Complex microstructures of ABC triblock copolymer thin films directed by polymer brushes based on self-consistent field theory
© Jiang et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 16 April 2014
Accepted: 6 July 2014
Published: 17 July 2014
The morphology and the phase diagram of ABC triblock copolymer thin film directed by polymer brushes are investigated by the self-consistent field theory in three dimensions. The polymer brushes coated on the substrate can be used as a good soft template to tailor the morphology of the block copolymer thin films compared with those on the hard substrates. The polymer brush is identical with the middle block B. By continuously changing the composition of the block copolymer, the phase diagrams are constructed for three cases with the fixed film thickness and the brush density: identical interaction parameters, frustrated and non-frustrated cases. Some ordered complex morphologies are observed: parallel lamellar phase with hexagonally packed pores at surfaces (LAM3 ll -HFs), perpendicular lamellar phase with cylinders at the interface (LAM⊥-CI), and perpendicular hexagonally packed cylinders phase with rings at the interface (C2⊥-RI). A desired direction (perpendicular or parallel to the coated surfaces) of lamellar phases or cylindrical phases can be obtained by varying the composition and the interactions between different blocks. The phase diagram of ABC triblock copolymer thin film wetted between the polymer brush-coated surfaces is very useful in designing the directed pattern of ABC triblock copolymer thin film.
KeywordsABC triblock copolymer Polymer brush Morphology Thin film Self-consistent field theory Phase diagram
Block copolymers consisting of chemically distinct polymers linked by a covalent bond at one end have the ability to self-assemble into a variety of ordered nanostructures such as lamellae (LAM), hexagonally packed cylinders (HEX), and body-centered cubic (BCC) spheres and more complex structures such as gyroid (G) in melts and solutions[1–7]. This unique characteristic of block copolymers provides possibilities for their potential applications in nanoscience, such as molecular template and nanotubes. Therefore, block copolymers have attracted a great deal of attention both in theory and experiment.
Self-assembly and phase separation in diblock copolymers have been well studied both theoretically and experimentally in the last few decades[8–14]. The phase behavior of diblock copolymers melts confined in a parallel slit or in a thin film has been extensively studied[15–25]. When the number of distinct blocks increases from two, i.e., ABC triblock copolymer, the complexity and variety of self-assembled structures are increased dramatically[1, 26–39]. If a surface or interface exists, the microdomain morphologies and the kinetics of microdomain ordering can change significantly. The complex and rich phase behaviors depend not only on molecular parameters, such as the interaction energies between distinct blocks and the architectures of block copolymers, but also on external variables, such as electric fields[40, 41], chemically patterned substrates[42–50], and interfacial interactions[4, 51–54]. The ABC linear triblock copolymer thin films confined between two hard walls have been intensively investigated theoretically[55–58]. Feng and Ruckenstein studied ABC melts in thin films by Monte Carlo simulations and showed that the microdomain morphology can be very complicated and is affected by the composition, the interactions, and even the geometry of the confinement. Ludwigs et al. observed a highly ordered hexagonally perforated lamella structure based on an ABC triblock copolymer thin film.
The previous work mainly concentrated on phases of several compositions of ABC triblock copolymer by varying the film thickness or the interfacial interaction. As we know, the polymer brush-coated surface is good from the energy view[30, 31]. It is equivalent to changing the surface-polymer interaction as polymer brush acts as a soft surface[30, 31, 61, 62]. Experimentally, random copolymers were used to control the wetting behavior of block copolymer[63, 64]. The results showed that the ordered structures can be easily obtained by changing the property of the surfaces or substrate, i.e., the interaction between the polymer and the surfaces. Ren et al.[61, 62] observed the structure transformation of the AB diblock copolymer thin film by tailoring the grafting density of the coated surface or the concentration of the copolymer. In order to know the whole phase behavior of ABC triblock copolymer thin film confined between two parallel polymer brush-coated surfaces, we use a combinatorial screening method based on the real space implementation of the self-consistent field theory (SCFT), originally proposed by Drolet and Fredrickson for block copolymer melts[65, 66, 57, 58] to search the equilibrium microphases of ABC linear triblock copolymers confined between the two parallel polymer brush-coated hard surfaces in three dimensions. In the present work, we concentrate on the thin film regime with film thickness of several Rg0. By continuously varying the compositions of the block copolymer, the morphologies are obtained, and the phase diagrams are constructed for three different cases of interaction parameters: (1) identical interactions between three different components, (2) frustrated condition, and (3) non-frustrated condition.
