A Simple Method to Synthesize Cadmium Hydroxide Nanobelts
© to the authors 2008
Received: 6 May 2008
Accepted: 11 July 2008
Published: 9 August 2008
Cd(OH)2nanobelts have been synthesized in high yield by a convenient polyol method for the first time. XRD, XPS, FESEM, and TEM were used to characterize the product, which revealed that the product consisted of belt-like crystals about 40 nm in thickness and length up to several hundreds of micrometers. Studies found that the viscosity of the solvent has important influence on the morphology of the final products. The optical absorption spectrum indicates that the Cd(OH)2nanobelts have a direct band gap of 4.45 eV.
One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as wires, rods, belts, and tubes, whose lateral dimensions fall anywhere in the range of 1–100 nm, have become the focus of intensive research, owing to their unique applications in mesoscopic physics and fabrication of nanoscale devices [1–6]. Among one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, nanobelts (or nanoribbons), a relatively new family of 1D nanostructures with a rectangular cross section, have received increasing attention since the discovery of novel oxide semiconductor nanobelts [4–8]. A variety of functional oxide [3, 9] and sulfide [10–17] nanobelts have been successfully fabricated by simple thermal evaporation. The methods used in 1D nanostructure synthesis and hydrothermal processes have emerged as powerful tools for the fabrication of anisotropic nanomaterials with some significant advantages, such as controllable particle size and low-temperature, cost-effective, and less-complicated techniques. Under hydrothermal conditions, many starting materials can undergo quite unexpected reactions, which are often accompanied by the formation of nanoscopic morphologies that are not accessible by classical routes . In recent years, 1D nanomaterials such as Ln(OH)3 [19–21], CdWO4 , MoO3 , and Dy(OH)3  have been successfully synthesized using hydrothermal methods.
Cadmium hydroxide, Cd(OH)2, is a wide band gap semiconductor  with a wide range of possible applications including solar cells, photo transistors and diodes, transparent electrodes, sensors, etc. [26, 27]. Cadmium hydroxide is also the precursor to prepare cadmium oxide . As a consequence, numerous techniques have been proposed to synthesize nano-sized Cd(OH)2 particles with promising control of properties [25–28]. However, up to now, to our best knowledge, the synthesis of Cd(OH)2 nanobelts by hydrothermal process has not been reported. Herein, we report the preparation of cadmium hydroxide nanobelts by the conventional polyol assisted hydrothermal process.
Materials and Methods
In a typical procedure; CdCl2 · 2H2O (0.2281 g) was dissolved in 32 mL of distilled water, and then NH3 · H2O (25 wt.%, 5 mL) was slowly added into the solution and stirred for about 10 min, and a transparent Cd(NH3)42−solution was formed. Then, the above solution was loaded into a 50-mL Teflon-lined autoclave, which was then filled with 8 mL of glycol. The autoclave was sealed, warmed up at a speed of 3 ºC/min and maintained at 100 ºC for 6 h, and was then cooled to room temperature on standing. The white precipitate was filtered off, washed with absolute ethanol and distilled water for several times, and then dried in vacuum at 40 ºC for 4 h.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were carried out on a Japan Rigaku D/max rA X-ray diffractometer equipped with graphitemonochromatized high-intensity Cu Ka radiation (λ = 1.541784 Å). The accelerating voltage was set at 50 kV, with 100 mA flux at a scanning rate of 0.06°/s in the 2θ range 10–80°. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) were collected on an ESCALab MKII X-ray photoelectron spectrometer using nonmonochromatized Mg KR X-ray as the excitation source. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images were taken on a JEOL JSM-6700FSEM. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images were characterized by Hitachi H-800 transmission electron microscope with a tungsten filament and an accelerating voltage of 200 kV.
Results and Discussion
In summary, Cd(OH)2nanobelts with a uniform diameter have been successfully prepared in high yield through a rapid polyol process. It was found that the viscosity of the solvent played an important role in determining the morphology. We believe that it should be possible to synthesize other similar patterns by choosing an appropriate solvent. The optical absorption spectrum indicates that the Cd(OH)2nanobelts have a direct band gap of 4.45 eV.
This work was supported by a Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the CREST program of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). We are grateful to young and middle aged academic leaders of Jiangsu Province universities’ “blue and green blue project.” We are grateful to the electron microscope and X-ray diffraction facilities of university of science & technology of china for assistance in XRD and SEM measurement.
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