Skip to content


  • Nano Review
  • Open Access

Self-assembled GaInNAs/GaAsN quantum dot lasers: solid source molecular beam epitaxy growth and high-temperature operation

Nanoscale Research Letters20061:20

  • Published:


Self-assembled GaInNAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown on GaAs (001) substrate using solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy (SSMBE) equipped with a radio-frequency nitrogen plasma source. The GaInNAs QD growth characteristics were extensively investigated using atomic-force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Self-assembled GaInNAs/GaAsN single layer QD lasers grown using SSMBE have been fabricated and characterized. The laser worked under continuous wave (CW) operation at room temperature (RT) with emission wavelength of 1175.86 nm. Temperature-dependent measurements have been carried out on the GaInNAs QD lasers. The lowest obtained threshold current density in this work is 1.05 kA/cm2from a GaInNAs QD laser (50 × 1,700 µm2) at 10 °C. High-temperature operation up to 65 °C was demonstrated from an unbonded GaInNAs QD laser (50 × 1,060 µm2), with high characteristic temperature of 79.4 K in the temperature range of 10–60 °C.


  • GaInNAs
  • Quantum dot
  • Laser diodes
  • Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)




The authors are grateful to A*STAR for providing financial support in this research through the ONFIG-II program. TEM support from Tung Chih-Hang, Du An Yan and Doan My The of the Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore, as well as discussions with Prof. B.X. Bo of Changchun University of Science and Technology, Dr Mei Ting, Nie Dong, and Dr Tong Cunzhu of the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, is acknowledged.

Authors’ Affiliations

Compound Semiconductor and Quantum Information Group School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798, Rep. of Singapore