We assume the ABC triblock copolymer melt is confined between two parallel polymer brush-coated hard surfaces with a distance L z along the z-axis. There are nc ABC triblock copolymers with polymerization degree N and ng polymer with polymerization degree P (here, we take P = N) grafting on the two parallel surfaces. Each copolymer chain consists of N segments with compositions (average volume fractions) fA and fB (fC = 1 – fA – fB), respectively. The ABC triblock copolymer and the grafted polymers (brush) are assumed to be flexible, and the mixture is incompressible with each polymer segment having a statistical length a and occupying a fixed volume. The two parallel surfaces coated by the polymer brush are horizontally placed on the xy-plane at z = 0 and Lz + a, respectively. The volume of the system is V = L x L y Lz, where L x and L y are the lateral lengths of the surfaces along the xy-plane and Lz is the film thickness. The grafting density is defined as σ = nga2/(2L x L y ). The average volume fractions of the grafted chains and copolymers are φg = ngN/ρ0V and φc = ncN/ρ0V, respectively.
where w(r) is wA(r) when 0 < s < fA, wB(r) when fA < s < fA + fB, wC(r) when fA + fB < s < 1 for ABC triblock copolymer, and wg(r) for the grafted polymer. The initial condition of Equation (2) satisfies qc(r, 0) = 1 for ABC triblock copolymer. Because the two ends of the block copolymer are different, a second distribution function is needed which satisfies Equation (2) but with the right-hand side multiplied by -1 and the initial condition The initial condition of qg(r, s) for grafted polymer is qg(r, 0) = δ(r - rS), where rS represents the position of the substrates, and that of is The periodic boundary condition is used for and along x- and y-directions when z∈ [0,L z ]. and are equal to zero when z ≤ 0 or z ≥ Lz.
Equations (3) to (11) form a close set of self-consistent equations, which are numerically implemented by a combinatorial screening algorithm proposed by Drolet and Fredrickson[65, 66]. The algori3thm consists of randomly generating the initial values of the fields w i (r). Then, the diffusion equations are then integrated to obtain q and q+, for 0 < s < 1. The right-hand sides of Equations (8) to (11) are evaluated to obtain new values for the volume fractions of blocks A, B, and C, and grafted polymers. Moreover, the brief introduction of SCFT method can be found in some textbook, such as Statistical Physics of Polymers: an Introduction.
The polymerization of ABC triblock copolymer is N = 60 and that of the grafted chains is the same with the copolymers, i.e., P = N = 60. The grafting density of the grafted chains is set as σ = 0.15 and 0.2 to insure that the polymer brush is in the dry brush regime (σN1/2 > 1). The interaction parameters Hi S (i = A, B, C) between the surfaces and the blocks are set to zero (the effect of the surface on the thin film is weakened because the surface is coated by polymer brushes), that means that the substrates are neutral. We only address the thin films of ABC triblock copolymer confined between densely polymer-grafted surfaces, and the grafted polymers are assumed to be identical with the middle block B. We continuously vary the compositions to search the morphology of the ABC block copolymer thin film. The simulations are performed on a 3D cubic box L x × L y × L z . The two parallel hard surfaces are presented as planes at z = 0 and L z + a, and the film thickness is set to L z = 40a, which is appropriate for thin film with the effective thickness of several Rg. L x and L y along xy-plane can be varied between 40 to 45a to avoid the size effect and obtain the stable and perfect morphology. It should be noted that the resulting microphases largely depend on the initial conditions. Therefore, all the simulations are repeated many times using different random states to guarantee the structure is not occasionally observed. In this work, three cases are considered: (1) identical interactions between three different components, χABN = χBCN = χACN = 35, which are widely studied in many theoretical works; (2) frustrated condition χABN = χBCN = 35 and χACN = 13; and (3) non-frustrated condition, χABN = χBCN = 13 and χACN = 35 based on the work of Jung and Tyler. Furthermore, the effect of the brush density is also included in the case of χABN = χBCN = χACN = 35, which is actually equivalent to changing the effective film thickness.
