanoparticle can be considered potential inhibitors of blood vessel growth in anti-angiogenic tumour therapy.
This work was supported by the following grants: NCN 2011/03/N/NZ9/04290 and NCN NN311540840. The report is a part of the doctoral thesis of Mateusz Wierzbicki.
- Adams RH, Alitalo K: Molecular regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2007, 8: 464–478. 10.1038/nrm2183View Article
- Kurz H, Burri PH, Djonov VG: Angiogenesis and vascular remodeling by intussusception: from form to function. News Physiol Sci 2003, 18: 65–70.
- Ferrara N, Gerber HP, LeCouter J: The biology of VEGF and its receptors. Nat Med 2003, 9: 669–676. 10.1038/nm0603-669View Article
- Shibuya M: Differential roles of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and receptor-2 in angiogenesis. J Biochem Mol Biol 2006, 39: 469–478. 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.5.469View Article
- Cross M, Claesson-Welsh L: FGF and VEGF function in angiogenesis: signalling pathways, biological responses and therapeutic inhibition. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2001, 22: 201–207. 10.1016/S0165-6147(00)01676-XView Article
- Jain RK, Duda DG, Clark JW, Loeffler JS: Lessons from phase III clinical trials on anti-VEGF therapy for cancer. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2006, 3: 24–40.View Article
- Carmeliet P, Jain RK: Molecular mechanism and clinical applications of angiogenesis. Nature 2011, 473: 298–307. 10.1038/nature10144View Article
- Sayes CM, Fortner JD, Guo W, Lyon D, Boyd AM, Ausman KD, Tao YJ, Sitharaman B, Wilson LJ, Hughes JB, West JL, Colvin VL: The differential cytotoxicity of water-soluble fullerenes. Nano Lett 2004, 4: 1881–1887. 10.1021/nl0489586View Article
- Dumortier H, Lacotte S, Pastorin G, Marega R, Wu W, Bonifazi D, Briand JP, Prato M, Muller S, Bianco A: Functionalized carbon nanotubes are non-cytotoxic and preserve the functionality of primary immune cells. Nano Lett 2006, 6: 1522–1528. 10.1021/nl061160xView Article
- Schrand AM, Dai L, Schlager JJ, Hussain SM, Osawa E: Differential biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds. Diam Relat Mater 2007, 16: 2118–2123. 10.1016/j.diamond.2007.07.020View Article
- Liu KK, Cheng CL, Chang CC, Chao JI: Biocompatible and detectable carboxylated nanodiamond on human cell. Nanotechnology 2007, 18: 325102. 10.1088/0957-4484/18/32/325102View Article
- Grodzik M, Sawosz E, Wierzbicki M, Orlowski P, Hotowy A, Niemiec T, Szmidt M, Mitura K, Chwalibog A: Nanoparticles of carbon allotropes inhibit glioblastoma multiforme angiogenesis in ovo. Int J Nanomedicine 2011, 6: 3041–3048.
- Holt KB, Ziegler C, Caruana DJ, Zang J, Millán-Barrios EJ, Hu J, Foord JS: Redox properties of undoped 5 nm diamond nanoparticles. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2008, 10: 303–310. 10.1039/b711049aView Article
- Krueger A, Stegk J, Liang Y, Lu L, Jarre G: Biotinylated nanodiamond: simple and efficient functionalization of detonation diamond. Langmuir 2008, 24: 4200–4204. 10.1021/la703482vView Article
- O'brien RW, Ward DN: Electrophoresis of a spheroid with a thin double layer. J Colloid Interface Sci 1988, 121: 402–413. 10.1016/0021-9797(88)90443-2View Article
- Cheng XK, Kan AT, Tomson MB: Naphthalene adsorption and desorption from aqueous C60 fullerene. J Chem Eng Data 2004, 49: 675–683. 10.1021/je030247mView Article
- Brooks PC, Montgomery AM, Cheresh DA: Use of the 10-day-old chick embryo model for studying angiogenesis. Methods Mol Biol 1999, 129: 257–269.