  1. Dutta NK, Nelson RJ: Appl. Phys. Lett. 1981, 38: 407. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXitVSnt78%3D] 10.1063/1.92380View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Yablonovitch E, Kane OE: Lightwave J. Technol. 1986, 4: 504. 10.1109/JLT.1986.1074751View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Kondow M, Uomi K, Niwa A, Kitatani T, Watahiki S, Yazawa Y: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1996, 35: 1273. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK28XisFSqtbg%3D] 10.1143/JJAP.35.1273View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Kondow M, Kitatani T, Nakatsuka S, Larson MC, Nakahara K, Yazawa Y, Okai M, Uomi K: IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1997, 3: 719. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXntVKntr0%3D] 10.1109/2944.640627View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Harris JS: IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2000, 6: 1145. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXhs12rurk%3D] 10.1109/2944.902163View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Harris JS: Semicond. Sci. Technol. 2002, 17: 880. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xms1yqu74%3D] 10.1088/0268-1242/17/8/317View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Ha W, Gambin V, Wistey M, Bank S, Kim S, Harris JS: IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2002, 14: 591. 10.1109/68.998694View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Fehse R, Tomic S, Adams AR, Sweeney SJ, O’Reilly EP, Andreev A, Riechert H: IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2002, 8: 801. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XotVGltLk%3D] 10.1109/JSTQE.2002.801684View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Kovsh AR, Wang JS, Hsiao RS, Chen LP, Livshits DA, Lin G, Ustinov VM, Chi JY: Electron. Lett. 2003, 39: 1276. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXhtVSqsrrJ] 10.1049/el:20031085View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Gollub D, Moses S, Forchel A: IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2004, 40: 337. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXivFCnu74%3D] 10.1109/JQE.2004.825112View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Wang SM, Wei YQ, Wang XD, Zhao QX, Sadeghi M, Larsson A: J. Cryst. Growth. 2005, 278: 734. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXjsVeksbs%3D] 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.12.150View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Hierro A, Ulloa JM, Calleja E, Damilano B, Barjon J, Duboz J-Y, Massies J: IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2005, 17: 1142. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpsVWgtbk%3D] 10.1109/LPT.2005.846567View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Dagens B, Martinez A, Make D, Gouezigou OL, Provost JG, Sallet V, Merghem K, Harmand JC, Ramdane A, Thedrez B: IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2005, 17: 971. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpsVagsLo%3D] 10.1109/LPT.2005.845718View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Tansu N, Yeh J-Y, Mawst LJ: IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2003, 9: 1220. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhsFaktrg%3D] 10.1109/JSTQE.2003.820911View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Yeh JY, Tansu N, Mawst LJ: IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2004, 16: 741. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpsVWit7s%3D] 10.1109/LPT.2004.823715View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu CY, Yoon SF, Wang SZ, Fan WJ, Qu Y, Yuan S: IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2004, 16: 2409. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXovV2gtrg%3D] 10.1109/LPT.2004.835214View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu CY, Qu Y, Yuan S, Yoon SF: Appl. Phys. Lett. 2004, 85: 4594. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVSlsLbF] 10.1063/1.1824180View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Tansu N, Mawst LJ: J. Appl. Phys. 2005, 97: 054502. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXislehs7s%3D] 10.1063/1.1852697View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Yamada M, Anan T, Hatakeyama H, Tokutome K, Suzuki N, Nakamura T, Nishi K: IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2005, 17: 950. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpsVags7o%3D] 10.1109/LPT.2005.844325View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Arakawa Y, Sakaki H: Appl. Phys. Lett. 1982, 40: 939. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL38XkvVansrg%3D] 10.1063/1.92959View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Asada M, Miyamato Y, Suematsu Y: IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1986, 22: 1915. 10.1109/JQE.1986.1073149View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Miyamoto T, Makino S, Ikenaga Y, Ohta M, Koyama F: IEE Proce. Optoelectr. 2003, 150: 59. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjsVymu7o%3D] 10.1049/ip-opt:20030038View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Sopanen M, Xin HP, Tu CW: Appl. Phys. Lett. 2000, 76: 994. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhtlShsrc%3D] 10.1063/1.125917View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Volovik BV, Kovsh AR, Passenberg W, Kuenzel H, Grote N, Cherkashin NA, Musikhin YG, ledentsov NN, Bimberg D, Ustinov VM: Semicond. Sci. Technol. 2001, 16: 186. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXisVyisb0%3D] 10.1088/0268-1242/16/3/312View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Sun ZZ, Yoon SF, Yew KC, Loke WK, Wang SZ, Ng TK: J. Gryst. Growth. 2002, 242: 109. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XksFKgtrs%3D] 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)01373-8View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  26. Nishikawa A, Hong YG, Tu CW: Phys. Stat. Solidi B. 2003, 240: 310. