A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase for phenol determination
© Hu et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 30 November 2013
Accepted: 4 February 2014
Published: 15 February 2014
A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was developed for phenol determination. The laminated samarium borate was synthesized by a mild solid-state-hydrothermal (S-S-H) method without any surfactant or Template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. The morphology of the as-prepared materials was characterized by SEM, which shows that laminated samarium borate are uniform nanosheets with a layer-by-layer self-assembled single-crystal structure. These laminated samarium borate have typical diameters of 3 ~ 5 μm and the thickness of each layer is in the range of 10 ~ 80 nm. And then, these SmBO3 multilayers were used to immobilize the laccase. The proposed nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was successfully developed for phenol determination. Cyclic voltammetry were used to study the nanosensor. The proposed nanosensor displayed high sensitivity toward phenolic compounds. The linearity of the nanosensor for the detection of hydroquinone was obtained from 1 to 50 μM with a detection limit of 3 × 10-7 M (based on the S/N = 3).
KeywordsSmBO3 Nanosheets Laccase Immobilization Determination
With the development of the economy, more and more pollutants are eroding the human survival environment. Then the detection and treatment of environmental pollutions have aroused great attentions of scientists. Belonging to multicopper proteins, laccases are widely existed in nature especially fungi [1, 2]. It is a phenol oxidase that can catalyze oxidation of many organic pollutants in water . Wan and his group  had elaborated the progress on the research of laccases, namely the active center of copper ions, the three-dimensional structure of protein, and its catalytic mechanism. Substrate specificity of laccases was exploited to remove pollutants from the environment without creating the negative effects associated with many other methods [5, 6]. It is well known that the enzyme is often easily inactivated in practical applications due to complex environment conditions, which limit its further industrial application [7, 8]. Consequently, immobilized laccases have received much attention from researchers in recent years because of its substantial advantages over free laccases such as continuous reuse, easy separation of the product from the reaction media, easy recovery of the enzyme, and improvement in enzyme stability. Nowadays, many different types of methods have been employed in the immobilization of enzymes, such as adsorption, entrapment, cross-link, and covalent attachment. Recently, it is reported that laccase has been successfully immobilized [9–11] on many different types of supports, such as activated carbon , magnetic chitosan , alginate chitosan , porous glass , chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite nanofibrous membranes , cellulose-polyamine composite , alginate, kaolinite, polymer beads and membranes polystyrene microspheres, short-range ordered aluminum hydroxide, and so on [17–20]. However, leakage, desorption, and the loss of enzyme activity were major problems in laccase immobilization, which was related to many factors involving the enzyme itself, polymer matrix, reaction reagents, and process conditions . Therefore, it is of great interest in developing novel technologies on laccase immobilization to improve catalytic activity of laccase and increase its industrial application.
Among those laccase supports, inorganic materials are more attractive because of their regular structure, good mechanical, chemical, and thermal stabilities [21–23]. Nanomaterials have attracted increasing attention for their novel properties and potential applications with small dimensions [24, 25]. Inorganic nanomaterials of rare-earth borate compounds show high vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) transparency and exceptional optical damage thresholds. Acentric lanthanide borate crystals are useful in a wide variety of photonic devices for unique optical, nonlinear optical, laser, electronic, and other physical properties [24, 25]. In the past decades, the rare-earth borates are widely used in many fields [26–30] and a number of synthetic methods have been employed to fabricate them. However, many routes suffer from the use of high temperature, tedious processes, and environmental pollution. Therefore, it is still an attractive and necessary topic for the development of environmentally friendly, facile, and reproducible methods to fabricate rare-earth borate nanometer materials.
In this paper, we choose a novel laminated SmBO3 multilayer as support for the immobilization of laccase. The SmBO3 multilayer samples were synthesized via the solid-state-hydrothermal (S-S-H) method, which exhibits many advantages, such as no side products, facile operation, and low cost. Then laccase was immobilized in SmBO3 nanosheets for the fabrication of the nanosensor. The performance of the proposed nanosensor composed of the laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase in the catalytic determination of phenolic compounds has been investigated in detail.
