Characterization of photovoltaics with In2S3 nanoflakes/p-Si heterojunction
© Hsiao et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 24 July 2013
Accepted: 30 December 2013
Published: 15 January 2014
We demonstrate that heterojunction photovoltaics based on hydrothermal-grown In2S3 on p-Si were fabricated and characterized in the paper. An n-type In2S3 nanoflake-based film with unique 'cross-linked network’ structure was grown on the prepared p-type silicon substrate. It was found that the bandgap energy of such In2S3 film is 2.5 eV by optical absorption spectra. This unique nanostructure significantly enhances the surface area of the In2S3 films, leading to obtain lower reflectance spectra as the thickness of In2S3 film was increased. Additionally, such a nanostructure resulted in a closer spacing between the cross-linked In2S3 nanostructures and formed more direct conduction paths for electron transportation. Thus, the short-circuit current density (J sc) was effectively improved by using a suitable thickness of In2S3. The power conversion efficiency (PCE, η) of the AZO/In2S3/textured p-Si heterojunction solar cell with 100-nm-thick In2S3 film was 2.39%.
KeywordsHeterojunction Nanoflake In2S3
Indium sulfide (In2S3) is one of the important semiconductor materials with direct bandgap and attracts intense interest due to its high photosensitivity, photoconductivity, and photocatalyst characteristics at ambient conditions [1–3]. In In2S3, there are three polymorphic forms: defect cubic structure α-In2S3, defect spinel structure β-In2S3, and higher-temperature-layered structure γ-In2S3. Among them, β-In2S3 is an n-type semiconductor with superior photoelectric conversion function that can be employed in near-infrared to ultraviolet regions of solar energy absorption . Hence, we may expect that β-In2S3 will act as a good absorber in heterojunction thin film solar cells . On the other hand, In2S3 is a nontoxic semiconductor material which also offers potential advantage in process without Cd and Pb. A cell with ITO/PEDOT:PSS/In2S3:P3HT/Al structure has been fabricated by Jia et al. , which showed the short-circuit current density (J sc) of 0.68 mA cm-2 and a power conversion efficiency of 0.04%.
In recent years, In2S3 thin films have been grown by a variety of deposition techniques such as chemical bath deposition (CBD) , thermal evaporation , solvothermal synthesis , and atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD) . Among them, chemical bath deposition is a desirable method because of its low cost, arbitrary substrate shapes, simplicity, and can be easily prepared in large areas. There have been many reports for the heterojunction solar cell with CBD grown In2S3. For example, In2S3 was used for the n-type buffer layer of CIGS solar cells . Crystalline silicon solar cells are presently the predominant photovoltaic devices among various solar cells due to their higher photovoltaic conversion efficiency, and long-term stability . Recently, Abd-El-Rahman and Darwish et al. reported a p-Sb2S3/n-Si heterojunction photovoltaic that was fabricated by using thermal evaporation technique , which showed J sc = 14.53 mA cm-2, fill factor = 0.32, and η = 4.65%.
In this study, the In2S3 thin films were deposited on a p-type silicon substrates via chemical bath deposition route. To our knowledge, works on In2S3 film deposited on textured Si-based solar cell by CBD are few. In addition, the advantages of chemical bath deposition process are low temperature and low-cost synthesis. This fact motivates this work which discusses the structure and electrical property of the AZO/In2S3/textured p-Si heterojunction devices.
The In2S3 nanoflakes were prepared according to the CBD procedure reported by Bai et al. . Typically, aqueous solutions of 0.025 M InCl3, 0.048 M thioacetamide (CH3CSNH2) (TAA), and 0.04 M acetic acid were mixed in a glass beaker under magnetic stirring. The beaker was maintained at a reaction temperature of 80°C using water bath. In addition, the samples of silicon wafer were cleaned using a standard wet cleaning process. Subsequently, KOH was diluted to isotropically etch the silicon wafer to form a surface with a pyramid texture .