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXpsFahur8%3D] 10.1002/pssb.200303258View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Yew KC, Yoon SF, Sun ZZ, Wang SZ: J. Cryst. Growth. 2003, 247: 279. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XptlWhtbo%3D] 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)01987-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Sun ZZ, Yoon SF, Yew KC: J. Cryst. Growth. 2003, 259: 40. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXotVCnt7k%3D] 10.1016/S0022-0248(03)01580-XView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Yew KC, Yoon SF, Sun ZZ: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 2003, 21: 2428. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXptFGntQ%3D%3D] 10.1116/1.1627335View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. Sun ZZ, Yoon SF, Yew KC, Bo BX, Du AY, Tung CH: Appl. Phys. Lett. 2004, 85: 1469. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXntVKmtrc%3D] 10.1063/1.1789236View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Makino S, Miyamoto T, Kageyama T, Nishiyama N, Koyama F, Iga K: Cryst J. Growth. 2000, 221: 561. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXovFentrs%3D] 10.1016/S0022-0248(00)00778-8View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Miyamoto T, Kageyama T, Makino S, Ikenaga Y, Koyama F, Iga K: Proce. SPIE Int. Soc. Optical Eng. 2001, 4283: 24. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmvVOls7c%3D]Google Scholar
  33. Makino S, Miyamoto T, Kageyama T, Ikenaga Y, Koyama F, Iga K: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2002, 41: 953. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xit1CqtL4%3D] 10.1143/JJAP.41.953View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  34. Makino S, Miyamoto T, Ohta M, Kageyama T, Ikenaga Y, Koyama F, Iga K: J. Cryst. Growth. 2003, 251: 372. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXitlWlsb0%3D] 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)02181-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  35. Hakkarainen T, Toivonen J, Sopanen M, Lipsanen H: Appl. Phys. Lett. 2001, 79: 3932. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXoslKgu7s%3D] 10.1063/1.1425082View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  36. Daniltsev VM, Drozdov MN, Drozdov YuN, Gaponova DM, Khrykin OI, Murel AV, Shashkin VI, Vostrokov NV: J. Cryst. Growth. 2003, 248: 343. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XpslShur4%3D] 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)01923-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  37. Jang YD, Yim JS, Lee UH, Lee D, Jang JW, Park KH, Jeong WG, Lee JH, Oh DK: Phys. E. 2003, 17: 127. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXivVyjur4%3D] 10.1016/S1386-9477(02)00744-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  38. Gao Q, Buda M, Tan HH, Jagadish C: Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 2005, 8: G57. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXkslejug%3D%3D] 10.1149/1.1848293View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  39. Wessels BW, Vac J: Sci. Technol. B. 1997, 15: 1056. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXlsVymsLg%3D] 10.1116/1.589392View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  40. Petroff PM, DenBaars SP: Superlattices Microst. 1994, 15: 15. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXjt1Gjsrc%3D] 10.1006/spmi.1994.1004View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  41. Z.Z. Sun, S.F. Yoon, K.C. Yew, B.X. Bo, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 794 T3.31.1, Boston (2003)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  42. Xin HP, Kavanagh KL, Zhu ZQ, Tu CW: Appl. Phys. Lett. 1999, 74: 2337. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXit1yiu7w%3D] 10.1063/1.123843View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  43. Ballet P, Gilet P, Grenouillet L, Duvaut P, Feuillet G, Million A: Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 2001, 642: J3.33.Google Scholar
  44. Nishikawa A, Hong YG, Tu CW: Physica Status Solidi B. 2003, 240: 310. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXpsFahur8%3D] 10.1002/pssb.200303258View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  45. A. Nishikawa, Y.G. Hong, C.W. Tu, 2003 International Conference Indium Phosphide and Related Materials. Conference Proceedings, ThB 1. 7, 359 (2003)Google Scholar
  46. Nishi K, Saito H, Sugou S, Lee JS: Appl. Phys. Lett. 1999, 74: 1112. 10.1063/1.123459View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  47. Ahopelto J, Lipsanen H, Sopanen M, Koljonen T, Niemi HE-M: Appl. Phys. Lett. 1994, 65: 1662. 10.1063/1.112903View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  48. White JK, Moloney JV: IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2003, 9: 816. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXpslSit78%3D] 10.1109/JSTQE.2003.819409View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  49. Huffaker DL, Park G, Zou Z, Shchekin OB, Deppe DG: Appl. Phys. Lett. 1998, 73: 2564. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmvVSis7Y%3D] 10.1063/1.122534View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  50. Park G, Huffaker DL, Zou Z, Shckekin OB, Deppe DG: IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1999, 11: 301. 10.1109/68.748215View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  51. Mukai K, Nakata Y, Otsubo K, Sugawara M, Yokoyama N, Ishikawa H: IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2000, 36: 472. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXisVSntrk%3D] 10.1109/3.831025View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  52. Shchekin OB, Deppe DG: IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2002, 14: 1231. 10.1109/LPT.2002.801597View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  53. Kovsh AR, Maleev NA, Zhukov AE, Mikhrin SS, Vasilev AR, Shemyakov YM, Maximov MV, Livshits DA, Ustinov V, Alferov ZhI, Ledentsov NN, Bimberg D: Electron. Lett. 2002, 38: 1104. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XoslWjtLw%3D] 10.1049/el:20020793View ArticleGoogle Scholar


© to the authors 2006