Skip to main content

Advertisement

Nanoscale waveguiding methods

Article metrics

  • 1953 Accesses

  • 20 Citations

Abstract

While 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD) arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

[156]

References

  1. 1.

    Takahara J, Yamagishi S, Taki H, Morimoto A, Kobayashi T: Optics Lett.. 1997,22(7):475. ; COI number [1:STN:280:DC%2BD1c%2Fhs1eitw%3D%3D]; Bibcode number [1997OptL...22..475T] 10.1364/OL.22.000475

  2. 2.

    Krenn JR, Lamprecht B, Ditlbacher H, Schider G, Salerno M, Leitner A, Aussenegg FR: Europhys. Lett.. 2002,60(5):663. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXislCrsg%3D%3D]; Bibcode number [2002EL.....60..663K] 10.1209/epl/i2002-00360-9

  3. 3.

    Pile DFP, Ogawa T, Gramotnev DK, Okamoto T, Haraguchi M, Fukui M, Masuo S: App. Phys. Lett.. 2005, 87: 061106. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXos1aruro%3D] 10.1063/1.1991990

  4. 4.

    M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J.R. Krenn, F.R. Aussenegg, Optics Lett. 23(17), 133 (1998)

  5. 5.

    M.L. Brongersma, J.W. Hartman, H.A. Atwater, Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 6356 (2000)

  6. 6.

    S.A. Maier, P.G. Kik, H.A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B.E. Koel, A.A.G. Requicha, Nature Mater. 2(4), 229 (2003)

  7. 7.

    Sweatlock LA, Maier SA, Atwater HA, Penninkhof JJ, Polman A: Phys. Rev. B. 2005, 71: 235408. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXmt1OqtrY%3D]; Bibcode number [2005PhRvB..71w5408S] 10.1103/PhysRevB.71.235408

  8. 8.

    Maier S, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1214

  9. 9.

    Zia R, Selker MD, Catrysse PB, Brongersma ML: J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 2004,21(12):2442. Bibcode number [2004OSAJ...21.2442Z] Bibcode number [2004OSAJ...21.2442Z] 10.1364/JOSAA.21.002442

  10. 10.

    Chen L, Shakya J, Lipson M: Opt. Lett.. 2006,31(14):2133. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XosFCjt7o%3D]; Bibcode number [2006OptL...31.2133C] 10.1364/OL.31.002133

  11. 11.

    Pile DFP, Ogawa T, Gramotnev DK, Matsuzaki Y, Vernon KC, Yamaguchi K, Okamoto T, Haraguchi M, Fukui M: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2005, 87: 261114. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XlvFOmsQ%3D%3D] 10.1063/1.2149971

  12. 12.

    Kusunoki F, Yotsuya T, Takahara J, Kobayashi T: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2005, 86: 211101. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXkvVemsLw%3D]; Bibcode number [2005ApPhL..86U1101K] 10.1063/1.1935034

  13. 13.

    J. Takahara, F. Kusunoki, IEICE Trans. Electron E90-C(1), 87 (2007)

  14. 14.

    Hu M-S, Chen H-L, Shen C-H, Hong L-S, Huang B-R, Chen K-H, Chen L-C: Nat. Mat.. 2006, 5: 102. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XptFOhtA%3D%3D] 10.1038/nmat1564

  15. 15.

    Rybczynski J, Kempa K, Herczynski A, Wang Y, Naughton MJ, Ren ZF, Huang ZP, Cai D, Giersig M: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2007, 90: 021104. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtVOqs74%3D] 10.1063/1.2430400

  16. 16.

    Maier S: Opt. Commun.. 2006, 258: 295. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtlGlsLjF]; Bibcode number [2006OptCo.258..295M] 10.1016/j.optcom.2005.07.064

  17. 17.

    Law M, Sirbuly DJ, Johnson JC, Goldberger J, Saykally RJ, Yang P: Science. 2004, 305: 1269. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmvFCitrs%3D]; Bibcode number [2004Sci...305.1269L] 10.1126/science.1100999

  18. 18.

    Law M, Goldberger J, Yang P: Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.. 2004, 34: 83. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmvVOju78%3D] 10.1146/annurev.matsci.34.040203.112300

  19. 19.

    A. Ishimaru, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Radiation, and Scattering. (Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1991)

  20. 20.

