The influence of type-I and type-II triplet multiple quantum well structure on white organic light-emitting diodes
© Zhao et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 31 October 2013
Accepted: 4 December 2013
Published: 17 December 2013
We demonstrate high-efficient white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on triplet multiple quantum well (MQW) structure and focus on the influence on WOLEDs through employing different potential barrier materials to form type-I and type-II MQWs, respectively. It is found that type-I MQW structure WOLEDs based on 1,3,5-tris(N-phenyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)benzene as potential barrier layer (PBL) offers high electroluminescent (EL) performance. That is to say, maximum current efficiency and power efficiency are achieved at about 1,000 cd/m2 with 16.4 cd/A and 8.3 lm/W, which increase by 53.3% and 50.9% over traditional three-layer structure WOLEDs, respectively, and a maximum luminance of 17,700 cd/m2 is earned simultaneously. The achievement of high EL performance would be attributed to uniform distribution and better confinement of carriers within the emitting layer (EML). However, when 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline or 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline is used as PBL to form type-II MQW structure, poor EL performance is obtained. We attribute that to improper energy level alignment between the interface of EML/PBL, which leads to incomplete confinement and low recombination efficiency of carriers, a more detailed mechanism was argued.
KeywordsWhite organic light-emitting diodes Organic quantum well structure Type-I and type-II Potential barrier layer
Compared to inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which have developed for several decades and are still being researched [1–3], organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) now have also attracted intensive attention due to their bright future on practical application [4, 5]. In recent years, white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have become a research highlight; because of their potential applications in solid-state lighting, panel display technology etc., various WOLEDs constructions have been demonstrated [6–9]. Among the structures, multiple quantum well (MQW) device is one of the significant white emission devices because charge carriers and excitons could be confined in a narrow emissive zone to prevent the emitter from interacting with the adjacent emitter, which is highly similar to the working mechanism of the inorganic MQW constitution of LED. MQW is generally divided into type-I and type-II configurations in OLEDs. Type-I MQW structure is defined as the narrow bandgap molecule located within the wide bandgap molecule; thus, injected carriers are confined between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of the narrow bandgap molecule. While the LUMO/HOMO energy levels of both two materials in type-II MQW structure are staggered, carriers are confined in different molecules.
WOLEDs with the MQW structure have been reported, thanks to the confinement of carriers and excitons within potential wells, but their emissive efficiency is generally lower than that of the traditional three-layer structure. For example, Xie et al. and Yang et al. had respectively fabricated an MQW structure white device, but both efficiencies of the fabricated structures were low [10, 11]. The reason for the low efficiency of those MQW structure WOLEDs are attributed to the use of fluorescent material only and incomplete confinement of charge carriers and excitons within the emitting layer (EML) due to adoption of undeserved potential barrier layer (PBL) materials. In order to improve the emissive efficiency of the MQW structure, triplet phosphor must be used and PBL also needs to be skillfully used. Our group had designed triplet MQW structure WOLEDs in which 1,3,5-tris(N-phenyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPBi) was used as PBL, and blue fluorescent dye and orange phosphor doped EML were used as two potential well layers (PWLs), respectively . As a result of the application of better PBL and triplet emitter component PWLs, a peak luminance of 19,000 cd/m2 and a current efficiency of 14.5 cd/A were achieved. During the process of researching the triplet MQW structure, it is found that the PBL material played a key role in improving the performance of WOLEDs, and the distribution of carriers with different PBL materials was also different, but it seemed that such issues have rarely been taken into account.
In light of the mentioned argument, we continued the investigation on triplet MQW structure in this manuscript to further develop an active design of MQW structure WOLEDs. Here, TPBi was used as the PBL, and 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) was adopted as the host, 4,4′-bis(9-ethyl-3-carbazovinylene)-1,1′-biphenyl (BCzVBi) was used as blue fluorescent dopant, and fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium(III) (Ir(ppy)3) and tris(1-phenylisoquinoline)iridium(III) (Ir(piq)3) were used as green and red phosphor dopants, respectively. It was found that the WOLEDs with TPBi as the PBL formed type-I MQW structure and showed the best electroluminescent (EL) performance, i.e., maximum luminance, peak current efficiency, and power efficiency are 17,700 cd/m2, 16.4 cd/A, and 8.3 lm/W, which increased by 53.3% and 50.9% for current efficiency and power efficiency compared to those in a traditional three-layer structure, respectively. The improved EL performance was attributed to uniform distribution and rigorous confinement of carriers and excitons. We also constructed WOLEDs with type-II MQW structure, in which the PBL of TPBi in the above-mentioned WOLEDs was changed to 4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (Bphen) or 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (BCP), respectively, but keeping other condition to be identical. Low EL performances were obtained, which resulted from poor confinement of carriers and excitons within the EML of the type-II MQW structure; a more detailed mechanism was also discussed.