The preparation process of In2S3/p-Si heterojunction solar cell was separated into three parts: First, the samples with 1.5 × 1.5-cm2 square were cut from a (100)-oriented p-type silicon wafer with ρ = 10 Ω cm and 200-μm thickness. For ohmic contact electrodes, we used the DC sputtering technique to deposit 2-μm-thick Al onto the back of the Si substrates, followed by furnace annealing at 450°C for 1 h in Ar ambient conditions to serve Al as the p-ohmic contact electrodes. Second, 50 ~ 400-nm-thick n-type In2S3 thin films were deposited on the prepared p-type Si substrates by chemical bath deposition route in order to form an In2S3/p-Si heterojunction structure. Finally, an AZO film and Al metal grid with thicknesses of 0.4 and 2 μm, respectively, were deposited by sputtering. The purpose of AZO deposition is to produce a transparent conductive film by RF magnetron sputtering using ZnO:Al (2 wt.% Al2O3) target with a purity of 99.99% with 300-W power. All devices with the same AZO thickness (approximately 400 nm) were deposited at the same conditions. The single-cell size of photovoltaic device is about 0.4 cm2.
The phase identification of materials was performed by X-ray powder diffraction (Rigaku Dmax-33, Tokyo, Japan). The morphology and microstructure were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM; Hitachi HF-2000, Tokyo, Japan). The absorption and reflectance spectra were measured at room temperature using a Hitachi U-4100 UV–Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The current density-voltage measurements (Keithley 2410 SourceMeter, Cleveland, OH, USA) were obtained by using a solar simulator (Teltec, Mainhardt, Germany) with an AM 1.5 filter under an irradiation intensity of 100 mW cm-2.
Results and discussion
During the reaction processes, sulfide ions were slowly released from CH3CSNH2 and reacted with indium ions. Consequently, the In2S3 nanoflakes were formed via an in situ chemical reaction manner. Equation (4) indicates that In2S3 is produced by the reaction of S2- and In3+.
Figure 4b shows the transmittance spectra of the 400-nm-thick AZO films on In2S3 films with various thicknesses. While the pure 400-nm AZO film on the glass showed 90.2% of transmittance, the transmittance values of 400-nm-thick AZO on In2S3 with 50-, 100-, and 300-nm thickness were about 86.2%, 75.5%, and 68.6%, respectively. It can be seen that the transmittance is decreased as the thickness of In2S3 film increases.
Photovoltaic performance of the AZO/In 2 S 3 /p-Si heterojunction solar cell with various thicknesses of In 2 S 3
In2S3 (50 nm)
In2S3 (100 nm)
In2S3 (200 nm)
In2S3 (300 nm)
The current–voltage (J-V) characteristics of the fabricated photovoltaic devices were measured under an illumination intensity of 100 mW/cm2, as shown in Figure 6c. Such result shows that the short-circuit currents (J sc) were increased while the In2S3 films were deposited onto the p-Si. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices can be obviously improved from 0.47% to 2.39% by employing a 100-nm-thick In2S3 film. It was also found that the highest open-circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current density are 0.32 V and 23.4 mA/cm2, respectively. Therefore, the optimum thickness of the In2S3 film is 100 nm, with PCE of 2.39%. When the thickness of the In2S3 film increases, the efficiency decreased because of the decrease in J sc and FF, as shown in Figure 6d. A similar phenomenon was also observed in the In2S3/CIGS heterojunction thin film solar cell . It is possible that some defects on the interface of the AZO/In2S3/p-Si heterojunction with thicker In2S3 films will decrease the PCE. The cell performance improved markedly as the thickness of the In2S3 layer was increased to 100 nm. This improved cell performance is attributed to the reduction of possible shunt paths by the inclusion of a high-resistivity In2S3 buffer layer between the transparent conducting ZnO:Al and the p-Si layers. The cell performance, however, deteriorated in devices with 200- and 300-nm-thick In2S3 layers since the series resistance of the solar cell increased due to the high resistance of the In2S3 layer. Therefore, the 100-nm In2S3 sample shows the best performance.