    Lee KK, Lim DR, Kimmerling LC, Shin J, Cerrina F: Opt. Lett.. 2001,26(23):1888. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhsVeisw%3D%3D]; Bibcode number [2001OptL...26.1888L] 10.1364/OL.26.001888

  21. 21.

    Barrios CA, Almeida VR, Panepucci R, Lipson M: J. Lightwave Technol.. 2003,21(10):2332. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXovFGlsbk%3D]; Bibcode number [2003JLwT...21.2332A] 10.1109/JLT.2003.818167

  22. 22.

    Xu Q, Almeida VR, Panepucci R, Lipson M: Opt. Lett.. 2004,29(14):1626. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmsVagt74%3D]; Bibcode number [2004OptL...29.1626X] 10.1364/OL.29.001626

  23. 23.

    Bogaerts W, Baets R, Dumon P, Wiaux V, Beckx S, Taillaert D, Luyssaert B, Van Campenhout J, Bienstman P, Van Thourhout D: J. Lightwave Technol.. 2005,23(1):401. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXjtFemtrg%3D]; Bibcode number [2005JLwT...23..401B] 10.1109/JLT.2004.834471

  24. 24.

    J.D. Joannopoulos, R.D. Meade, J.N. Winn, Photonic Crystals. (Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1995)

  25. 25.

    Johnson SG, Villeneuve PR, Fan S, Joannopoulos JD: Phys. Rev. B. 2000,62(12):8212. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXmslWrtLc%3D]; Bibcode number [2000PhRvB..62.8212J] 10.1103/PhysRevB.62.8212

  26. 26.

    Notomi M, Shinya A, Mitsugi S, Kuramochi E, Ryu H-Y: Opt. Exp.. 2004,12(8):1551. Bibcode number [2004OExpr..12.1551N] Bibcode number [2004OExpr..12.1551N] 10.1364/OPEX.12.001551

  27. 27.

    Vyawahare S, Eyal S, Mathews KD, Quake SR: Nano Lett.. 2004,4(6):1035. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXjsVOnsrs%3D] 10.1021/nl049660i

  28. 28.

    Chan WCW, Nie S: Science. 1998, 281: 2016. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmtlKnsrk%3D]; Bibcode number [1998Sci...281.2016C] 10.1126/science.281.5385.2016

  29. 29.

    Bruchez M, Moronne M, Gin P, Weiss S, Alivisatos AP: Science. 1998, 281: 2013. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmtlKgurw%3D]; Bibcode number [1998Sci...281.2013B] 10.1126/science.281.5385.2013

  30. 30.

    R. Dingle, C.H. Henry, U.S. Patent 3,982,207, 21 Sept 1976

  31. 31.

    Ledentsov NN, Grundmann M, Heinrichsdorff F, Bimberg D, Ustinov VM, Zhukov AE, Maximov MV, Alferov ZI, Lott JA: IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 2000,6(3):439. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXms1Gitrg%3D] 10.1109/2944.865099

  32. 32.

    V.M. Ustinov, A.E. Zhukov, A.Y. Egorov, N.A. Maleev, Quantum Dot Lasers. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003)

  33. 33.

    Cao H, Xu JY, Xiang WH, Ma Y, Chang S-H, Ho ST, Solomon GS: Appl. Phys. Lett.. 2000,76(24):3519. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjvVOltrs%3D]; Bibcode number [2000ApPhL..76.3519C] 10.1063/1.126693

  34. 34.

    Benson O, Yamamoto Y: Phys. Rev. A. 1999,59(6):4756. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjtlensb4%3D]; Bibcode number [1999PhRvA..59.4756B] 10.1103/PhysRevA.59.4756

  35. 35.

    Vahala KJ: IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 1988,24(3):523. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXitFegur8%3D]; Bibcode number [1988IJQE...24..523V] 10.1109/3.157

  36. 36.

    Ohtsu M, Kobayashi K, Kawazoe T, Yatsui T: IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 2002,8(4):839. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XotVGltbw%3D] 10.1109/JSTQE.2002.801738

  37. 37.

    Kawazoe T, Kobayashi K, Sangu S, Ohtsu M: J. Microsc.. 2003, 209: 261. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjt1aqt7Y%3D] 10.1046/j.1365-2818.2003.01125.x

  38. 38.

    Murray CB, Kagan CR, Bawendi MG: Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.. 2000, 30: 545. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXmsVygtrc%3D] 10.1146/annurev.matsci.30.1.545

  39. 39.