Patterned indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates with a sheet resistance of 10 Ω/sq were routinely cleaned and treated with ultraviolet ozone for 15 min before loading into a high vacuum chamber (approximately 3 × 10−4 Pa). The organic materials for fabrication were procured commercially without further purification. Thermal deposition rates for organic materials, metal oxide, and Al were 0.2, 0.05, and 1 nm/s, respectively. Al cathode was finally deposited with a shadow mask that defined an active device area of 3 × 3 mm2. The WOLEDs were with the following structure: ITO/MoO3 (5 nm)/CBP (20 nm)/CBP: 10% BCzVBi (5 nm)/PBL (2 nm)/CBP: 5% Ir(ppy)3 (4 nm)/PBL (2 nm)/CBP: 4% Ir(piq)3 (4 nm)/PBL (2 nm)/Bphen (45 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm). Here, PBL denotes TPBi, Bphen, and BCP for devices A, B, and C, respectively; MoO3, CBP, and Bphen function as hole injection layer, hole transport layer, and electron transport layer, respectively; doped EMLs of blue, green, and red act as PWLs simultaneously in MQW structure WOLEDs. The device without PBL is referred to as reference device with the traditional three-layer structure. EL spectra were measured with an OPT-2000 spectrophotometer (Photoelectric Instrument Factory of Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China). The current–voltage-luminance characteristics were measured with a Keithley (Cleveland, OH, USA) 2400 power supply combined with ST-900 M spot photometer (Photoelectric Instrument Factory of Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China) and were recorded simultaneously with measurements. All measurements were carried out at room temperature and under ambient conditions without any protective coatings.
Results and discussion
Summary of EL performance of all WOLEDs in this study
CEdat 1,000 cd/m2(cd/A)
PEeat 1,000 cd/m2(lm/W)
CIE at 10 V ( x, y)
Another two MQW structure WOLEDs have low efficiencies compared to device A, even lower than that of the reference device. Devices A, B, and C offer a peak luminance of 17 700, 13,200, and 8,489 cd/m2, respectively. The difference between luminances indicates the different recombination efficiencies because luminance is generally decided by the recombination degree between electrons and holes . Table 1 summarizes the EL performances of all devices. Such a large difference between their EL performances could be understood from different alignments between LUMO/HOMO energy levels of EML/PBL due to the use of different PBL materials. First, let us see the schematic energy level diagrams of WOLEDs with the portion of EMLs that are shown in Figure 3. Device A with TPBi as PBL belongs to the foregoing type-I MQW structure, and LUMO/HOMO energy levels (bandgap) of each EML located within LUMO/HOMO energy levels of TPBi and two carriers are confined in the EML, while devices B and C belong to the type-II MQW structure with Bphen and BCP as PBL, respectively. The LUMO/HOMO energy levels of PBL and EML are staggered, and only a single carrier is confined in the EML. For device A, there is a 0.2-eV barrier at the interface of either [LUMO]EML/[LUMO]TPBi or [HOMO]EML/[HOMO]TPBi, and such an energy level alignment makes electrons and holes distribute uniformly in the EMLs that act as potential wells under electrical excitation. All the electrons and holes could be confined in EMLs due to the presence of a suitable energy level of TPBi, which would increase a recombination possibility between the two carriers and produce more excitons in EML . For device B, the potential well of holes is the EML with a 0.4-eV barrier at the [HOMO]EML/[HOMO]Bphen interface; injected holes could easily be confined within the HOMO energy level of EML. However, there is only a 0.1-eV barrier that lies in the [LUMO]EML/[LUMO]Bphen interface, so electrons seem to cross the barrier easily and distribute all throughout the LUMO energy level of EML and Bphen, so less electrons could be present in the LUMO energy level of EML, as shown in Figure 3b, which leads to a low recombination efficiency. For device C, the situation is similar to device B, as indicated in Figure 3c. However, there is a 0.3-eV barrier at the [LUMO]EML/[LUMO]BCP interface, and electrons are confined in the LUMO energy level of BCP. Meanwhile, the larger barrier of 0.7 eV at the interface of [HOMO]EML/[HOMO]BCP results in holes confined in the HOMO energy level of EML. Since electrons and holes are confined in different organic layers, which increase the probability of excitons disassociation and decrease the recombination efficiency of carriers , device C presents inferior EL performances.
