Structure, tribotechnical, and thermophysical characteristics of the fluoroplastic carbonnanotubes material
© Revo et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 4 December 2013
Accepted: 5 April 2014
Published: 6 May 2014
In this work, we studied a nanocomposite material made from fluoroplastic which contains 20 wt.% multi-walled nanotubes. In order to complete the present work, we have used different thermodynamic and mechanical techniques. The introduction of nanotubes in the F4 polymer matrix has completely changed the tribological and thermodynamic properties of the studied nanocomposite material. The compression strength becomes 20% higher than that of the F4 polymer matrix. Meanwhile the wear resistance achieves an order of magnitude 100 times greaterthan that of F4. Moreover, a friction coefficient is about 25% to 30% lower than that of a similar material and especially that of F4 material. Differential scanning calorimetric study showed that the glassy phase transition appears at about 330°C, which confirms that the degradation of the studied nanocomposite occurs at relatively higher temperature. This result confirms the one concerning the change in tribological properties. Dilatometric study revealed that the thermal expansion coefficient has been increased. The observed relative elongation measurement change depends on the direction along which the measurement has been done and confirms, in turn, the anisotropic character of the studied material. These results suggest that the metallic materials could be replaced by nanocomposite compounds which present good physical properties.
KeywordsNanocomposite Friction coefficient Wear resistance Thermal expansion Anisotropy
The emphasis for nanocomposite materials by the scientific community and the industry continues to grow and to develop. The new allotropes of carbon transformations observed recently give to this material a privileged place and as well as an interesting prospect in various fields such as energy, mechanics, and superconductivity[1–6].
The high performance of polymer nanocomposites offers new perspectives in the materials science field. The substitution of heavy metal parts in many applications has become possible, thanks to the benefits offered by polymers containing carbon nanotubes. Lightness, elasticity, and corrosion resistance make these nanocomposites very competitive in various fields of technology[7–9].
The intensification of industrial processes today is to greatly extend based on the durability of machine assembly units and equipment working in friction units. This durability is of particular importance for friction units which operate in extreme conditions, particularly in a hostile environment, at high temperatures, etc. Thus, there is the need of development of new wear-resistant materials with a low friction coefficient (kfr), high values of wear resistance with thermal conductivity, which would be resistant to hostile environments. The latter is a topical issue in our days, although there is no unique solution to the cited above issue. Indeed, there are several ways to extend the capability of the existing materials in order to be used in the abovementioned conditions.
In the present study, we investigate the possibility of making a new wear-resistant material in hostile environments, the nanocomposite materials (NCM) based on a fluoroplastic matrix F4 and on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNT). These nanotubes were obtained by CVD method in a rotating reactor. Al2O3-MoO3-Fe2O3 types were used as catalyst. Propylene was used as a source of carbon. The fluoroplastic water suspension was thoroughly mixed with deagglomerated and dried MCNT. The mixture was pressed at a temperature T = 350°С ± 0.5°С and under a pressure Р = 500 MPa. The structure of the samples was studied using an optical microscope (Neofot type) and a scanning electron microscope, their tribotechnical characteristics by a laboratory instrument of UMT-1 type, and their thermophysical characteristics by SETARAM DSC 92 instrument (Grand Prairie, TX, USA) and DIL 402C NETZSCH dilatometer (NETZSCH, Annaba, Algeria). For dilatometric investigations, the radial (R) and axial (Z) directions to the sample pressing were considered. The α(T) measurements were made with a precision of about 10-7°C-1. The relative error in determining kfr did not exceed 4%; in determining the degree of wear by the decrease of mass due to friction against the counterface (Cr-W-Mn steel) with no lubricant, the relative error did not exceed 7%. The speed of sliding friction was selected in the range of 1.25 to 10 m/s, with the load on the samples of 0.4 to 1.1 MPa. The degree of wear was determined within the sliding distance of 1,000 m.
Results and discussion
The data provided here is the evidence of devitrification of areas of the polymer matrix, which is accompanied by an increase of the composite’s deformability and an increase of its thermal expansion coefficient. This established effect must be taken into account when selecting a working temperature range for the friction units based on this developed material. Due to the fewer works reported in this domain, it is important to start by a discussion of the obtained dilatometric results.
The thermal expansion behavior of the studied nanomaterial (discs of 39.8 mm in diameter and height of about 4.36 mm) depends strongly on both measuring directions (radial (R) and axial (Z)). The shape of α(T) curves depends on the measuring direction. It important to note that the studied material is anisotropic. This result is consistent with those reported by other researchers elsewhere.
In the temperature range of 20°C to 170°C, the thermal expansion coefficient as a function of temperature measured along the axial direction αZ(T) (pressing direction) is greater than that obtained from the radial direction αR(T) over all this temperature range. The mean values of the axial and the radial thermal expansion coefficients are positive and equal to 80 and 40 10-6°C-1, respectively. From 230°C, both of them become negative. Beyond 270°C, αR(T) becomes positive and goes back to its original value. It is clear that in the regions before and after the anomalous, the αR(T) appears to be constant. While αZ(T) becomes positive from 300°C.