    Bawendi MG, Carroll PJ, Wilson WL, Brus LE: J. Chem. Phys.. 1992,96(2):946. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK38XpsVGnsQ%3D%3D]; Bibcode number [1992JChPh..96..946B] 10.1063/1.462114

  40. 40.

    Fisher BR, Eisler H-J, Stott NE, Bawendi MG: J. Phys. Chem. B. 2004, 108: 143. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXps1SmsbY%3D] 10.1021/jp035756+

  41. 41.

    Nazzal AY, Wang X, Qu L, Yu W, Wang Y, Peng X, Xiao M: J. Phys. Chem. B. 2004, 108: 5507. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXivFKqtb4%3D] 10.1021/jp035361q

  42. 42.

    Klimov VI, Mikhailovsky AA, Xu S, Malko A, Hollingsworth JA, Leatherdale CA, Eisler H-J, Bawendi MG: Science. 2000, 290: 314. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXnsVGisL0%3D]; Bibcode number [2000Sci...290..314K] 10.1126/science.290.5490.314

  43. 43.

    L.-W. Wang, M. Califano, A. Zunger, A. Franceschetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(5), 056404, (2003)

  44. 44.

    P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, C. Matranga, M. Hines, Phys. Rev. B 60(4), R2181, (1999)

  45. 45.

    Klimov VI, Mikhailovsky AA, McBranch DW, Leatherdale CA, Bawendi MG: Science. 2000, 287: 1011. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhtFyks78%3D]; Bibcode number [2000Sci...287.1011K] 10.1126/science.287.5455.1011

  46. 46.

    C.-J. Wang, L.Y. Lin, B.A. Parviz, IEEE LEOS 18th Annual Meeting Proc., 177 (2005)

  47. 47.

    C.-J. Wang, L.Y. Lin, SPIE Optics East, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 5593. Nanosensing: Materials and Devices, 378 (2004)

  48. 48.

    Asada M, Miyamoto Y, Suematsu Y: IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 1986,22(9):1915. 10.1109/JQE.1986.1073149

  49. 49.

    Wang C-J, Lin LY, Parviz BA: IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 2005,11(2):500. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtVygsb%2FP] 10.1109/JSTQE.2005.845616

  50. 50.

    Huang L, Wang C-J, Lin LY: Opt. Lett.. 2007,32(3):235. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhvFKgtr0%3D] 10.1364/OL.32.000235

  51. 51.

    C.-J. Wang, L.Y. Lin, B.A. Parviz, IEEE/LEOS Int. Optical MEMS Conf. Proc. 24 (2004)

  52. 52.

    Hu W, Sarveswaran K, Lieberman M, Bernstein GH: IEEE Trans. Nanotech.. 2005, 4: 312. 10.1109/TNANO.2005.847034

  53. 53.

    C.-J. Wang, L.Y. Lin, B.A. Parviz, CLEO/QELS Conf. Proc. (2006)

  54. 54.

    Bukofsky SJ, Grober RD: App. Phys. Lett.. 1997,71(19):2749. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXntFCrtbY%3D]; Bibcode number [1997ApPhL..71.2749B] 10.1063/1.120123

  55. 55.

    Lambelet P, Sayah A, Pfeffer M, Philipona C, Marquis-Weible F: App. Opt.. 1998,37(31):7289. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXntlSitLs%3D]; Bibcode number [1998ApOpt..37.7289L] 10.1364/AO.37.007289

  56. 56.

    Wang C-J, Huang L, Parviz BA, Lin LY: Nano Lett.. 2006,6(11):2549. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtFSls7zM] 10.1021/nl061958g

Download references

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) ADVANCE program, and UW Royalty Research Fund. C.-J. Wang would like to thank the NSF Graduate and the Intel Foundation Ph.D. Fellowship Programs for financial support. Work was performed in part at the University of Washington Nanotech User Facility (NTUF), a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN), which is supported by the National Science Foundation.

Author information

Correspondence to Chia-Jean Wang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wang, C., Lin, L.Y. Nanoscale waveguiding methods. Nanoscale Res Lett 2, 219 (2007) doi:10.1007/s11671-007-9056-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Nanophotonics
  • Negative dielectric
  • Waveguides
  • Quantum dots
  • Diffraction limit