Results and discussion
Figure 1 presents the morphologies of the ABC triblock copolymer thin film by varying the compositions of the block copolymer. The microphase patterns, displayed in the form of density, are the red, green, and blue, assigned to blocks A, B, and C, respectively. The final color plotted at each point is the mixture of three colors, in which the concentration of each color is proportional to the local volume fraction of an individual block. The 3D morphology can only give the three faces (xy, yz, xz) of the ABC triblock copolymer thin film. For some morphologies, the 3D isosurface graphs are also given for a clear view. The red, green, and blue colors in isosurface graphs are assigned to blocks A, B, and C for a good correspondence, respectively. In these 3D isosurface graphs, some only give one or two components. Here, we do not show the morphologies of the polymer brushes in order to clearly see the morphologies of the block copolymer. There are at least 15 stable morphologies found: two-color parallel lamellar phase (LAM2 ll ), two-color perpendicular lamellar phase (LAM2⊥), three-color parallel lamellar phase (LAM3 ll ), three-color perpendicular lamellar phase (LAM3⊥), parallel lamellar phase with hexagonally packed pores at surfaces (LAM3 ll -HFs), two-color parallel cylindrical phase (C2 ll ), core-shell hexagonally packed spherical phase (CSHS), core-shell parallel cylindrical phase (CSC3 ll ), perpendicular lamellar phase with cylinders at the interface (LAM⊥-CI), perpendicular hexagonally packed cylinders phase with rings at the interface (C2⊥-RI), parallel lamellar phase with tetragonal pores (LAM3 ll -TF), perpendicular hexagonally packed cylindrical phase (C2⊥), sphere-cylinder transition phase (S-C), hexagonal pores (HF), and irregular lamellar phase (LAMi). In these morphologies, there are some interesting structures, such as LAM3 ll -HFs, LAM⊥-CI, LAM3 ll -TF, and HF. HF phase is also experimentally observed, which is very useful; for example, the perforated lamella can serve as a lithographic mask. There are two irregular phases, sphere-cylinder transition phase (S-C) and irregular lamellar phase (LAMi). Due to the composition and the surface interaction competition, it is difficult to form the regular and stable phase. In fact, the parallel lamellar phases have three different arrangement styles near the brush. Because the brushes are identical to the middle block B, the block B should be near the brushes. But it is not always the case due to entropic effect. So, the blocks A, B, or C can be adjacent to the brushes. So in the following phase diagrams, we discern the three different arrangement styles of the parallel lamellar phases. When the block B is major in the block copolymer, the parallel lamellar phase with block B adjacent to brush layer is stable. When the block B is minor, the parallel lamellar phase with block A or B adjacent to brush layer is stable.
(1) Identical interaction parameter χ AB N = χ BC N = χ AC N = 35.
a. Influence of the composition
The disordered phase (Dis) exists at the three corners of the phase diagram. When the volume fractions of the three blocks are comparable, the three-color lamellar phase forms, which is similar with that in the bulk. When one of the blocks is the minority, the phase behavior is similar with that of the diblock copolymer. When the middle block B is the minority, most of block B will accumulate between the A/C interface, and while the end block A or C is the minority, other block C or A will distribute in the middle block B to form one phase. There are many two-color phases near the edges of the phase diagram, and at this time, the lamellar phase is parallel to the surfaces. This shows that we can add a small functional block A or C to symmetric BC or AB diblock copolymer to obtain a lamellar phase parallel to the surfaces.
The diagram has the A-C reflectivity due to the symmetric architecture and the symmetric interaction parameters. When the volume fractions of the blocks A and C are comparable, the perpendicular lamellar phase easily forms except fB ≤ 0.1 and fB ≥ 0.7 and the compositions fA = 0.3, fB = 0.3, fC = 0.4, and fA = 0.4, fB = 0.3, fC = 0.3.
b. Influence of the grafting density
Comparing the phase diagram with that in the bulk, the direction of the lamellar phase can be tailored by changing the grafting density when the middle blocks are the minority and the ABC triblock copolymer is symmetric, i.e. fA = fC. The parallel lamellar phase with hexagonally packed pores at surfaces (LAM3 ll -HFs) can easily form at some compositions.
