Voltage distribution over capacitively coupled plasma electrode for atmospheric-pressure plasma generation
© Shuto et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 21 November 2012
Accepted: 11 March 2013
Published: 1 May 2013
When capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is used to generate large-area plasma, the standing wave effect becomes significant, which results in the hindering of the uniform plasma process such as in a plasma etcher or plasma chemical vapor deposition. In this study, the transmission line modeling method is applied to calculate the voltage distribution over atmospheric-pressure CCP electrodes with the size of 1 m × 0.2 m. The measured plasma impedance in our previous study was used in the present calculation. The results of the calculations clearly showed the effects of excitation frequency and the impedance of the plasma on the form of the voltage distribution caused by the standing wave effect. In the case of 150 MHz frequency, the standing wave effect causes a drastic change in the voltage distribution via plasma ignition; however, the change is small for 13.56 MHz. It was also clarified that the power application position is important for obtaining a uniform voltage distribution.
KeywordsCCP Atmospheric-pressure plasma CVD TLM Voltage distribution
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is an important and widely used process for forming various kinds of thin films in the electronics industry to fabricate, for example, very-large-scale integration and solar cells. For PECVD, capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) has the advantage of generating the large-area plasma necessary to process large substrates. However, when the electrodes become large relative to the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave used to generate the plasma, the standing wave effect will become significant, deteriorating the uniformity of the film thickness obtained [1–5].
It is considered that the voltage distribution over the CCP electrode greatly affects not only the distribution of plasma characteristics, such as plasma density and electron temperature, but also the deposited film thickness uniformity, especially in the case of PECVD. In this study, the voltage distribution over the CCP electrode was calculated by the transmission line modeling (TLM) method  for 13.56 and 150 MHz and with different power application positions. A two-dimensional (1 m × 0.2 m) plane electrode was modeled, and the impedances of the atmospheric-pressure plasma obtained from IV (current and voltage) measurements and analysis  were used for the calculation.
Plasma will be generated in the space between the upper and lower electrodes. In this model, electrodes (upper and lower) and plasma are divided into small elements of length ΔX. The voltage U is assumed to be constant within the elements. Symbol δ is the thickness of current flow (skin depth). The currents flowing into and out from the element are shown by the arrows in Figure 1. The plasma is assumed to be able to be represented by the parallel connection of the capacitance Cp and the conductance Gp.
Here, L and R are inductance and resistance per unit length (in current flow direction) of the electrodes of element width (ΔX or ΔY), and Cp and Gp are the capacitance and conductance of plasma per unit length of element width, respectively. F(x,y,t) is the external force (causes voltage to change) applied to the upper electrode at position (x,y).
Electrode resistance R and inductance L
where ω is the angular frequency, and μ is the magnetic permeability of the electrode material.
where d is the distance between the upper and lower electrodes, and w is the width of the current flow. When aluminum is used as the electrode material, the conductivity σ is 0.33 × 108 ohm−1 m−1.
Plasma conductance Gpand capacitance Cp
Wavelength and phase velocity in the electrodes
From these equations, it is clear that the wavelength on the electrode is governed not only by the electrode configuration but also the impedance of plasma. Both the attenuation coefficient α and the wavelength λ greatly affect how a standing wave is formed on the electrode.
Results and discussion
Equation 1 can be numerically solved by a finite differential method. Calculation was performed for an electrode size of 0.2 × 1 m2, with the edges of the electrodes assumed to be open. Usually, plasma equipment is designed so that the edge of the electrode is not exposed to the plasma. Sometimes, the edges of the electrode will be supported by dielectric materials such as quartz and ceramics, in which case the edges are terminated by the capacitance formed by the dielectrics. In such a case, in order to minimize the power loss, the electrode supporting system will be designed so that the capacitance becomes as small as possible, in which case the impedance is close to that of the open case. The electrode was divided into small elements of which the size is 0.01 × 0.01 m (ΔX = ΔY = 0.01 m). Both Cp and Gp are assumed to stay constant with relatively small variation in the electrode voltage. Cp and Gp values were calculated from the measured impedance of atmospheric-pressure helium plasma (Zp) shown in Figure 2.