Therefore, the different level alignments both for [LUMO]EML/[LUMO]PBL and [HOMO]EML/[HOMO]PBL for devices A, B, and C lead to the different distributions and recombination efficiencies of carriers. That is also proven by their different EL spectra as shown in Figure 4. From the emission spectra, we note that device A with type-I MQW structure offers a larger blue emission than the reference device which makes better CIE coordinates (see Table 1). For devices B and C with type-II MQW structure, there is a low possibility of carrier recombination due to the fact that only a single carrier could be confined in the EML, while another carrier is confine in PBL, which results in poor EL performances. It is a fact that strong blue emission and week red emission present in device C resulted from the accumulation of holes at the interface of [HOMO]blue-EML/[HOMO]BCP and that there are less holes in potential wells of green EML and red EML, especially in potential wells of red EML.
In conclusion, WOLEDs with type-I MQW structure offer higher EL performances in contrast with the reference device with traditional three-layer structure. WOLEDs with TPBi as PBL exhibits a peak current efficiency and a power efficiency of 16.4 cd/A and 8.3 lm/W at about 1,000 cd/m2, which increase by 53.3% and 50.9% over the reference device, respectively; meanwhile, a maximum luminance of 17,700 cd/m2 is achieved, which keeps a similar luminance with the reference device. The achievement of high EL performance with type-I MQW structure WOLEDs would be attributed to the uniform distribution and rigorous confinement of carriers and excitons within EMLs. However, when Bphen or BCP acts as PBL instead of TPBi, low EL performances (especially for BCP) are obtained, which are attributed to poor level alignment at the interface of EML/PBL for type-II MQW structure; thus, incomplete confinement and low recombination efficiency of carriers occur. In terms of the results, we find that type-I MQW is a promising structure design for improving white EL performance by choosing the suitable PBL. It is also expected that feasible energy level alignment between EML and PBL, suitable depth of potential well, and high triplet energy of PBL would be beneficial to demonstrate high-performance WOLEDs with MQW structure.
Highest occupied molecular orbital
Indium tin oxide
Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital
Multiple quantum well
Potential barrier layer
Potential well layer
White organic light-emitting diodes.
This work was supported by the Key Projects of Science and Technology Development Plan of Jilin Province (grant no. 20110321) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 60877027, 11004187, 61076047, and 61107082). Dr. Jianzhuo Zhu would like to thank the support of the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (A2012203016), People’s Republic of China.
- Sadaf JR, Israr MQ, Kishwar S, Nur O, Willander M: White electroluminescence using ZnO nanotubes/GaN heterostructure light-emitting diode. Nanoscale Res Lett 2010, 5: 957–960. 10.1007/s11671-010-9588-zView Article
- Matioli E, Brinkley S, Kelchner KM, Hu YL, Nakamura S, DenBaars S, Speck J, Weisbuch C: High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes. Light: Sci Appl 2012, 1: e22. 10.1038/lsa.2012.22View Article
- Li XF, Budai JD, Liu F, Howe JY, Zhang JH, Wang XJ, Gu ZJ, Sun CJ, Meltzer RS, Pan ZW: New yellow Ba0.93Eu0.07Al2O4 phosphor for warm-white light-emitting diodes through single-emitting-center conversion. Light: Sci Appl 2013, 2: e50. 10.1038/lsa.2013.6View Article
- Uoyama H, Goushi K, Shizu K, Nomura H, Adachi C: Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence. Nature 2012, 492: 234. 10.1038/nature11687View Article
- Xiang CY, Koo W, So F, Sasabe H, Kido J: A systematic study on efficiency enhancements in phosphorescent green, red and blue microcavity organic light emitting devices. Light: Sci Appl 2013, 2: e74. 10.1038/lsa.2013.30View Article
- D’Andrade BW, Holmes RJ, Forrest SR: Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer. Adv Mater 2004, 16: 624. 10.1002/adma.200306670View Article
