3-D aluminum nanostructure with microhole array synthesized by femtosecond laser radiation for enhanced light extinction
© Mahmood et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 22 August 2013
Accepted: 2 November 2013
Published: 14 November 2013
This article presents 3-D aluminum micro-nanostructures for enhanced light absorption. Periodic microhole arrays were created by firing a train of femtosecond laser pulses at megahertz pulse frequency onto the surface of an aluminum target at ambient conditions. The laser trains ablated the target surface and created microholes leading to the generation of deposited nanostructures inside and around the microholes. These micro-nanostructures showed enhanced light absorption, which is attributed to surface plasmonics induced by the generation of both nano- and microstructures. These micro-nanostructures may be promising for solar cell applications.
KeywordsAluminum nanofibrous structure Surface plasmon resonance Light reflectance Light absorption Dwell time Repetition rate
Plasmonics is currently one of the most fascinating and fast-moving fields of photonics . A variety of approaches have been developed and examined to exploit the optical properties of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles (particularly those associated with surface plasmon polariton resonances) to improve the performance of photodetectors and photovoltaic devices [1, 2]. Surface plasmon resonance is the collective oscillation of electrons [3–5]. The electrons' mode of oscillation can be controlled by the shape and size of nanoparticles which, in turn, alter the optical properties such as scattering or absorptance .
Since the publication of a physical review article by Bethe, titled the 'Theory of diffraction by small holes’ , many researchers have investigated the optical transmission properties of nanohole arrays with various metals and dielectrics [7–11].
Yu et al. proposed employing silicon-on-insulator photodetector structures to investigate the influence of nanoparticle periodicity on coupling of normally incident light with the silicon-on-insulator waveguide. An enhancement of photocurrent by a factor as large as 5 to 6 was obtained due to the local surface plasmon resonance . For instance, Kelly et al. used the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method for solving Maxwell's equations for light scattering from particles of arbitrary shape in a complex environment .
Maier presented a study that quantified nanostructure properties (i.e., local surface plasmon resonance energy, dephasing/lifetime, total cross section, and contribution of scattering and absorption of light) of aluminum (Al), with supported nanodisks as the model system .
Many suitable metals have been examined for the generation of local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Most of them are noble metals like gold, platinum, and silver. Aluminum is a particularly interesting material from both fundamental and application points of view. It is more abundant and cheaply available than the noble metals . More importantly, it fulfills the requirement for LSPR, where large negative real parts and a small dielectric imaginary part are needed (i.e., negative dielectric permittivity ϵm < 0) [4, 10]. Therefore, aluminum nanostructures are more likely to support LSPRs for a longer period of time with high optical cross sections, wherein the excitations can be tuned over a wide energy range. Sámson provided a detailed discussion of the basic features of the plasmon resonances of aluminum nanoparticles and the free-standing aluminum hole arrays, highlighting their differences from Au and Ag nanoparticles .
Traditionally, nanohole arrays are fabricated by beam lithography, evaporation, and chemical catalytic methods. This work has proposed a new approach, where an ultrafast laser is used to ablate the surface of bulk aluminum. This high-intensity laser pulse delivered at megahertz frequency simultaneously creates a periodic microhole array as well as large deposition of nanostructured aluminums.
A direct diode-pumped Yb-doped fiber oscillator/amplifier (λ = 1,064 nm) system capable of producing variable energies of up to 18.5 W at a pulse repetition frequency between 25 kHz and 200 MHz was used to drill the periodic microhole arrays.
Samples are bulk aluminum plates of 10-mm2 area and 2.5-mm thicknesses. They were cleaned and electropolished by 2% HF before the ablation. A linearly polarized irradiation laser beam of 1,030-nm wavelength was focused using a concave lens of 12.5-mm focal length. The pulse frequencies were set at 4, 8, 12, and 26 MHz and dwell times at 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 ms. The entire experiment was conducted under ambient conditions. The best particle quality was obtained at 26 MHz, with minimum microsized particles and a well-formed weblike structure. Unless specified otherwise, the results presented in this article are all from 26-MHz repetition rate.
The morphology of all ablated samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The light reflectance and absorption intensity for wavelength range of 200 to 2,200 nm was tested using a spectrophotometer.
Morphology of aluminum nanostructures
The optical properties of aluminum nanostructures
The strength of the enhancement could also come from a scattering center. The scattering center is the nanofiber that anchors in microholes and is close to the edges of the holes. These scattering centers decay the surface plasmon length.
The incident electromagnetic waves induce plasmon in subwavelength particles (r < < l, where r is the particle radius) and polarize the conducting electrons, resulting in collective oscillations . These nanopores and nanofibrous structures that are generated inside the microholes are less than their wavelengths, as shown in Figure 4.
Results and discussion
Generating a thin homogeneous layer of aluminum nanofibrous structure on the bulk of an Al substrate will be advantageous to get an identical reflective index as it will result in a homogeneous external field that induces a dipole in the nanoparticles. Otherwise, when the nanoparticle is supported on a substrate whose refractive index is different from that of the ambient air, the field acting on the particle will no longer be homogeneous due to the image dipole field that is induced in the substrate .