As for dilatometric anomalies, their numbers are also closely linked to the direction of measurement. The αZ(T) curve contains three anomalies, while αR(T) shows only two. The first anomalous in the αZ(T) appearing at around 210°C relatively intense. Its intensity is equal to 1,000 10-6°C-1. The latter intensity is 10 times greater than that of αR(T) whose intensity is not more than 100 10-6°C-1 and which appears in delay by 20°C compared the that in the case of αZ(T). For the case of the second anomalous, the roles are reversed. The dilatometric peak of αR(T) appears before αZ(T), and the ratio αR(T)/αZ(T) is about 500%. At 280°C, αZ(T) shows a significant anomaly, which is not observed in the case of the αR(T) curve.
It is important to note that the thermal expansion coefficient values obtained in the present work are of the same order of magnitude as those calculated by other authors[12, 14] using the dynamic molecular theory.
At the end of this study, we can conclude that the studied nanomaterial is of a great interest. It gives the compromise between the results obtained by different techniques. The MCNT obtained by the strengthening of the F4 matrix showed a maximum strain for a concentration of 20 wt.% of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. This strain is 20% higher than that of the matrix alone. The value of Young’s modulus is increased by the same proportion. In addition, the friction coefficient is reduced by 25% to 30%, whereas the lubricant coefficient is reduced by 50% compared to that of the matrix resulting in a wear resistance higher about 100 times.
On the other hand, the dilatometric measurements show clearly the existence of two distinct areas. The first one is in between 25°C and 180°C, which shows that the mean values of α(T) measured along the axial and the radial directions are 80 and 40 10-6°C-1, respectively. The second region ranges from 190°C to 310°C, in which α(T) curves show several dilatometric anomalies with very important intensities and their numbers vary depending on the direction along which the measurement has been carried out. The thermal expansion coefficient of the nanocomposite changes from one direction to another, and the relative elongation ΔL/L measurements along the radial and the axial directions confirm the anisotropic nature of fluoroplastic material containing 20 wt.% of multi-walled nanotubes (MNTC). The DSC diagram shows an intense peak at around 340°C, which is characteristic of the transition from the glassy phase, and suggests that the deterioration of the material appears at high temperature. The mechanical characteristics of our samples were significantly improved. The latter results were confirmed by dilatometric and calorimetric techniques.
- Suárez S, Ramos-Moore E, Mücklich F: A high temperature X-ray diffraction study of the influence of MWCNTs on the thermal expansion of MWCNT/Ni composites. Carbon 2013, 51: 404.View Article
- Mansour SA: Study of thermal stabilization for polystyrene/carbon nanocomposites via TG/DSC techniques. J Therm Anal Calorim 2013, 112: 579. 10.1007/s10973-012-2595-9View Article
- Aurilia M, Sorrentino L, Iannace S: Modelling physical properties of highly crystallized polyester reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Eur Polymer J 2012, 48: 26. 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2011.10.011View Article
- Suzuki N, Kiba S, Kamachi Y: KIT-6/polymer composite and its low thermal expansion property. Mater Lett 2011, 65: 544. 10.1016/j.matlet.2010.10.027View Article
- Dorbani T, Zerrouk I, Aouabdia Y, Taleb K, Boubertakh A, Hamamda SJ: Influence of the pressing direction on thermal expansion coefficient of graphite foam. J Therm Anal Calorim 2010, 102: 667. 10.1007/s10973-010-0686-zView Article
- Xie XL, Mai YW, Zhou XP: Dispersion and alignment of carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix. Mater Sci Eng 2005, 49: 89. 10.1016/j.mser.2005.04.002View Article
- Han Z, Fina A: Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposites. Prog Polym Sci 2011, 36: 914. 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2010.11.004View Article
- Neitzert HC, Sorrentino A, Vertuccio L, et al.: Epoxy/MWCNT composite based temperature sensor with linear characteristics. In Sensors and Microsystems: AISEM 2009 Proceedings. Edited by: Malcovati P. Berlin: Springer; 2010:241. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol 54 Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol 54View Article
- Hu N, Karube Y, Arai M, Watanabe T, Yan C, Li Y, Liu Y, Fukunaga H: Investigation on sensitivity of a polymer/carbon nanotube composite strain sensor. Carbon 2010, 48: 680. 10.1016/j.carbon.2009.10.012View Article
- Revo SL, Sementsov Yu I, Lozovii FV, Ivanenko EA, Druga L: Structure and resistance of Al-C nanocomposite material. Heat Treatment Surf Eng 2008, VIII: 3.
- Brandrup J, Immergut EH, Grulke EA: Polymer Handbook. 17th edition. New York: Wiley; 1999. II:80 II:80
- Wei C, Srivastava D, Cho K: Thermal expansion and diffusion coefficients of carbon nanotube-polymer composites. Nano Lett 2002, 2: 647. 10.1021/nl025554+View Article
- Jiang H, Liu B, Huang Y, Hwang KC: Thermal expansion of single wall carbon nanotubes. J Eng Technol 2004, 126: 265.
- Alamusi N, Hu N, Jia B, Arai M, Yan C, Li J, Liu Y, Atobe S, Fukunaga H: Prediction of thermal expansion properties of carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. Comp Mat Sci 2012, 54: 249.View Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.