Reagents and apparatus
All reagents were analytical grade in the synthesis system. H3BO3 (>99.0%), Sm2O3 (>99.99%), Na2HPO4 · 12H2O (>99.0%), C6H8O7 · H2O (>99.8%), hydroquinone (>99.99%), and 2, 6-dimethoxyphenol (>99.99%) were purchased from Shanghai Chemical Reagent Co, Ltd. (Shanghai, China) and used without any purification. Laccase was provided by Shanghai Daidi Industrial Development Co, Ltd. (Shanghai, China) and stored at 4°C before using.
The morphology and structure of the samples were inspected by using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, Hitachi S4800, Tokyo, Japan) at an accelerating voltage of 5 KV. The phase purity and crystallinity of the samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) performed on a D8 FOCUS diffractometer (Bruker, Madison, WI, USA) with CuKα radiation (λ = 0.154056 nm), employing a scanning rate of 0.02° · s-1, in the 2θ ranges from 10° to 70°. Infrared spectra (4,000 to 400 cm-1) are recorded by Nicolet 5DX Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) equipped with a TGS/PE detector and a silicon beam splitter with 1 cm-1 resolution.
Electrochemical experiments were carried out with a CHI-660B electrochemical workstation (Shanghai, China). Measurements were performed at least three times on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A conventional three-electrode system was employed, comprising a GCE (3-mm diameter) as the working electrode, a platinum wire as the auxiliary electrode, and an Ag/AgCl (saturated KCl) as the reference electrode. Voltammetric responses were recorded in 50 ml of substrate solutions prepared in PBS buffer solution. First, the modified electrode was activated by several successive voltammetric cycles from -0.20 to 0.80 V. Second, cycle voltammograms (CVs) at the rate of 50 mV · s-1 were carried out from -0.20 to 0.80 V after subtracting the background. Finally, the GCE was regenerated by 10 successive cyclic voltammetric sweeps in the blank solution. After several measurements, the GCE should be repolished. All the electrochemical measurements were carried out at room temperature.
Preparation of SmBO3 nanocrystals
Immobilization of laccase on SmBO3 nanocrystals
The SmBO3 multilayers were employed as carriers for the immobilization of laccase, and the laccase was immobilized on these materials by the physical adsorption method. In a typical procedure, 100 mg of SmBO3 support was suspended in 10 ml of phosphate buffer (pH = 7.0) containing a certain amount of laccase (about 20 mg). The mixture of the supports and laccase solution was slowly stirred at room temperature for 12 h. Subsequently, the laccase immobilized on SmBO3 was separated by a centrifuge. Then the samples were washed with 10 ml of buffer solution by shaking for 5 min and separated quickly using a centrifuge. The washing procedure was repeated several times until no protein was detected in the supernatant. Finally, the laccase immobilized by SmBO3 were stored at 4°C before using. The percentage of the immobilized laccase on the SmBO3 samples is in the range of 10.7% ~ 15.2%.
Preparation of the glassy carbon electrode
Ultrasonic agitation was used to disperse 1-mg SmBO3-immobilized laccase into 1-ml Nafion to give a suspension (1 mg · ml-1). Before an experiment, the GCE was polished successively with 0.1-μm γ-Al2O3 powder, and then on a polishing cloth. Residual polishing material was removed from the electrode surface by ultrasonic agitation in concentrated HNO3, distilled water, and absolute ethanol. Then, the GCE was coated with 10 μl of laccase immobilized by SmBO3-Nafion suspension (1 mg · ml-1) and the solvent evaporated under room temperature for 1 h. The modified electrode was cleaned with distilled water before use.
Results and discussion
The XRD pattern analysis of as-prepared SmBO3 samples
FTIR spectra analysis
Figure 4b,c shows the FTIR spectra laccase and SmBO3-immobilized lacasse. Compared to the typical absorption peaks of lacasse at 3,401, 2,923, and 1,649 cm-1 and the main absorption peaks of SmBO3 at 1,110, 960, 894, and 827 cm-1, the absorption of SmBO3-immobilized lacasse include all of the above peaks. So it is evident that the laccase was successfully immobilized on SmBO3 nanosheets. Moreover, it can be seen from Figure 4 that the positions of lacasse and those immobilized in SmBO3 are nearly at the same place, suggesting that the lacasse retains its native structure in SmBO3-immobilized lacasse.