Consequently, the laser parameters (dwell time and repletion pulse energy) will significantly affect the high reduction in reflectance intensity due to an increased nanofiber creation, due to which the Al nanofibrous structural response caused by the dipole oscillation of localized surface plasmons increases the metal excitation for incident light. This excitation enhances the local electromagnetic field near the nanofibrous layer at surface plasmon resonance and the scattering cross section for off-resonant light . In addition, when nanoparticles are sufficiently close together, interactions between neighboring particles arise. Therefore, when the longer dwell time has created an intensive quantity of homogenous nanofibrous structures, the dipole created by the electric field of light will induce a surface polarization charge, which effectively acts as a restoring force for the free electrons.
The effects of the aluminum nanofeatures (nanopores and nanofibers) for enhanced light absorption were studied in this article. The nanofeatures, which are generated inside and around the periodic microholes, were synthesized by femtosecond laser irradiation. The generation of the nanostructures was explained by nucleation and condensation of plasma plume grown during the irradiation process. Significant reduction in light reflection with acceptable improvement of the absorption intensity has been observed with long irradiation time (dwell time) and high repetition rate. The interaction between the small size of nanopores and the bulk quantity of nanoparticles could restore the resonance of the surface plasmons.
This research was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Ministry of Research and Innovation, Ontario, Canada.
- Sámson ZL, MacDonald KF, Zheludev NI: Femtosecond active plasmonics: ultrafast control of surface plasmon propagation. J Optic Pure Appl Optic 2009, 11: 114031. 10.1088/1464-4258/11/11/114031View Article
- Yu ET, Derkacs D, Lim SH, Matheu P, Schaad DM: Plasmonic nanoparticle scattering for enhanced performance of photovoltaic and photodetector devices. Proc SPIE 2008, 7033: 70331V.View Article
- Liz-Marzán LM: Nanometals: formation and color. Metals Today 2004, 7(2):26–31. 10.1016/S1369-7021(04)00080-XView Article
- Bohren CF, Huffman DR: Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles. New York: Wiley; 1998.View Article
- Maier SA: Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications. New York: Springer; 2007.
- Bethe H: Theory of diffraction by small holes. Phys Rev 1944, 66(7,8):163.View Article
- Najiminaini M, Vasefi F, Kaminska B, Carson JJL: Optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays in a gold film: effect of adhesion layer. Optics Express 2011, 19: 27.View Article
- Csáki A, Steinbrück A, Schröter S, Fritzsche W: Combination of nanoholes with metal nanoparticles–fabrication and characterization of novel plasmonic nanostructures. Plasmonics 2006, 1: 147–155. 10.1007/s11468-006-9012-9View Article
- Chang S-H, Gray SK, Schatz GC: Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films. Optics Express 2005, 13(8):3150–3165. 10.1364/OPEX.13.003150View Article
- Genet C, Ebbesen TW: Light in tiny holes. Nature 2007, 445: 39–46. 10.1038/nature05350View Article
- Degiron A, Ebbesen TW: Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations. Optics Express 2004, 12(16):3694–3700. 10.1364/OPEX.12.003694View Article
- Kelly KL, Coronado E, Zhao LL, Schatz GC: The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment. J Physic Chem 2003, 107: 668–677. 10.1021/jp026818jView Article
- Luk'yanchuk BS, Marine W, Anisimov SI, Simakina GA: Condensation of vapor and nanoclusters formation within the vapor plume produced by nanosecond laser ablation of Si, Ge and C. Proc SPIE 1999, 3618: 434–452. 10.1117/12.352703View Article
- Mahmood AS, Sivakumar M, Venkatakrishnan K, Tan B: Enhancement in optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation. Appl Phys Lett 2009, 95: 034–107.View Article
- Atkinson A: Transport processes during the growth of oxide film at elevated temperature. Rev Mod Phys 1985, 57(2):437–470. 10.1103/RevModPhys.57.437View Article
- Lawless KR: The oxidation of metals. Rep Progr Phys 1974, 37: 231–316. 10.1088/0034-4885/37/2/002View Article
- Gordon R, Brolo AG, McKinnon A, Rajora A, Leathem B, Kavanagh KL: Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays. Phys Rev Lett 2004, 2(3):037401.View Article
- Zhou DY, Biswas R: Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells. J Appl Phys 2008, 103(9):093102. 10.1063/1.2908212View Article
- Mokkapati S, Beck FJ, Polman A, Catchpole KR: Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications solar cells. Appl Phys Lett 2009, 95(5):053115. 10.1063/1.3200948View Article
- Thio T, Wolff PA: Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays. Nature 1998, 391(6668):667–669. 10.1038/35570View Article
- Ebbesen TW: Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films. J Opt Soc Am B 1999, 16(10):1743–1748. 10.1364/JOSAB.16.001743View Article
- Liz-Marzán LM, Giersig M, Mulvaney P: Synthesis of nanosized gold - silica core - shell particles. Langmuir 1996, 12–18: 4329–4335.View Article
- Nakayama K, Tanabe K, Atwater HA: Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells. Appl Phys Lett 2008, 93: 121904. 10.1063/1.2988288View Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.