Optical characterization of porous silicon monolayers decorated with hydrogel microspheres
© Balderas-Valadez et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 12 May 2014
Accepted: 29 July 2014
Published: 22 August 2014
The optical response of porous silicon (pSi) films, covered with a quasi-hexagonal array of hydrogel microspheres, to immersion in ethanol/water mixtures was investigated. For this study, pSi monolayers were fabricated by electrochemical etching, stabilized by thermal oxidation, and decorated with hydrogel microspheres using spin coating. Reflectance spectra of pSi samples with and without deposited hydrogel microspheres were taken at normal incidence. The employed hydrogel microspheres, composed of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (polyNIPAM), are stimuli-responsive and change their size as well as their refractive index upon exposure to alcohol/water mixtures. Hence, distinct differences in the interference pattern of bare pSi films and pSi layers covered with polyNIPAM spheres could be observed upon their immersion in the respective solutions using reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS). Here, the amount of reflected light (fast Fourier transform (FFT) amplitude), which corresponds to the refractive index contrast and light scattering at the pSi film interfaces, showed distinct differences for the two fabricated samples. Whereas the FFT amplitude of the bare porous silicon film followed the changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium, the FFT amplitude of the pSi/polyNIPAM structure depended on the swelling/shrinking of the attached hydrogel spheres and exhibited a minimum in ethanol-water mixtures with 20 wt% ethanol. At this value, the polyNIPAM microgel is collapsed to its minimum size. In contrast, the effective optical thickness, which reflects the effective refractive index of the porous layer, was not influenced by the attached hydrogel spheres.
81.05.Rm; 81.16.Dn; 83.80Kn; 42.79.Pw
KeywordsPorous silicon Hydrogel Self-assembly Sensor
Porous silicon (pSi) is a well-established material for the tailor-made fabrication of optical biosensors and can be easily prepared by electrochemical etching. The simplicity of its fabrication process in combination with its intrinsic large surface area and convenient surface chemistry has considerably pushed this research field. The optical transduction in pSi sensors is based on changes in the interference pattern which results from the reflection of light at the interfaces of the porous silicon film. To improve the sensitivity of pSi sensors, more sophisticated optical structures such as rugate filters, Bragg reflectors, and microcavities have been realized by modulating the porosities of the pSi using appropriate etching parameters. These structures possess peaks with narrow bandwidths in their reflectance spectra, and consequently, they are more sensitive in comparison to pSi monolayers showing Fabry-Pérot interference patterns [1, 2]. Another route to highly sensitive optical pSi sensors is the introduction of a diffraction grating into the porous material [3–6].
Besides the tremendous progress in the optimization of the optical properties of pSi sensors, other challenges such as the stability of the pSi films in basic aqueous solutions and efficient surface functionalization have been heavily investigated . A very promising and intriguing approach to further improve the performance of porous silicon sensors is the integration of polymers . For this purpose, different strategies have been tested, including coating of the porous silicon layer with a polymer film , infiltration of polymer into the porous matrix [10, 11], and polymer microdroplet patterning of porous silicon structures . The fabricated polymer/porous silicon hybrids showed a better stability in aqueous biological media and considerably improved sensitivity in optical biosensing experiments in comparison to unmodified porous silicon. Especially the combination of porous silicon with a special class of polymers, namely hydrogels, has led to this progress [13–15]. Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymeric networks which are characterized by their stimuli-responsive properties. Depending on their chemical composition and internal structure, hydrogels react sensitively to external triggers such as temperature, pH, and ionic strength, which cause abrupt volume changes in the hydrogel. This volume change is accompanied by a change in the refractive index of the hydrogel . Hence, the foundation for successfully utilizing hydrogels for the fabrication of highly sensitive optical sensors is a reasonable understanding of the influence of the volume change on the thickness as well as the refractive index of the hydrogel and their impact on the optical response of the sensor.
We envision an optical sensor composed of a highly ordered array of hydrogel microspheres on top of a porous silicon film. This sensor will offer two different ways of optical transduction: scattering/diffraction of light resulting from the deposited array of hydrogel microspheres and interference of light rays reflected at the interfaces of the porous silicon film. In this work, we will report on the fabrication of porous silicon monolayers covered with a non-close packed array of hydrogel microspheres and their optical properties in comparison to bare porous silicon films.