In summary, we have demonstrated a nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase for phenol determination. These SmBO3 nanosheets have been successfully prepared via a mild solid-state-hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template, and laccase was successfully immobilized on these multilayers through physical adsorption method. The uniform multilayer-intersected structure could play an important role in the adsorption of laccase. This novel laccase immobilization method based on SmBO3 improved the performance of the laccase for phenol determination. The linear range and bioactivity of laccase-modified electrode can also satisfy the practical application. The present study has enlarged the family of support for laccase immobilization and may provide an efficient approach for phenol determination.
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91122025, 21103127, 21101118), the State Major Research Plan (973) of China (No. 2011CB932404), the Nano-Foundation of Shanghai in China (No. 11nm0501300), and the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials (No.2012MCIMKF03).
- Baldrian P: Fungal laccases—occurrence and properties. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2006, 30: 215–242. 10.1111/j.1574-4976.2005.00010.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Durán N, Rosa MA, D'Annibale A, Gianfreda L: Applications of laccases and tyrosinases (phenoloxidases) immobilized on different supports: a review. Enzyme Microb Technol 2002, 31: 907–931. 10.1016/S0141-0229(02)00214-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu L, Zhao M, Wang Y: Immobilization of laccase by alginate-chitosan microcapsules and its use in dye decolorization. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2007, 23: 159–166. 10.1007/s11274-006-9205-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wan Y-Y, Du Y-M: Structure and catalytic mechanism of laccases. Chemistry 2007, 70: 662–670.Google Scholar
- Zhu YF, Kaskel S, Shi JL, Wage T, van Pée KH: Immobilization of Trametes versicolor laccase on magnetically separable mesoporous silica spheres. Chem Mater 2007, 19: 6408–6413. 10.1021/cm071265gView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Savolainen A, Zhang YF, Rochefort D, Holopainen U, Erho T, Virtanen J, Smolander M: Printing of polymer microcapsules for enzyme immobilization on paper substrate. Biomacromolecules 2011, 12: 2008–2015. 10.1021/bm2003434View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Forde J, Tully E, Vakurov A, Gibson TD, Millner P, Fágáin CÓ: Chemical modification and immobilisation of laccase from trametes hirsuta and from myceliophthora thermophila. Enzyme Microb Technol 2010, 46: 430–437. 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2010.01.004View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- D’Annibale A, Stazi SR, Vinciguerra V, Mattia ED, Sermanni GG: Characterization of immobilized laccase from Lentinula edodes and its use in olive-mill wastewater treatment. Process Biochem 1999, 34: 697–706. 10.1016/S0032-9592(98)00144-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang F, Guo C, Liu HZ, Liu CZ: Immobilization of Pycnoporus sanguineus laccase by metal affinity adsorption on magnetic chelator particles. Chem Technol Biotechnol 2008, 83: 97–104. 10.1002/jctb.1793View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu XH, Lu P, Zhou YM, Zhao ZZ, Guo MQ: Laccase immobilized on methylene blue modified mesoporous silica MCM-41/PVA. Mater Sci Eng C 2009, 29: 2160–2164. 10.1016/j.msec.2009.04.019View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Areskogh D, Henriksson G: Immobilisation of laccase for polymerisation of commercial lignosulphonates. Process Biochem 2011, 46: 1071–1075. 10.1016/j.procbio.2011.01.024View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Davis S, Burns RG: Covalent immobilization of laccase on activated carbon for phenolic effluent treatment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1992, 37: 474–479.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang DS, Long SY, Huang J, Xiao HY, Zhou JY: Immobilization of Pycnoporus sanguineus laccase on magnetic chitosan microspheres. Biochem Eng J 2005, 25: 15–23. 10.1016/j.bej.2005.03.007View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rogalski J, Dawidowicz A, J'ozwik E: Immobilization of laccase from Cerrena unicolor on controlled porosity glass. J Mol Catal B Enzym 1999, 6: 29–39. 10.1016/S1381-1177(98)00117-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu R, Zhou QJ, Li FT, Zhang BR: Laccase immobilization on chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite nanofibrous membranes for 2,4-dichlorophenol removal. Chem Eng J 2013, 222: 321–329.