# Magnetoresistance in Sn-Doped In_{2}O_{3}Nanowires

- Olívia M Berengue
^{1}Email author, - AlexandreJC Lanfredi
^{2}, - Livia P Pozzi
^{1}, - JoséFQ Rey
^{2}, - Edson R Leite
^{3}and - Adenilson J Chiquito
^{1}

**Received: **12 February 2009

**Accepted: **24 April 2009

**Published: **4 July 2009

## Abstract

In this work, we present transport measurements of individual Sn-doped In_{2}O_{3}nanowires as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The results showed a localized character of the resistivity at low temperatures as evidenced by the presence of a negative temperature coefficient resistance in temperatures lower than 77 K. The weak localization was pointed as the mechanism responsible by the negative temperature coefficient of the resistance at low temperatures.

## Keywords

## Introduction

Quasi 1D metal oxide nanostructures have attracted considerable interest in the last years for fundamental studies and also for potential applications. In particular, they present properties which range from metals to semiconductors and insulators [1]: the performance of these devices is strongly correlated to their structural and electronic properties. These low-dimensional structures have been used as building blocks in different devices and nanodevices [2] and they are important for both fundamental research and applications because they have the potential to reach high device integration. One of the most prominent applications of these materials is the gas sensing devices [3–5], but this and other potential electronic applications of nanowires still require a detailed understanding of their fundamental electronic properties [6].

Although these nanostructures be usually grown by self-organized processes like the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism (VLS) [7] and thus presenting a high crystalline quality, some disorder is always present. In this way, electrons subjected to a random potential are not able to move freely through the system if either potential fluctuations due to disorder exceed a critical value or the electron energy is lower than the characteristic potential fluctuation [8, 9]. It is interesting to add that the carrier localization should be evidenced in one-dimensional structures as stated by the Anderson’s localization theory: it predicts that disorder in these systems leads to carrier’s localization.

In this work we present some transport measurements of individual Sn-doped In_{2}O_{3}nanowires as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The results showed a localized character of the resistivity at low temperatures as evidenced by the presence of a negative temperature coefficient resistance in temperatures lower than 77 K. This behavior was successfully associated to weak localization picture where the boundary scattering processes provide the main inelastic scattering mechanism.

## Experimental

The samples used here were grown by the well-known VLS growth mechanism in association with a carbothermal reduction process [10, 11]. For this purpose In_{2}O_{3} and SnO_{2} powders (purity >99.9%) were mixed with 10% in weight of carbon black and each mixture was placed inside a horizontal tube furnace in two separated alumina crucibles. The synthesis was carried out at 1150 °C under a N_{2} gas flux of 50 sccm for 4 h.

_{2}O

_{3}structure by the crystallographic indices (PDF 6-416). Also, it could be identified the Sn and SnO

_{2}structures as an evidence of the self-catalytic VLS growth mechanism.

To improve the structural characterization of the samples, a transmission electron microscopy (TEM; Jeol model JEM 2100 operating at 200 kV) was carried out on individual ITO nanowires. Figure 1b shows a low-magnification TEM image of an individual nanowire with 200 nm width. In order to study the orientation growth and high crystallinity of the samples, a high resolution TEM image (HRTEM) was performed at the end of the nanowire and it is shown in Fig. 1c. After a fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the HRTEM image, by using an image analysis software, it was obtained a point matrix which is the frequency spectrum, sketched in Fig. 1d. The points showed in this equivalent SAED (selected-area electron diffraction) image allow the indexing of the growth direction to be [100] and are in agreement with interatomic distances measured. This plane growth direction is in accordance with the XRD pattern plotted in Fig. 1a, which shows the [400] peaks intensity higher than the obtained from bulk materials.

_{2}O

_{3}belongs to the space group Ia

_{3}, Th

_{7}[12]. For such a structure, the vibrations with symmetry A

_{ g }, E

_{ g }, and T

_{ g }are Raman active giving rise to 22 Raman modes. Five Raman peaks at 112, 133, 303, 491, and 616 cm

^{−1}were found to belong to the vibrational modes of the bcc-In

_{2}O

_{3}, which seems to be in good agreement with the reported values in the literature [13]. The other peaks are probably related to the presence of Sn atoms in In sites of In

_{2}O

_{3}leading to different vibrational modes. The ITO vibrational features are now under study and will be the subject of a new paper.