Silicon wafers (p-type, boron doped, <100 > orientation, resistivity ≤ 0.001 Ω cm) were obtained from Siltronix Corp. (Archamps, France). Hydrofluoric acid (HF), ethanol, and H2O2 were supplied by (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany). N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH (Munich, Germany). N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS), H2SO4, and HCl were received from Carl Roth (Karlsruhe, Germany). Potassium peroxodisulfate (KPS) was supplied by Fluka (St. Louis, MO, USA). Water was deionized to a resistance of at least 18.2 MΩ (Ultra pure water system (TKA, Niederelbert, Germany)) and then filtered through a 0.2-μm filter.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were obtained with a Zeiss Ultra 55 ‘Gemini’ scanning electron microscope (Carl Zeiss, Inc., Oberkochen, Germany) using an accelerating voltage of 3 keV and an in-lens detector. To suppress charging of the sample during imaging, the samples were coated with carbon prior to SEM analysis using a Bal-Tec MED 020 sputter coater (Bal-Tec AG, Balzers, Liechtenstein).
Reflectance spectra were recorded at normal incidence using an Ocean Optics charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer (Ocean Optics GmbH, Ostfildern, Germany) fitted with a microscope objective lens connected to a bifurcated fiber optic cable. A tungsten halogen light source was focused on the sample surface with a spot size of approximately 2 mm2. Reflectance data were collected with a CCD detector in the wavelength range of 500 to 1,000 nm. Experimental reflectance spectra were analyzed by applying a fast Fourier transform (FFT) using the software IGOR Pro (http://www.wavemetrics.com). Details of the analysis can be found in . In order to allow for a direct comparison of the effective optical thickness (EOT) values and FFT amplitude values from different pSi samples, all FFT spectra were normalized by setting the highest value equal to 1 and the lowest value equal to 0.
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements were carried out with a Malvern Instruments Zetasizer Nano ZS (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, UK). Refractive indices, dielectric constants, and viscosities of the ethanol/water mixtures were taken from literature [18, 19].
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were obtained with a JPK Nanowizard II (JPK Instruments AG, Berlin, Germany) in intermittent contact mode (cantilever: Veeco NP-S10, Plainview, NY, USA). Studies on the swelling behavior of the polyNIPAM spheres, attached to the porous silicon surface, were performed in liquid.
Si substrates were cleaned prior to etching by removal of a sacrificial layer of pSi with a strong base. For this purpose, Si substrates were anodized in a solution composed of 3:1 aqueous HF (48 %)/ethanol at 100 mA for 20 s. The resulting porous layer was removed by immersion in a 1 M KOH solution for several minutes. Then, the Si samples were rinsed with ethanol and immersed a second time in a 3:1 aqueous HF (48 %)/ethanol electrolyte. PSi monolayers were formed by electrochemically etching at 100 mA for 5 min. The resulting pSi was rinsed with ethanol and blown dry in a stream of nitrogen. To stabilize the pSi, the samples were oxidized at 300°C for 1 h in an oven.
PolyNIPAM microsphere synthesis
PolyNIPAM microspheres were prepared by an aqueous free-radical precipitation polymerization according to Pelton and Chibante . Briefly, 0.19 mol/L NIPAM and 0.05 mol/L BIS were dissolved in 124-mL deionized water (approximately 18.2 MΩ cm). The solution was heated to approximately 70°C under inert atmosphere and stirring. Potassium peroxodisulfate (KPS) solution (0.002 mol/L) was added to start the polymerization, which continued for 6 h at approximately 70°C. The resulting polyNIPAM microspheres were purified by subsequent centrifugation, decantation, and redispersion in deionized water. The dispersion was finally filtered (Acrodisc 25-mm syringe filters with Versapor membranes (Pall GmbH, Dreieich, Germany), pore diameter 1.2 μm) and diluted 1:25 (v/v) with deionized water.
Deposition of polyNIPAM spheres onto pSi
Non-close packed arrays of hydrogel microspheres were deposited on pSi surfaces according to Quint and Pacholski . Briefly, 60 μL of the diluted polyNIPAM dispersion was placed on the oxidized pSi monolayer. To support the formation of an ordered array, 5 μL of ethanol was added and mechanical force was applied by directing a stream of nitrogen to the substrate surface. Finally, the sample was spin-coated at 500 rpm for 6 min (spin coater: Laurell Technologies Corporation, North Wales, PA, USA; model: WS-400B-6NPP/LITE).
The polyNIPAM microspheres were fixed to the surface by silanization. For this purpose, the samples were treated with APTES vapor for 30 min and afterwards baked at 80°C for 1 h.
