Skip to main content


We’d like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest.

High-rate low-temperature dc pulsed magnetron sputtering of photocatalytic TiO2films: the effect of repetition frequency


The article reports on low-temperature high-rate sputtering of hydrophilic transparent TiO2thin films using dc dual magnetron (DM) sputtering in Ar + O2mixture on unheated glass substrates. The DM was operated in a bipolar asymmetric mode and was equipped with Ti(99.5) targets of 50 mm in diameter. The substrate surface temperature Tsurfmeasured by a thermostrip was less than 180 °C for all experiments. The effect of the repetition frequency frwas investigated in detail. It was found that the increase of frfrom 100 to 350 kHz leads to (a) an improvement of the efficiency of the deposition process that results in a significant increase of the deposition rate aDof sputtered TiO2films and (b) a decrease of peak pulse voltage and sustaining of the magnetron discharge at higher target power densities. It was demonstrated that several hundreds nm thick hydrophilic TiO2films can be sputtered on unheated glass substrates at aD = 80 nm/min, Tsurf < 180 °C when high value of fr = 350 kHz was used. Properties of a thin hydrophilic TiO2film deposited on a polycarbonate substrate are given.



  1. 1.

    Fujishima A, Honda K: Nature. 1972, 238: 37. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaE38XltVykurw%3D] 10.1038/238037a0

  2. 2.

    Sakai N, Fujishima A, Watanable T, Hashimoto K: J. Phys. Chem. B. 2003, 107: 1028. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXhtFI%3D] 10.1021/jp022105p

  3. 3.

    A. Fujishima, X. Zhang, C.R. Chimie 9, 750 (2006)

  4. 4.

    L. Miao, S. Tanemura, Y. Kondo, M. Iwata, S. Toh et al., Appl. Surf. Sci. 238, 125 (2004)

  5. 5.

    O.H. Fenner, in Handbook of Plastics and Elastomers, ed. By C. A. Harper (McGraw-Hill, New York USA 1975)

  6. 6.

    Musil J, Herman D, Sicha J: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A. 2006,24(3):521. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XksFCgtr0%3D] 10.1116/1.2187993

  7. 7.

    Zeman P, Takabayashi S: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A. 2001,20(2):1.

  8. 8.

    Zhao G, Tian Q, Liu Q, Han G: Surf. Coat. Technol.. 2005, 198: 55. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXltlWqt7k%3D] 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.10.064

  9. 9.

    Modes. T, Scheffel B, Meetzner Chr, Zywitzki O, Reinhold E: Surf. Coat. Technol.. 2005, 200: 306. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXpvFahtbc%3D] 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.02.080

  10. 10.

    W. Ho, J.C. Yu, S. Lee, Appl. Catal. B: Environ. DOI:10.1016/j.apcatb.2006.06.019 (2006)

  11. 11.

    Mathur S, Kuhn P: Surf. Coat. Technol.. 2006, 201: 807. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XptlOhs70%3D] 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.12.039

  12. 12.

    Frach P, Gloss D, Metzner Chr, Modes T, Scheffel B, Zywitzki O: Vacuum. 2006, 80: 679. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XltVersr8%3D] 10.1016/j.vacuum.2005.11.001

  13. 13.

    Amor SB, Guedri L, Baud G, Jacquet M, Ghedira M: Mater. Chem. Phys.. 2002, 77: 903. 10.1016/S0254-0584(02)00189-X

  14. 14.

    Hou Y-Q, Zhuang D-M, Zhang G, Zhao M, Wu M-S: App. Surf. Sci.. 2003, 218: 97. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXntVKjsbY%3D] 10.1016/S0169-4332(03)00569-5

  15. 15.

    Frach P, Gloss D, Goedicke K, Fahland M, Gnehr W-M: Thin Solid Films. 2003, 445: 251. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXps1Citrw%3D] 10.1016/S0040-6090(03)01153-2

  16. 16.

    Zywitzki O, Modes T, Sahm H, Frach P, Goedicke K, Gloss D: Surf. Coat. Technol.. 2004, 180–181: 538. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2003.10.115

  17. 17.

    Barnes C, Kumar S, Green L, Hwang N-M, Gerson AR: Surf. Coat. Technol.. 2005, 190: 321. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVakurjN] 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.04.003

  18. 18.

    Ohno S, Takasawa T, Sato Y, Yoshikawa M, Suzuki K, Frach P, Shigesato Y: Thin Solid Films. 2006, 496: 126. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXht1Gls77P] 10.1016/j.tsf.2005.08.252

  19. 19.

    Lapostolle F, Perry F, Billard A: Surf. Coat. Technol.. 2006, 201: 2633. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xht1agsrbO] 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.05.015

  20. 20.

    Baroch P, Musil J, Vlcek J, Nam KH, Han JG: Surf. Coat. Technol.. 2005, 193: 107. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtleks7o%3D] 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.07.060

  21. 21.

    D. Herman, J. Musil, J. Sicha, Photoactivated properties of TiO2 films prepared by magnetron sputtering, Proceedings of the PSE 2006 in Plasma Processes & Polymers, accepted for publication, November 2006

  22. 22.

    Welzel Th, Dunger Th, Richter F: Surf. Coat. Technol.. 2006, 201: 3959. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xht1Cisb%2FL] 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.08.003

  23. 23.

    Musil J, Baroch P, Vlček J, Nam KH, Han JG: Thin Solid Films. 2005, 475: 208. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVKgtbg%3D] 10.1016/j.tsf.2004.07.041

  24. 24.

    Bradley JW, Bäcker H, Kelly PJ, Arnell RD: Surf. Coat. Technol.. 2001, 142: 337. 10.1016/S0257-8972(01)01084-2

  25. 25.

    Zheng SK, Wang TM, Xiang G, Wang C: Vacuum. 2001, 62: 361. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXkvFSiu7c%3D] 10.1016/S0042-207X(01)00353-0

  26. 26.

    Safi I: Surf. Coat. Technol.. 2000, 127: 203. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXktVSju7Y%3D] 10.1016/S0257-8972(00)00566-1

  27. 27.

    Berg S, Nyberg T: Thin Solid Films. 2005, 476: 215. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhvF2itr8%3D] 10.1016/j.tsf.2004.10.051

  28. 28.

    J. Sicha, J. Musil, D. Herman, Z. Stryhal, J. Pavlik, Surface morphology of magnetron sputtered TiO2 films, Proceedings of the PSE 2006 in Plasma Processes & Polymers, accepted for publication, November 2006

Download references


This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic under Project No. MSM 4977751302 and in part by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic under Project No. 106/06/0327.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to J Musil.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Šícha, J., Heřman, D., Musil, J. et al. High-rate low-temperature dc pulsed magnetron sputtering of photocatalytic TiO2films: the effect of repetition frequency. Nanoscale Res Lett 2, 123 (2007).

Download citation


  • TiO2film
  • Hydrophilicity
  • Deposition rate
  • Unheated substrate
  • Dual magnetron sputtering
  • Polycarbonate