- Blacher S, Devy L, Hlushchuk R, Larger E, Lamandé N, Burri P, Corvol P, Djonov V, Foidart JM, Noël A: Quantification of angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Image Analysis & Stereology 2005, 24: 169–180. 10.5566/ias.v24.p169-180View Article
- Ribatti D, Vacca A, Roncali L, Dammacco F: The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as a model for in vivo research on angiogenesis. Int J Dev Biol 1996, 40: 1189–1197.
- Flamme I: Is extraembryonic angiogenesis in the chick embryo controlled by the endoderm? A morphology study. Anat Embryol (Berl) 1989, 180: 259–272. 10.1007/BF00315884View Article
- Javerzat S, Franco M, Herbert J, Platonova N, Peille AL, Pantesco V, De Vos J, Assou S, Bicknell R, Bikfalvi A, Hagedorn M: Correlating global gene regulation to angiogenesis in the developing chick extra-embryonic vascular system. PLoS One 2009, 4: e7856. 10.1371/journal.pone.0007856View Article
- Bakowicz-Mitura K, Bartosz G, Mitura S: Influence of diamond powder particles on human gene expression. Surf Coatings Technol 2007, 201: 6131–6135. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.08.142View Article
- Bhattacharya E, Mukherjee P, Xiong Z, Atala A, Soker S, Mukhopadhyay D: Gold nanoparticles inhibit VEGF165-induced proliferation of HUVEC cells. Nano Lett 2004, 4: 2479–2481. 10.1021/nl0483789View Article
- Mukherjee P, Bhattacharya R, Wang P, Wang L, Basu S, Nagy JA, Atala A, Mukhopadhyay D, Soker S: Antiangiogenic properties of gold nanoparticles. Clin Cancer Res 2005, 11: 3530–3534. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-2482View Article
- Wang K, Ruan J, Song H, Zhang J, Wo Y, Guo S, Cui D: Biocompatibility of graphene oxide. Nanoscale Res Lett 2011, 6: 8.
- Liao KH, Lin Y, Macosko CW, Haynes CL: Cytotoxicity of graphene oxide and graphene in human erythrocytes and skin fibroblasts. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2011, 3: 2607–2615. 10.1021/am200428vView Article
- Jiang Q, Li JC, Wilde G: The size dependence of the diamond-graphite transition. J Phys Condens Matter 2000, 12: 5623. 10.1088/0953-8984/12/26/309View Article
- Wang J, Morita I, Onodera M, Murota SI: Induction of KDR expression in bovine arterial endothelial cells by thrombin: involvement of nitric oxide. J Cell Physiol 2002, 190: 238–250. 10.1002/jcp.10059View Article
- Duval M, Bédard-Goulet S, Delisle C, Gratton JP: Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent down-regulation of Flk-1/KDR involves Cbl-mediated ubiquitination. Consequences on nitric oxide production from endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 2003, 278: 20091–20097. 10.1074/jbc.M301410200View Article
- Waltenberger J, Mayr U, Pentz S, Hombach V: Functional upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR by hypoxia. Circulation 1996, 94: 1647–1654. 10.1161/01.CIR.94.7.1647View Article
- Detmar M, Brown LF, Berse B, Jackman RW, Elicker BM, Dvorak HF, Claffey KP: Hypoxia regulates the expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) and its receptors in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1997, 108: 263–268. 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12286453View Article
- Olszewska-Pazdrak B, Hein TW, Olszewska P, Carney DH: Chronic hypoxia attenuates VEGF signaling and angiogenic responses by downregulation of KDR in human endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2009, 296: C1162-C1170. 10.1152/ajpcell.00533.2008View Article
- Murugesan S, Mousa SA, O'connor LJ, Lincoln DW 2nd, Linhardt RJ: Carbon inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor- and fibroblast growth factor-promoted angiogenesis. FEBS Lett 2007, 581: 1157–1160. 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.02.022View Article
- Walker VG, Li Z, Hulderman T, Schwegler-Berry D, Kashon ML, Simeonova PP: Potential in vitro effects of carbon nanotubes on human aortic endothelial cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009, 236: 319–328. 10.1016/j.taap.2009.02.018View Article
- Chaudhuri P, Harfouche R, Soni S, Hentschel DM, Sengupta S: Shape effect of carbon nanovectors on angiogenesis. ACS Nano 2010, 4: 574–582. 10.1021/nn901465hView Article
- Prylutska SV, Burlaka AP, Prylutskyy YI, Ritter U, Scharff P: Pristine C(60) fullerenes inhibit the rate of tumor growth and metastasis. Exp Oncol 2011, 33: 162–164.