In general, the block copolymer experiences the film confinement under this condition. Moreover, the block copolymer experiences the brush polymer tailoring, especially at the interface between the block copolymer and the polymer brush. Therefore, some new phases form, and the phase diagram is more complicated. Even for the lamellar phase, there are two styles: the perpendicular and parallel ones. The perpendicular lamellar phase always occurs when the volume fractions of the three components are comparable. The parallel lamellar phase forms at the middle edge of the phase diagram in most cases. From the above two phase diagrams, we can see that the hexagonally packed pores at the interface between the block copolymers and the polymer brush-coated surfaces occur. It is very useful in designing thin films with functional dots.
(2) Frustrated case χ AB N = χ BC N = 35, χ AC N = 13
Due to the energetic confinement, the two-color lamellar phase is easy to form. When the middle block B is the minority, the phases are complex. The block B will accumulate near the interface between the blocks A and C, which can be comparable with that in the bulk in the frustrated case[33, 70]. For the symmetric ABC triblock copolymer, i.e., fA = fC, with the increase of the volume fraction of the middle block B, the phase will change from the perpendicular lamellar phase to perpendicular lamellar phase with cylinders at the interface to irregular lamellar phase to three-color parallel lamellar phase. This shows that the direction of the lamellar phase can be tailored. The irregular lamellar phase (three points fA = 0.3, fB = 0.3, fC = 0.4; fA = 0.4, fB = 0.3, fC = 0.3; fA = 0.3, fB = 0.4, fC = 0.3) forms because of two reasons: one is the three blocks with almost equal volume fraction, and the middle block B will stay near to the polymer-coated (same with block B) substrates, so there is not enough block B to form the perfect lamellar phase. The other reason is χACN < < χABN ≈ χBCN, then the copolymer chain will overcome the elastic energy to form the A/C interface. Therefore, the phase is not perfect because of the composition competition and the energy competition. And the most important is that perpendicular hexagonally packed cylindrical phase with rings at the interface (C2⊥-RI) and perpendicular lamellar phase with cylinders at the interface (LAM⊥-CI) occur in this frustrated case, see Figure 1i,j. In fact, these two phases are obtained in the frustrated ABC triblock copolymer with interaction parameters χABN = χBCN = 35 and χACN = 15 in bulk.
(3) Non-frustrated case (χ AB N = χ BC N = 13, χ AC N = 35)
(4) Comparison with ABC triblock copolymer thin film without polymer brush-coated substrates
When fA = 0.4, fB = 0.4, and fC = 0.2 at σ = 0.15, the phase LAM3 ll -HFs is stable, while the stable phase for the thin film confined between hard surfaces is three-color lamellae with parallel cylinders at the interfaces. When fA = 0.4, fB = 0.2, and fC = 0.4 at σ = 0.15, the perpendicular lamellar phase LAM3⊥ is stable, while the perpendicular lamellar phase with cylinder at the interfaces is stable without the coated polymer brush at the surfaces. From the morphology of the polymer brush, we can see that there is some ordered pattern at the interface between the thin film and the polymer brush. So, we think the coated polymers on the substrates have penetrated into the ABC triblock copolymer thin film, and the interaction between them contributes to morphology formation of the thin film. For the case of fA = 0.4, fB = 0.2, and fC = 0.4, the perpendicular lamellar phase with cylinders at the interfaces is stable without the coated polymer brush at the surfaces. But when it is confined between the polymer brush-coated substrates, the polymer brush will penetrate into the block copolymer thin film and form one phase with the middle block B, so the perpendicular lamellar phase occurs.