Results and discussion
where m is an integer, λ is the wavelength of the incident light, n is the effective refractive index of the pSi film, and L is its thickness. By applying a fast Fourier transform to the reflectance spectra, the effective optical thicknesses (EOTs, 2 nL) of the porous structures can be directly extracted from the position of the resulting single peak in the frequency spectrum. Changes in the position and amplitude of the FFT peak provide information on the effective refractive index of the pSi layer and the appearance of the involved interfaces, respectively. Hence, a variation in the EOT documents the infiltration of the surrounding medium into the porous layer, and an increase or decrease of the FFT peak indicates variations in the appearance of the porous silicon interfaces, including refractive index contrast and light scattering. This method is referred to as reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS) .
The focus of our investigations was on changes in the reflectance spectra, caused by an external trigger which induces swelling or shrinking of the hydrogel. For this purpose, mixtures of ethanol/water were employed, as polyNIPAM reacts sensitively to their composition. This behavior was explained by cononsolvency which is related to the formation of locally ordered water structures, so-called clathrate structures, resulting from the encapsulation of alcohol molecules by water molecules in alcohol/water mixtures. Hence, the proportion of clathrate structures in the solvent mixture determines the swelling of the hydrogel spheres as they provoke a ‘dehydration’ of the polymer network .
where nsol, npolyNIPAM, npSi, and nSi are the refractive indices of the surrounding medium, the polyNIPAM layer, the porous silicon film, and silicon, respectively. However, the reflectance spectrum of our hybrid structures was similar in appearance to the reflectance spectrum of our reference sample, the pSi monolayer. Indeed, we observed a single peak in the FFT spectrum for our hybrid structure which corresponds to layer 2 (pSi film). This result is in accordance with studies on the deposition of lipid vesicles onto pSi layers monitored by RIFTS [24, 25]. Presumably, the low refractive index of layer 1, composed of polyNIPAM spheres and surrounding solution, is responsible for the absence of the other two peaks in the FFT spectrum. In this context, it is important to note that the non-close packed arrangement of the polyNIPAM spheres leads to an effective refractive index of the top layer, which is composed of the refractive index of the polyNIPAM spheres and the surrounding medium. As the polyNIPAM spheres change their size and their refractive index upon swelling at the same time, the effective refractive index of this layer is rather complex. The deposition of a close packed monolayer of polyNIPAM spheres would reduce the complexity of this layer. In addition, the refractive index contrast between the pSi layer and the close packed polyNIPAM sphere layer would be smaller, leading to a more pronounced decrease in the FFT amplitude in comparison to pSi films decorated with a non-close packed layer of polyNIPAM spheres. However, our envisioned optical sensor shall utilize two different optical transduction methods, namely diffraction of light originating from the deposited non-close packed array of hydrogel microspheres and interference patterns resulting from light reflection at the interfaces of the porous silicon film. To obtain sufficient light diffraction from the hydrogel sphere monolayers, a non-close packed arrangement should be favorable.
Height of polyNIPAM microspheres bound to a pSi surface in different ethanol/water mixtures (determined by AFM)
Ethanol/water mixtures, wt%/wt%
Height of adsorbed polyNIPAM microspheres in nm
254 ± 83
196 ± 5
224 ± 24
292 ± 48
To summarize, changes in the reflectance spectra of pSi monolayers, covered with a non-close packed array of polyNIPAM microspheres, upon immersion in different media were compared to the optical properties of untreated pSi films at the same conditions. The presence of the stimuli-responsive polyNIPAM microspheres led to distinct differences in the amount of reflected light from the pSi monolayer. By monitoring changes in the intensity of the reflected light, the swelling and shrinking of the polyNIPAM microspheres were successfully detected. As expected, the effective optical thickness of pSi monolayers and polyNIPAM covered pSi films reacted similarly upon immersion of the samples in ethanol/water mixtures. Future work will explore the detection of different biomolecules at the same time using the optical response of both the pSi film and the polyNIPAM microspheres.
This project has been funded in part by a CONACyT scholarship # 329812 and grant # 128953. CP and MW thank the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, project PhoNa, contract no. 03IS2101E) and the Max Planck Society for financial support.