In summary, we have successfully synthesized the nanoflake In2S3 by a chemical bath deposition route in the study. The well-crystallized single phase of tetragonal In2S3 that can be obtained at 80°C and deposited on p-Si substrate was investigated for the first time. The visible light absorption edge of the as-grown In2S3 film corresponded to the bandgap energy of 2.5 eV by UV–Vis absorption spectra. It can be seen that the lower reflectance spectra occurred while the thickness of In2S3 film on the textured p-Si was increased. The photovoltaic characteristics of the AZO/In2S3/textured p-Si heterojunction solar cells with various In2S3 thicknesses were also given in the investigation, and the PCE of such device with 100-nm-thick In2S3 film is 2.39% under 100-mW/cm2 illumination.
YJH was born in Tainan, Taiwan, in 1976. He received his Ph.D. degree in Materials Science and Engineering from the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, in 2007. He is an Associate Researcher in the National Nano Device Laboratories, Tainan. His current research interests include organic solar cell, thin film solar cell, and functional nanocrystals synthesis. CHL was born in Taipei, Taiwan. He earned his B.S. degree from the Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, in 1983, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Inorganic Materials from the Institute of Electrical Engineering, Tokyo and the Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, in 1988 and 1991, respectively. Currently, he is a Full Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. His current research interests include nanosized electronic and electro-optical materials and thin film processing. He is a recipient of the Outstanding Research Award from the National Science Council, Taiwan in 2010. LWJ was born in Taipei, Taiwan, in 1965. He received his B.S. degree in Physics, his M.S. degree in Material Science, and his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from the National Cheng Kung University (NCKU), Tainan, Taiwan. Currently, he is a Full Professor in the Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University (NFU), Yunlin, Taiwan. From August 2005 to July 2006, he served as the Director of the R&D Center for Flat Panel Display Technology, NFU. His current research interests include semiconductor physics, optoelectronics, and nanotechnology. He is currently the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Science and Innovation (ISSN 2078-5453), the Taiwanese Institute of Knowledge Innovation (TIKI). LWJ was a recipient of the Research Award from Lam Research Taiwan Co., Ltd., Taiwan, in 2004. He has won a Gold Award in Seoul International Invention Fair 2013 (SIIF2013, November 29 to December 2, 2013), Seoul, South Korea. THM was born in Tainan, Taiwan, in 1967. He received his B.S. degree from the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, in 1989, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Institute of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, in 1991 and 1994, respectively. Currently, he is a Professor in the Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin, Taiwan. His current research interests include semiconductor physics, optoelectronic devices, and nanotechnology. YLC received his M.S. degrees from the Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin, in 2011. His current research interests include optoelectronic devices and growth of semiconductor nanostructures. HPC was born in Tainan, Taiwan, in 1964. He earned his B.S. degree from the Department of Electrical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, in 1990, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the National Cheng Kung University (NCKU), Tainan, Taiwan, in 1993 and 2005, respectively. Currently, he is an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Nan Jeon Institute of Technology, Tainan, Taiwan.
Field emission scanning electron microscopy
High-resolution transmission electron microscopy
Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra
Power conversion efficiency.
This research is supported by the National Science Council, Republic of China under contract nos. NSC 101-2221-E-150-045 and NSC 102-3113-P-002-026.
- Cansizoglu MF, Engelken R, Seo HW, Karabacak T: High optical absorption of indium sulfide nanorod arrays formed by glancing angle deposition. ACS Nano 2010, 4(2):733–740. 10.1021/nn901180xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xing Y, Zhang HJ, Song SY, Feng J, Lei YQ, Zhao LJ, Li MY: Hydrothermal synthesis and photoluminescent properties of stacked indium sulfide superstructures. Chem Commun 2008, 12: 1476–1478. 10.1039/B717512D 10.1039/B717512DView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ho CH: Density functional theory study the effects of point defects in β-In2S3. J Mater Chem 2011, 21: 10518–10524. 10.1039/c1jm10731cView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Diehl R, Nitsche R: Vapour growth of three In2S3 modifications by iodine transport. J Cryst Growth 1975, 28: 306. 