- Mroz P, Tegos GP, Gali H, Wharton T, Sarna T, Hamblin MR: Photodynamic therapy with fullerenes. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2007, 6: 1139–1149. 10.1039/b711141jView Article
- Zogovic NS, Nikolic NS, Vranjes-Djuric SD, Harhaji LM, Vucicevic LM, Janjetovic KD, Misirkic MS, Todorovic-Markovic BM, Markovic ZM, Milonjic SK, Trajkovic VS: Opposite effects of nanocrystalline fullerene (C(60)) on tumour cell growth in vitro and in vivo and a possible role of immunosupression in the cancer-promoting activity of C(60). Biomaterials 2009, 30: 6940–6946. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.09.007View Article
- Ziche M, Morbidelli L, Masini E, Amerini S, Granger HJ, Maggi CA, Geppetti P, Ledda F: Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis in vivo and endothelial cell growth and migration in vitro promoted by substance P. J Clin Invest 1994, 94: 2036–2044. 10.1172/JCI117557View Article
- Maulik N: Reactive oxygen species drives myocardial angiogenesis? Antioxid Redox Signal 2006, 8: 2161–2168. 10.1089/ars.2006.8.2161View Article
- Harhaji L, Isakovic A, Raicevic N, Markovic Z, Todorovic-Markovic B, Nikolic N, Vranjes-Djuric S, Markovic I, Trajkovic V: Multiple mechanisms underlying the anticancer action of nanocrystalline fullerene. Eur J Pharmacol 2007, 568: 89–98. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.04.041View Article
- Sayes CM, Gobin AM, Ausman KD, Mendez J, West JL, Colvin VL: Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation. Biomaterials 2005, 26: 7587–7595. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.05.027View Article
- Ostendorf T, Van Roeyen C, Westenfeld R, Gawlik A, Kitahara M, De Heer E, Kerjaschki D, Floege J, Ketteler M: Inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide promotes glomerular angiogenesis via upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004, 15: 2307–2319. 10.1097/01.ASN.0000136425.75041.9CView Article
- Monti D, Moretti L, Salvioli S, Straface E, Malorni W, Pellicciari R, Schettini G, Bisaglia M, Pincelli C, Fumelli C, Bonafè M, Franceschi C: C60 carboxyfullerene exerts a protective activity against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000, 277: 711–717. 10.1006/bbrc.2000.3715View Article
- Isakovic A, Markovic Z, Todorovic-Markovic B, Nikolic N, Vranjes-Djuric S, Mirkovic M, Dramicanin M, Harhaji L, Raicevic N, Nikolic Z, Trajkovic V: Distinct cytotoxic mechanism of pristine versus hydroxylated fullerene. Toxicol Sci 2006, 91: 173–183. 10.1093/toxsci/kfj127View Article
- Meng H, Xing G, Sun B, Zhao F, Lei H, Li W, Song Y, Chen Z, Yuan H, Wang X, Long J, Chen C, Liang X, Zhang N, Chai Z, Zhao Y: Potent angiogenesis inhibition by the particulate form of fullerene derivatives. ACS Nano 2010, 4: 2773–2783. 10.1021/nn100448zView Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.