The morphology and the phase diagrams of ABC triblock copolymer thin film confined between polymer brush-coated surfaces are investigated by the real-space self-consistent field theory in three dimensions. The coated polymer brush is identical with the middle block B. By continuously changing the composition of the block copolymer, the phase diagrams are constructed for three cases with the fixed film thickness L z = 40a and the grafting density σ = 0.20: (1) identical interactions between three different components, χABN = χBCN = χACN = 35; (2) frustrated condition χABN = χBCN = 35 and χACN = 13; and (3) non-frustrated condition, χABN = χBCN = 13 and χACN = 35. Furthermore, the brush density σ = 0.15 is also included in the case of χ AB N = χBCN = χACN = 35. Fifteen stable morphologies are obtained: LAM2 ll , LAM2⊥, LAM3 ll , LAM3⊥, LAM3 ll -HFs, C2 ll , CSHS, CSC3 ll , LAM⊥-CI, C2⊥-RI, LAM3 ll -TF, C2⊥, S-C, HF, and LAMi. The morphology of the block copolymer thin film largely depends on the compositions and the surface interaction besides the film thickness. The complex morphology can be obtained at the energetically unfavorable condition, such as the cases for χABN = χBCN = χACN = 35 and χABN = χBCN = 35 and χACN = 13. Although the grafted polymers are identical to the middle block B, the perpendicular lamellar phase is not always the stable one. The perpendicular or parallel lamellar phases can be obtained by varying the composition (besides changing the film thickness) and the interactions between different blocks. When one of the end block A or C is minority, the two-color parallel lamellar phase easily forms, while the perpendicular lamellar phase is stable when the block copolymer is symmetric, i.e., fA = fC. Even the direction of the cylinders can also be tuned for the non-frustrated case, where the direction of the cylinder can be tailored by the composition of the block. The parallel cylindrical phase forms if the end block A or C is the majority (fA or fC = 0.6), and the perpendicular cylindrical phase forms if the middle block B is the majority (fB = 0.6) for the non-frustrated case. There are some interesting phases, such as hexagonally packed pores at surfaces (LAM3 ll + HFs) and perpendicular hexagonally packed cylindrical phase with rings at the interface (C2⊥-RI). Compared with the case of the ABC triblock copolymer thin film without polymer brush-coated substrate, the morphologies of ABC triblock copolymer thin film confined between polymer brush-coated substrates show some preferences and are easily controllable. The perpendicular lamellar phase is stable when the block copolymer is symmetric, i.e., fA = fC unlike the case of thin film without polymer brush-coated substrate, the direction will change at different film thickness. Although the grafted polymers are identical to the middle block B, the perpendicular lamellar phase is not always the stable one. The perpendicular or parallel lamellar phases can be obtained by varying the composition and the interactions between different blocks. Even the direction of the cylinders can also be tuned for the non-frustrated case. Our simulation results give an overview of ABC triblock copolymer thin film confined between the polymer brush-coated surfaces and are very useful in designing the complex morphology of ABC triblock copolymer thin film; for example, we can obtain the LAM3 ll -HFs, which is potentially useful in designing the functional dots near the surfaces.
We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20874046, 21074053, 21174062, and 51133002), National Basic Research Program of China (Grant no. 2010CB923303), the foundation research project of Jiangsu province (BK20131269) Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No.1095020515), and Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University.
- Tyler CA, Qin J, Bates FS, Morse DC: SCFT study of nonfrustrated ABC triblock copolymer melts. Macromolecules 2007, 40: 4654–4668.View Article
- Hamley IW: The Physics of Block Copolymer. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998.