Measured impedances of atmospheric-pressure helium plasma
150 MHz (378.2 W/cm3)
13.56 MHz (370.5 W/cm3)
Zp = Rp′ + Xpj (ohm/m2)
0.060 – 0.049 j
0.038 – 0.033 j
Yp = Gp+ Bpj (1/(ohm m2))
9.96 + 8.25 j
15.0 + 13.0 j
8.75 × 10−9
1.53 × 10−7
γ ≡ α + βj
1.69 + 3.54 j
0.62 + 1.32 j
1.77 (2 m in free space)
4.78 (22.1 m in free space)
The spatial differentiation of the instantaneous voltage gives the electric field in the horizontal direction at the differentiation point. As shown in Figure 5, the gradient of the instantaneous voltage is largest at the driving point. According to the calculation, the largest gradient of the instantaneous voltage in 150 MHz case was approximately 0.45 V/m, while the average electric field across the electrodes was 5,000 V/m. This means that the current flowing in the horizontal direction is small enough compared with that flowing in the vertical direction. Since the difference was even larger in the 13.56 MHz case, the current flowing in the horizontal direction can be neglected.
Comparing Figure 7 with Figure 5, a slight difference is seen in the case of 13.56 MHz. When 150 MHz is applied, however, the voltage distribution before plasma ignition is considerably different from that after plasma ignition.
From the attenuation coefficient α shown in Table 2, the resistive loss in the 150 MHz case is larger than that in the 13.56 MHz case. However, the resistive loss only causes a monotonic decay in voltage amplitude from the driving point along the wave-propagation direction. Since Figure 5 does not show a monotonic decay in voltage from the driving point, the drastic change in the voltage pattern in the 150 MHz case is considered to be caused mainly by the standing wave effect.
The interference pattern may change sensitively with the changes in various parameters (e.g. electrode shape, setup, and plasma parameters) in the case of 150 MHz. It can be said that in the case of 13.56 MHz, the expected or measured voltage distribution before plasma ignition is useful for designing the electrode setup. However, in the case of 150 MHz, careful design of the electrode setup should be required to obtain stable and uniform plasma generation.
A mathematical model for calculating the voltage distribution over a parallel-plate plasma electrode was constructed by the TLM method. In this study, driving frequencies of 150 MHz and 13.56 MHz were compared. Actually measured atmospheric-pressure helium plasma impedance was used for these calculations. In the case of 150 MHz frequency, the standing wave effect caused a drastic change in the voltage distribution on the electrode by plasma ignition; however, the change was small for 13.56 MHz. Thus, in the case of 13.56 MHz, the expected or measured voltage distribution before plasma ignition is useful for designing the electrode setup. However, in the case of 150 MHz, careful design of the electrode setup should be required to obtain stable and uniform plasma generation. It was also shown that the power application position is important for obtaining uniform voltage distribution. It is considered that the voltage distribution will greatly affect the plasma density distribution and therefore film thickness uniformity in the case of plasma CVD. The TLM method is applicable to circular electrodes as well, and not only to atmospheric-pressure plasma but also to low-pressure plasma. The simulation by the TLM method will be useful in optimizing the configurations of parallel-plate plasma systems.
This work was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research [nos. 20676003, 21656039, 22246017, and Global COE Program (H08)] from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.
- Kuske J, Stephan U, Nowak W, Rohlecke S, Kottwitz A: Deposition conditions for large area PECVD of amorphous silicon. Mater Res Soc Symp Proc 1997, 467: 591–595.View Article
- Sansonnens L, Pletzer A, Magni D, Howling AA, Hollenstein C, Schmitt JPM: A voltage uniformity study in large-area reactors for RF plasma deposition. Plasma Sources Sci Technol 1997, 6: 170–178. 10.1088/0963-0252/6/2/010View Article
- Satake K, Yamakoshi H, Noda M: Experimental and numerical studies on voltage distribution in capacitively coupled very high-frequency plasmas. Plasma Sources Sci Technol 2004, 13: 436–445. 10.1088/0963-0252/13/3/010View Article
- Yamakoshi H, Satake K, Takeuchi Y, Mashima H, Aoi T: A technique for uniform generation of very-high-frequency plasma suited to large-area thin-film deposition. Appl Phys Lett 2006, 88: 081502–1-3.View Article
- Merche D, Vandencasteele N, Reniers F: Atmospheric plasmas for thin film deposition: a critical review. Thin Solid Films 2012, 520: 4219–4236. 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.01.026View Article
- Christophoulos C: The Transmission-Line Modeling Method. Piscataway: Wiley-IEEE; 1995.View Article
- Hiroaki K, Hiromasa O, Kiyoshi Y: High-rate and low-temperature film growth technology using stable glow plasma at atmospheric pressure. In Materials Science Research Trends. Edited by: Olivante LV. New York: Nova; 2008:197.
- Chipman RA: Theory and Problems of Transmission Lines. Columbus: McGraw-Hill Inc.; 1968.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.