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moccelini SK, Franzoi AC, Vieira IC, Dupont J, Scheeren CW: A novel support for laccase immobilization: cellulose acetate modified with ionic liquid and application in biosensor for methyldopa detection. Biosens Bioelectron 2011, 26: 3549–3554. 10.1016/j.bios.2011.01.043View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- D'Annibale A, Stazi SR, Vinciguerra V, Sermanni GG: Oxirane-immobilized Lentinula edodes laccase: stability and phenolics removal efficiency in olive mill waste water. J Biotech 2000, 77: 265–273. 10.1016/S0168-1656(99)00224-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jolivalt C, Brenon S, Caminade E, Mougin C, Pontié M: Immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor on a modified PVDF microfiltration membrane:characterization of the grafted support and application in removing a phenylurea pesticide in wastewater. J Membr Sci 2000, 180: 103–113. 10.1016/S0376-7388(00)00522-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cabaj J, Soloducho J, Chyla A, Jedrychowska A: Hybrid phenol biosensor based on modified phenoloxidase electrode. Sens Actuators B 2011, 157: 225–231. 10.1016/j.snb.2011.03.054View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pang HL, Liu J, Hu D, Zhang XH, Chen JH: Immobilization of laccase onto 1-aminopyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes and their electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction. Electrochim Acta 2010, 55: 6611–6616. 10.1016/j.electacta.2010.06.013View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu YH, Cao HM, Tang LH, Yang XL, Li CZ: Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase in three-dimensional macroporous TiO2 matrices for biosensor applications. Electrochim Acta 2009, 54: 2823–2827. 10.1016/j.electacta.2008.11.025View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xia YN, Yang PD, Sun Y, Wu Y, Mayers B, Gates B, Yin Y, Kim F, Yan H: One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications. Adv Mater 2003, 15: 353–389. 10.1002/adma.200390087View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cui Y, Liber CM: Functional nanoscale electronic devices assembled using silicon nanowire building blocks. Science 2001, 291: 851–853. 10.1126/science.291.5505.851View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kolis JW, Giesber HG: Acentric orthorhombic lanthanide borate crystals, method for making, and applications thereof. U S Patent 2005022,720 2005.Google Scholar
- Giesber HG, Ballato J, Pennington WT, Kolis JW: Synthesis and characterization of optically nonlinear and light emitting lanthanide borates. Inform Sci 2003, 149: 61–68. 10.1016/S0020-0255(02)00245-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tukia M, Hölsä J, Lastusaari M, Niittykoski J: Eu3+ doped rare earth orthoborates, RBO3 (R = Y, La and Gd), obtained by combustion synthesis. Opt Mater 2005, 27: 1516–1522. 10.1016/j.optmat.2005.01.017View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang L, Zhou LQ, Huang Y, Tang ZW: Hydrothermal synthesis of GdBO3:Eu3+ nanofibres. Mater Lett 2010, 64: 2704–2706. 10.1016/j.matlet.2010.08.062View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang Z, Wen YL, Sun N, Wang YF, Huang Y, Gao ZH, Tao Y: Morphologies of GdBO3:Eu3+ one-dimensional nanomaterials. J Alloys Compd 2010, 489: L9-L12. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.09.073View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim T, Kang S: Hydrothermal synthesis and photoluminescence properties of nano-crystalline GdBO3:Eu3+ phosphor. Mater Res Bull 2005, 40: 1945–1954. 10.1016/j.materresbull.2005.06.001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang XC, Sun LD, Yan CH: Ordered nanosheet-based YBO3:Eu3+ assemblies: synthesis and tunable luminescent properties. J Phys Chem B 2004, 108(11):3387–3390. 10.1021/jp037301qView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ma J, Wu QS, Ding YP, Chen Y: Assembled synthesis and phase transition of pseudovaterite NdBO3 layer-by-layer single-crystal nanopancakes via an oxides-hydrothermal route. Cryst Growth Des 2007, 7: 1553–1560. 10.1021/cg070081bView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ma J, Wu QS, Chen Y, Chen YJ: A synthesis strategy for various pseudo-vaterite LnBO3 nanosheets via oxides-hydrothermal route. Solid State Sci 2010, 12(4):503–508. 10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2009.12.015View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ren M, Lin JH, Dong Y, Yang LQ, Su MZ: Structure and phase transition of GdBO3. Chem Mater 1999, 11(6):1576–1580. 10.1021/cm990022oView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin JH, Sheptyakov D, Wang YX, Allenspach P: Orthoborates: a neutron diffraction study. Chem Mater 2004, 16: 2418–2424. 10.1021/cm0499388View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.