- Hamley IW: Nanostructure fabrication using block copolymers. Nanotechnology 2003, 14: R39-R54.View Article
- Mansky P, Russell TP, Hawker CJ, Mays J, Cook DC, Satija SK: Interfacial segregation in disordered block copolymers: effect of tunable surface potentials. Phys Rev Lett 1997, 79: 237–240.View Article
- Liu X, Stamm M: Fabrication of highly ordered polymeric nanodot and nanowire arrays templated by supramolecular assembly block copolymer nanoporous thin films. Nanoscale Res Lett 2009, 4: 459–464.View Article
- Balsamo V, Collins S, Hamley IW: Nanopatterned surfaces obtained with semicrystalline ABC triblock copolymers. Polymer 2002, 43: 4207–4216.View Article
- Peponi L, Marcos-Fernandez A, Maria Kenny J: Nanostructured morphology of a random P(DLLA-co-CL) copolymer. Nanoscale Res Lett 2012, 7: 1–7.View Article
- Srinivas G, Discher DE, Klein ML: Self-assembly and properties of diblock copolymers by coarse-grain molecular dynamics. Nat Mater 2004, 3: 638–644.View Article
- Srinivas G, Shelley JC, Nielsen SO, Discher DE, Klein ML: Simulation of diblock copolymer self-assembly, using a coarse-grain model. J Phys Chem B 2004, 108: 8153–8160.View Article
- Glass R, Moller M, Spatz JP: Block copolymer micelle nanolithography. Nanotechnology 2003, 14: 1153–1160.View Article
- Sun RG, Wang YZ, Wang DK, Zheng QB, Kyllo EM, Gustafson TL, Wang FS, Epstein AJ: High PL quantum efficiency of poly(phenylene vinylene) systems through exciton confinement. Synth Met 2000, 111: 595–602.View Article
- Wurlitzer A, Politsch E, Huebner S, Kruger P, Weygand M, Kjaer K, Hommes P, Nuyken O, Cevc G, Losche M: Conformation of polymer brushes at aqueous surfaces determined with X-ray and neutron reflectometry. 2. High-density phase transition of lipopolyoxazolines. Macromolecules 2001, 34: 1334–1342.View Article
- Kumar R, Muthukumar M: Microphase separation in polyelectrolytic diblock copolymer melt: weak segregation limit. J Chem Phys 2007, 126: 214902.View Article
- Liu Z, Jiang ZB, Yang H, Bai SM, Wang R, Xue G: Crowding agent induced phase transition of amphiphilic diblock copolymer in solution. Chin J Polym Sci 2013, 31: 1491–1500.View Article
- Matsen MW: Electric field alignment in thin films of cylinder-forming diblock copolymer. Macromolecules 2006, 39: 5512–5520.View Article
- Morkved TL, Jaeger HM: Thickness-induced morphology changes in lamellar diblock copolymer ultrathin films. Europhys Lett 1997, 40: 643–648.View Article
- Geisinger T, Muller M, Binder K: Symmetric diblock copolymers in thin films. I. Phase stability in self-consistent field calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. J Chem Phys 1999, 111: 5241–5250.View Article
- Geisinger T, Muller M, Binder K: Symmetric diblock copolymers in thin films. II. Comparison of profiles between self-consistent field calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. J Chem Phys 1999, 111: 5251–5258.View Article
- Huinink HP, Brokken-Zijp JCM, van Dijk MA, Sevink GJA: Asymmetric block copolymers confined in a thin film. J Chem Phys 2000, 112: 2452–2462.View Article
- Sevink GJA, Zvelindovsky AV, Fraaije J, Huinink HP: Morphology of symmetric block copolymer in a cylindrical pore. J Chem Phys 2001, 115: 8226–8230.View Article
- Spontak RJ, Shankar R, Bowman MK, Krishnan AS, Hamersky MW, Samseth J, Bockstaller MR, Rasmussen KO: Selectivity- and size-induced segregation of molecular and nanoscale species in microphase-ordered triblock copolymers. Nano Lett 2006, 6: 2115–2120.View Article
- Turner MS: Equilibrium properties of a diblock copolymer lamellar phase confined between flat plates. Phys Rev Lett 1992, 69: 1788–1791.View Article
- Kellogg GJ, Walton DG, Mayes AM, Lambooy P, Russell TP, Gallagher PD, Satija SK: Observed surface energy effects in confined diblock copolymers. Phys Rev Lett 1996, 76: 2503–2506.View Article
- Lambooy P, Russell TP, Kellogg GJ, Mayes AM, Gallagher PD, Satija SK: Observed frustration in confined block-copolymers. Phys Rev Lett 1994, 72: 2899–2902.View Article
- Walton DG, Kellogg GJ, Mayes AM, Lambooy P, Russell TP: A free-energy model for confined diblock copolymers. Macromolecules 1994, 27: 6225–6228.View Article