- Schwartz G, Fehse K, Pfeiffer M, Walzer K, Leo K: Highly efficient white organic light emitting diodes comprising an interlayer to separate fluorescent and phosphorescent regions. Appl Phys Lett 2006, 89: 083509. 10.1063/1.2338588View Article
- Kanno H, Holmes RJ, Sun Y, Cohen SK, Forrest SR: White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer. Adv Mater 2006, 18: 339. 10.1002/adma.200501915View Article
- Lee TW, Noh T, Choi BK, Kim MS, Shin DW, Kido J: High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett 2008, 92: 043301. 10.1063/1.2837419View Article
- Xie ZY, Huang JS, Li CN, Liu SY: White light emission induced by confinement in organic multiheterostructures. Appl Phys Lett 1999, 74: 641. 10.1063/1.123190View Article
- Yang SH, Hong BC, Huang SF: Luminescence enhancement and emission color adjustment of white organic light-emitting diodes with quantum-well-like structures. J Appl Phys 2009, 105: 113105. 10.1063/1.3138810View Article
- Zhao B, Su ZS, Li WL, Chu B, Jin FM, Yan XW, Zhang F, Fan D, Zhang TY, Gao Y, Wang JB: High efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on triplet multiple quantum well structure. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 101: 053310. 10.1063/1.4742739View Article
- D'Andrade BW, Thompson ME, Forrest SR: Controlling exciton diffusion in multilayer white phosphorescent organic light emitting devices. Adv Mater 2002, 14: 147. 10.1002/1521-4095(20020116)14:2<147::AID-ADMA147>3.0.CO;2-3View Article
- Wang Y, Hua YL, Wu XM, Zhang GH, Hui JL, Zhang LJ, Liu Q, Ma L, Yin SG, Petty MC: White electrophosphorescent devices based on tricolour emissive layers. J Phys D Appl Phys 2008, 41: 025104. 10.1088/0022-3727/41/2/025104View Article
- Lee YH, Ju BK, Jeon WS, Kwon JH, Park OO, Yu JW, Chin BD: Balancing the white emission of OLED by a design of fluorescent blue and phosphorescent green/red emitting layer structures. Synth Met 2009, 159: 325. 10.1016/j.synthmet.2008.09.011View Article
- Kondakova ME, Pawlik TD, Young RH, Giesen DJ, Kondakov DY, Brown CT, Deaton JC, Lenhard JR, Klubek KP: High-efficiency, low-voltage phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode devices with mixed host. J Appl Phys 2008, 104: 094501. 10.1063/1.3000046View Article
- Chen P, Xue Q, Xie WF, Duan Y, Xie GH, Zhao Y, Hou JY, Liu SY, Zhang LY, Li B: Color-stable and efficient stacked white organic light-emitting devices comprising blue fluorescent and orange phosphorescent emissive units. Appl Phys Lett 2008, 93: 153508. 10.1063/1.2998598View Article
- Gao ZQ, Mi BX, Tam HL, Cheah KW, Chen CH, Wong MS, Lee ST, Lee CS: High efficiency and small roll-off electrophosphorescence from a new iridium complex with well-matched energy levels. Adv Mater 2008, 20: 774. 10.1002/adma.200702343View Article
- Liu SM, Li B, Zhang LM, Yue SM: Low-voltage, high-efficiency nondoped phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with double-quantum-well structure. Appl Phys Lett 2011, 98: 163301. 10.1063/1.3581216View Article
- Brunner K, Dijken AV, Börner H, Bastiaansen JJAM, Kiggen NMM, Langeveld BMW: Carbazole compounds as host materials for triplet emitters in organic light-emitting diodes: tuning the HOMO level without influencing the triplet energy in small molecules. J Am Chem Soc 2004, 126: 6035. 10.1021/ja049883aView Article
- Koo JR, Lee SJ, Hyung GW, Im DW, Yu HS, Park JH, Lee KH, Yoon SS, Kim WY, Kim YK: Enhanced life time and suppressed efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with multiple quantum well structures. AIP Adv 2012, 2: 012117. 10.1063/1.3679428View Article
- Park TJ, Jeon WS, Choi JW, Pode R, Jang J, Kwon JH: Efficient multiple triplet quantum well structures in organic light-emitting devices. Appl Phys Lett 2009, 95: 103303. 10.1063/1.3224190View Article
- Haneder S, Como ED, Feldmann J, Rothmann MM, Strohriegl P, Lennartz C, Molt O, Munster I, Schildknecht C, Wagenblast G: Effect of electric field on coulomb-stabilized excitons in host/guest systems for deep-blue electrophosphorescence. Adv Funct Mater 2009, 19: 2416. 10.1002/adfm.200900197View Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.