- Jane A, Dronov R, Hodges A, Voelcker NH: Porous silicon biosensors on the advance. Trends Biotechnol 2009, 27: 230–239.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pacholski C: Photonic crystal sensors based on porous silicon. Sensors 2013, 13: 4694–4713.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lai MF, Sridharan GM, Parish G, Bhattacharya S, Keating A: Multilayer porous silicon diffraction gratings operating in the infrared. Nanoscale Res Lett 2012, 7: 645.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee MSL, Legagneux P, Lalanne P, Rodier JC, Gallais P, Germain C, Rollin J: Blazed binary diffractive gratings with antireflection coating for improved operation at 10.6 mu m. Opt Eng 2004, 43: 2583–2588.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lerondel G, Thonissen M, Setzu S, Romestain R, Vial JC: Holographic grating in porous silicon. In Advances in Microcrystalline and Nanocrystalline Semiconductors Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, —1996. Volume 452. Edited by: Collins RW, Fauchet PM, Shimizu I, Vial JC, Shimada T, Alivisatos AP. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings; 1997:631–636.Google Scholar
- Ryckman JD, Liscidini M, Sipe JE, Weiss SM: Porous silicon structures for low-cost diffraction-based biosensing. Appl Phys Lett 2010, 96: 171103.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kilian KA, Boecking T, Gooding JJ: The importance of surface chemistry in mesoporous materials: lessons from porous silicon biosensors. Chem Commun 2009, 6: 630–640.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bonanno LM, Segal E: Nanostructured porous silicon-polymer-based hybrids: from biosensing to drug delivery. Nanomedicine 2011, 6: 1755–1770.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Orosco MM, Pacholski C, Miskelly GM, Sailor MJ: Protein-coated porous-silicon photonic crystals for amplified optical detection of protease activity. Adv Mater 2006, 18: 1393.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perelman LA, Moore T, Singelyn J, Sailor MJ, Segal E: Preparation and characterization of a pH- and thermally responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/porous SiO2 hybrid. Adv Funct Mater 2010, 20: 826–833.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Segal E, Perelman LA, Cunin F, Di Renzo F, Devoisselle J-M, Li YY, Sailor MJ: Confinement of thermoresponsive hydrogels in nanostructured porous silicon dioxide templates. Adv Funct Mater 2007, 17: 1153–1162.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li YY, Kollengode VS, Sailor MJ: Porous-silicon/polymer nanocomposite photonic crystals formed by microdroplet patterning. Adv Mater 2005, 17: 1249.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bonanno LM, DeLouise LA: Integration of a chemical-responsive hydrogel into a porous silicon photonic sensor for visual colorimetric readout. Adv Funct Mater 2010, 20: 573–578.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Massad-Ivanir N, Shtenberg G, Zeidman T, Segal E: Construction and characterization of porous SiO2/hydrogel hybrids as optical biosensors for rapid detection of bacteria. Adv Funct Mater 2010, 20: 2269–2277.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pace S, Vasani RB, Cunin F, Voelcker NH: Study of the optical properties of a thermoresponsive polymer grafted onto porous silicon scaffolds. New J Chem 2013, 37: 228–235.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schild HG: Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide): experiment, theory and application. Prog Polym Sci 1992, 17: 163–249.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pacholski C, Sartor M, Sailor MJ, Cunin F, Miskelly GM: Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy. J Am Chem Soc 2005, 127: 11636–11645.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wohlfarth C: Refractive index of the mixture (1) water; (2) ethanol. In Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter, SpringerMaterials - The Landolt-Börnstein Database. Volume 47. Edited by: Lechner MD. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2008.Google Scholar
- Khattab IS, Bandarkar F, Fakhree MAA, Jouyban A: Density, viscosity, and surface tension of water + ethanol mixtures from 293 to 323 K. Korean J Chem Eng 2012, 29: 812–817.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pelton RH, Chibante P: Preparation of aqueous latices with N-isopropylacrylamide. Colloids Surfaces 1986, 20: 247–256.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Quint SB, Pacholski C: Extraordinary long range order in self-healing non-close packed 2D arrays. Soft Matter 2011, 7: 3735–3738.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sailor MJ: Porous Silicon in Practice. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 2012.Google Scholar
- Crowther HM, Vincent B: Swelling behavior of poly N-isopropylacrylamide microgel particles in alcoholic solutions. Colloid Polym Sci 1998, 276: 46–51.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guinan T, Godefroy C, Lautredou N, Pace S, Milhiet PE, Voelcker N, Cunin F: Interaction of antibiotics with lipid vesicles on thin film porous silicon using reflectance interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy. Langmuir 2013, 29: 10279–10286.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pace S, Seantier B, Belamie E, Lautredou N, Sailor MJ, Milhiet P-E, Cunin F: Characterization of phospholipid bilayer formation on a thin film of porous SiO2 by reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS). Langmuir 2012, 28: 6960–6969.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garner BW, Cai T, Ghosh S, Hu Z, Neogi A: Refractive index change due to volume-phase transition in polyacrylamide gel nanospheres for optoelectronics and bio-photonics. Appl Phys Express 2009, 2: 057001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hofl S, Zitzler L, Hellweg T, Herminghaus S, Mugele F: Volume phase transition of “smart” microgels in bulk solution and adsorbed at an interface: a combined AFM, dynamic light, and small angle neutron scattering study. Polymer 2007, 48: 245–254.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.