- Zhang XH, Berry BC, Yager KG, Kim S, Jones RL, Satija S, Pickel DL, Douglas JF, Karim A: Surface morphology diagram for cylinder-forming block copolymer thin films. ACS Nano 2008, 2: 2331–2341.View Article
- Feng J, Ruckenstein E: Self-assembling of ABC linear triblock copolymers in nanocylindrical tubes. J Chem Phys 2007, 126: 124902.View Article
- Xia Y, Chen J, Sun Z, Shi T, An L, Jia Y: Self-assembly of linear ABC coil-coil-rod triblock copolymers. Polymer 2010, 51: 3315–3319.View Article
- Park HW, Jung J, Chang T, Matsunaga K, Jinnai H: New epitaxial phase transition between DG and HEX in PS-b-PI. J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131: 46–47.View Article
- Wang R, Zhang S, Qiu Y: Hetero-structure of ABC triblock copolymer thin film on polymer-coated substrate. Polymer 2011, 52: 586–592.View Article
- Jiang ZB, Wang R, Xue G: Self assembly of ABC triblock copolymer thin films on a brush-coated substrate. Chin J Polym Sci 2009, 27: 583–592.View Article
- Matsen MW: Gyroid versus double-diamond in ABC triblock copolymer melts. J Chem Phys 1998, 108: 785–796.View Article
- Tang P, Qiu F, Zhang HD, Yang YL: Morphology and phase diagram of complex block copolymers: ABC linear triblock copolymers. Phys Rev E 2004, 69: 031803.View Article
- Dong Y-Q, Dong B-T, Du F-S, Meng J-Q, Li Z-C: An All ATRP route to PMMA-PEO-PS and PMAA-PEO-PS miktoarm ABC star terpolymer. Polymer 2009, 50: 125–132.View Article
- Lin B, Zhang H, Qiu F, Yang Y: Self-assembly of ABC star triblock copolymer thin films confined with a preferential surface: a self-consistent mean field theory. Langmuir 2010, 26: 19033–19044.View Article
- Kong W, Li B, Jin Q, Ding D, Shi A-C: Helical vesicles, segmented semivesicles, and noncircular bilayer sheets from solution-state self-assembly of ABC miktoarm star terpolymers. J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131: 8503–8512.View Article
- Yin Y, Jiang R, Li B, Jin Q, Ding D, Shi A-C: Self-assembly of grafted Y-shaped ABC triblock copolymers in solutions. J Chem Phys 2008, 129: 154903.View Article
- Tang P, Qiu F, Zhang HD, Yang YL: Morphology and phase diagram of complex block copolymers: ABC star triblock copolymers. J Phys Chem B 2004, 108: 8434–8438.View Article
- Wang C, Lee DH, Hexemer A, Kim MI, Zhao W, Hasegawa H, Ade H, Russell TP: Defining the nanostructured morphology of triblock copolymers using resonant soft X-ray scattering. Nano Lett 2011, 11: 3906–3911.View Article
- Morkved TL, Lu M, Urbas AM, Ehrichs EE, Jaeger HM, Mansky P, Russell TP: Local control of microdomain orientation in diblock copolymer thin films with electric fields. Science 1996, 273: 931–933.View Article
- Boker A, Muller AHE, Krausch G: Nanoscopic surface patterns from functional ABC triblock copolymers. Macromolecules 2001, 34: 7477–7488.View Article
- Ionov L, Minko S, Stamm M, Gohy JF, Jerome R, Scholl A: Reversible chemical patterning on stimuli-responsive polymer film: environment-responsive lithography. J Am Chem Soc 2003, 125: 8302–8306.View Article
- Tsori Y, Andelman D: Diblock copolymer ordering induced by patterned surfaces above the order–disorder transition. Macromolecules 2001, 34: 2719–2727.View Article
- Li RR, Dapkus PD, Thompson ME, Jeong WG, Harrison C, Chaikin PM, Register RA, Adamson DH: Dense arrays of ordered GaAs nanostructures by selective area growth on substrates patterned by block copolymer lithography. Appl Phys Lett 2000, 76: 1689–1691.View Article
- Pereira GG, Williams DRM: Lamellar interface distortions of thin, commensurately aligned diblock copolymer films on patterned surfaces. Langmuir 1999, 15: 2125–2129.View Article
- Pereira GG, Williams DRM: Equilibrium properties of diblock copolymer thin films on a heterogeneous, striped surface. Macromolecules 1998, 31: 5904–5915.View Article
- Pereira GG, Williams DRM: Diblock copolymer thin films on heterogeneous striped surfaces: commensurate, incommensurate and inverted lamellae. Phys Rev Lett 1998, 80: 2849–2852.View Article