10.1016/0022-0248(75)90067-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang YP, Ho CH, Huang YS: The study of surface photoconductive response in indium sulfide crystals. J Phys D: Appl phys 2010, 43: 415301. 10.1088/0022-3727/43/41/415301View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barreau N: Indium sulfide and relatives in the world of photovoltaics. Sol Energy 2009, 83: 363–371. 10.1016/j.solener.2008.08.008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jia HM, He WW, Chen XW, Lei Y, Zheng Z: In situ fabrication of chalcogenide nanoflake arrays for hybrid solar cells: the case of In2S3/poly(3-hexylthiophene). J Mater Chem 2011, 21: 12824. 10.1039/c1jm11539aView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yamaguchi K, Yoshida T, Minoura H: Structural and compositional analyses on indium sulfide thin films deposited in aqueous chemical bath containing indium chloride and thioacetamide. Thin Solid Films 2003, 354: 431–432.Google Scholar
- Bär M, Barreau N, Couzinié-Devy F, Pookpanratana S, Klaer J, Blum M, Zhang Y, Yang W, Denlinger JD, Schock H-W, Weinhardt L, Kessler J, Heske C: Nondestructive depth-resolved spectroscopic investigation of the heavily intermixed In2S3/Cu(In, Ga)Se2 interface. App Phys Lett 2010, 96: 184101. 10.1063/1.3425739View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chai B, Zeng P, Zhang XH, Mao J, Zan L, Peng TY: Walnut-like In2S3 microspheres: ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal synthesis, characterization and formation mechanism. Nanoscale 2012, 4: 2372. 10.1039/c2nr12019dView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Naghavi N, Spiering S, Powalla M, Cavana B, Lincot D: High-efficiency copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells with indium sulfide buffer layers deposited by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD). Prog Photovolt Res Appl 2003, 11: 437–443. 10.1002/pip.508View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hariskos D, Spiering S, Powalla M: Buffer layers in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells and modules. Thin Solid films 2005, 480–481: 99–109.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee J, Lakshminarayan N, Dhungel SK, Kim K, Yi J: Silicon doping effect on SF6/O2 plasma chemical texturing. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 2009, 93: 256. 10.1016/j.solmat.2008.10.013View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abd-El-Rahman KF, Darwish AAA: Fabrication and electrical characterization of p-Sb2S3/n-Si heterojunctions for solar cells application. Current App Phys 2011, 11: 1265–1268. 10.1016/j.cap.2010.12.006View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bai HX, Zhang LX, Zhang YC: Simple synthesis of urchin-like In2S3 and In2O3 nanostructures. Mater Lett 2009, 63(9–10):823–825.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lien SY, Yang CH, Hsu CH, Lin YS, Wang CC, Wu DS: Optimization of textured structure on crystalline silicon wafer for heterojunction solar cell. Mater Chem Phys 2012, 133: 63–68. 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2011.12.052View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fu XL, Wang XX, Chen ZX, Zhang ZZ, Li ZH, Leung DYC, Wu L, Fu XZ: Photocatalytic performance of tetragonal and cubic beta-In2S3 for the water splitting under visible light irradiation. Appl Catal B: Environmental 2010, 95: 393–399. 10.1016/j.apcatb.2010.01.018View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bayon R, Guillen C, Martinez MA, Gutierrez MT, Herrero J: Solution chemistry and reaction mechanism taking place during the chemical bath deposition of In(OH) x S y . J Electrochem Soc 1998, 145(8):2775. 10.1149/1.1838713View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kumar BG, Muralidharan K: Hexamethyldisilazane-assisted synthesis of indium sulfide nanoparticles. J Mater Chem 2011, 21: 11271. 10.1039/c1jm11167aView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Trigo JF, Asenjo B, Herrero J, Gutierrez MT: Optical characterization of In2S3 solar cell buffer layers grown by chemical bath and physical vapor deposition. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 2008, 92: 1145–1148. 10.1016/j.solmat.2008.04.002View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chao YC, Chen CY, Lin CA, He JH: Light scattering by nanostructured anti-reflection coating. Energy Environ Sci 2011, 4: 3436. 10.1039/c0ee00636jView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang F, Shen HL, Wang W, Zhang L: Preparation of SnS film by sulfurization and SnS/ α -Si heterojunction solar cells. J Electrochem Soc 2012, 159: H235-H238. 10.1149/2.016203jesView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Spiering S, Eicke A, Hariskos D, Powalla M, Naghavi N, Lincot D: Large-area Cd-free CIGS solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer deposited by ALCVD. Thin Solid Films 2004, 562: 451–452.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.