- Ludwigs S, Schmidt K, Stafford CM, Amis EJ, Fasolka MJ, Karim A, Magerle R, Krausch G: Combinatorial mapping of the phase behavior of ABC triblock terpolymers in thin films: experiments. Macromolecules 2005, 38: 1850–1858.View Article
- Wolff M, Scholz U, Hock R, Magerl A, Leiner V, Zabel H: Crystallization of micelles at chemically terminated interfaces. Phys Rev Lett 2004, 92: 255501.View Article
- Park S, Lee DH, Xu J, Kim B, Hong SW, Jeong U, Xu T, Russell TP: Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square- inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order. Science 2009, 323: 1030–1033.View Article
- Luzinov I, Minko S, Tsukruk VV: Adaptive and responsive surfaces through controlled reorganization of interfacial polymer layers. Prog Polym Sci 2004, 29: 635–698.View Article
- Peters RD, Yang XM, Nealey PF: Morphology of thin films of diblock copolymers on surfaces micropatterned with regions of different interfacial energy. Macromolecules 2002, 35: 1822–1834.View Article
- Walton DG, Soo PP, Mayes AM, Allgor SJS, Fujii JT, Griffith LG, Ankner JF, Kaiser H, Johansson J, Smith GD, Barker JG, Satija SK: Creation of stable poly(ethylene oxide) surfaces on poly(methyl methacrylate) using blends of branched and linear polymers. Macromolecules 1997, 30: 6947–6956.View Article
- Ryu DY, Shin K, Drockenmuller E, Hawker CJ, Russell TP: A generalized approach to the modification of solid surfaces. Science 2005, 308: 236–239.View Article
- Pickett GT, Balazs AC: Equilibrium behavior of confined triblock copolymer films. Macromol Theory Simul 1998, 7: 249–255.View Article
- Chen HY, Fredrickson GH: Morphologies of ABC triblock copolymer thin films. J Chem Phys 2002, 116: 1137–1146.View Article
- Ludwigs S, Krausch G, Magerle R, Zvelindovsky AV, Sevink GJA: Phase behavior of ABC triblock terpolymers in thin films: mesoseale simulations. Macromolecules 2005, 38: 1859–1867.View Article
- Knoll A, Lyakhova KS, Horvat A, Krausch G, Sevink GJA, Zvelindovsky AV, Magerle R: Direct imaging and mesoscale modelling of phase transitions in a nanostructured fluid. Nat Mater 2004, 3: 886–890.View Article
- Feng J, Ruckenstein E: Monte Carlo simulation of triblock copolymer thin films. Polymer 2002, 43: 5775–5790.View Article
- Ludwigs S, Boker A, Voronov A, Rehse N, Magerle R, Krausch G: Self-assembly of functional nanostructures from ABC triblock copolymers. Nat Mater 2003, 2: 744–747.View Article
- Ren CL, Chen K, Ma YQ: Ordering mechanism of asymmetric diblock copolymers confined between polymer-grafted surfaces. J Chem Phys 2005, 122: 154904.View Article
- Ren CL, Ma YQ: Reentrant ordering transition of asymmetric copolymer solution film confined between polymer-grafted surfaces. Phys Rev E 2005, 72: 051804.View Article
- Ji S, Liu C-C, Son JG, Gotrik K, Craig GSW, Gopalan P, Himpsel FJ, Char K, Nealey PF: Generalization of the use of random copolymers to control the wetting behavior of block copolymer films. Macromolecules 2008, 41: 9098–9103.View Article
- Mansky P, Liu Y, Huang E, Russell TP, Hawker CJ: Controlling polymer-surface interactions with random copolymer brushes. Science 1997, 275: 1458–1460.View Article
- Drolet F, Fredrickson GH: Combinatorial screening of complex block copolymer assembly with self-consistent field theory. Phys Rev Lett 1999, 83: 4317.View Article
- Drolet F, Fredrickson GH: Optimizing chain bridging in complex block copolymers. Macromolecules 2001, 34: 5317.View Article
- Kawakatsu T: Statistical Physics of Polymers: an Introduction. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2004.View Article
- Aubouy M, Fredrickson GH, Pincus P, Raphael E: End-tethered chains in polymeric matrices. Macromolecules 1995, 28: 2979–2981.View Article
- Jung YS, Jung W, Tuller HL, Ross CA: Nanowire conductive polymer Gas sensor patterned using self-assembled block copolymer lithography. Nano Lett 2008, 8: 3776–3780.View Article
- Guo ZJ, Zhang GJ, Qiu F, Zhang HD, Yang YL, Shi AC: Discovering ordered phases of block copolymers: new results from a generic fourier-space approach. Phys Rev Lett 2008, 101: 028301.View Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.