After the structural characterization, the samples were prepared for the contacts’ fabrication. The samples were then ultrasonically dispersed in ethanol and were placed onto an oxidized Si wafer (300 nm of SiO_{2}layer) with metallic (Au/Ni, 100 nm thickness) pads. The transport measurements were carried out using standard low frequency ac lock-in techniques, at 13 Hz. The low temperature data were obtained using a closed cycle helium cryostat at a base pressure 5 × 10^{−6}Torr.

## Results and Discussion

*T*= 10 K. Since the ITO nanowires are expected to remain metallic, the carrier density is a weak function of temperature and the resistance should be mainly determined by the temperature dependence of the various scattering mechanisms through electrons’ mobility [6]. At high temperatures (

*T*> 77 K), the phonon scattering seems to be dominant and the resistance rises with increasing temperature (metallic phase).

where*A* is a parameter proportional to the electron–phonon coupling and *R*_{0} is the residual resistance; *n* usually ranges from 3 to 5 when the electron–phonon interaction is mainly responsible for the scattering events [14]; Θ_{D} is the Debye temperature. The fitting of the experimental data using Eq. 1 revealed *n* = 3.6 and Θ_{D} = 1227 K: as the temperature and phonon excitation increase, the amount of scattering events experienced by the conduction electrons are increased as well, resulting in a greater resistivity (theoretical value of Θ_{D} = 1200 K). It is interesting to add that the Bloch–Grüneisen theory can be only used in the range of nanowires’ size where the electron-acoustic phonon scattering remains unchanged as pointed in Ref. [15].

The analysis for the low temperature data is more challenging: down from 77 K the sample’s resistance increases indicating that a different transport and scattering mechanisms are acting in this range of temperatures. The observed negative temperature coefficient resistance could not be fitted to an usual activation (exponential) law. However, it preserves the localized character for electron transport. As reported in literature for Zn [16] and Sb [17] nanowires, we also found that the resistivity increase follows essentially a *T*^{−1/2} law (the equation
fits well the temperature dependence shown in Fig. 3). The observation of an *exact* *T*^{−1/2} law should be unambiguously attributed to a signature of the presence of electron–electron inelastic scattering mechanism [18]. Simple activated and one-dimensional hopping laws were used and discarded because they lead us to wrong results. Then, a more detailed analysis is needed including, for instance, the presence of carriers’ localization and other scattering mechanisms.

As observed in literature [6, 19–21] for small-dimension nanowires, processes like collisions with the boundaries provide disorder, which in turn randomizes the electron energy and increases the electron–electron interaction. These interactions are also expected to contribute to the transport leading to an increase of the resistance since the diffusive motion of the electrons enhances their interactions.

In our case, taking into account the nanowire’s cross section, the boundary scattering (mostly temperature independent) becomes an important inelastic scattering mechanism at low temperatures leading to a finite size effect. As a result, a localized character for the electron’s transport is achieved. Then, the observed negative temperature coefficient can be interpreted as a result of the mixture of the two scattering process (electron–electron and boundary collisions) at low temperatures, both leading to a localization character for the electron transport. This effect can be studied by using magnetoresistance experiments.

*T*and for different magnetic field intensities. From these curves we see that the expected ln

*T*dependence of the resistivity is clearly observed until ∼0.3 T when the magnetic field is strong enough to break the quantum interference. For higher magnetic fields, the resistance does not exhibit the negative temperature coefficient (also, the larger samples do not show any dependence on the magnetic field, as expected).

*L*

_{ϕ}= 72 nm). From the theory, the critical

*B*field needed to suppress the weak localization is given by

where*W* is the width of the wire [22]. Using the results presented in Fig. 4, one finds *B*_{
C
} = 0.84 T: below this value the weak localization regime should determine the behavior of the conductivity of the sample, as observed.

This result is twofold: first, the weak localization is suppressed at high*B* fields as expected and confirming that the negative temperature coefficient is a result of the disorder-induced localization. Second, it indirectly gives an evidence of a transition from one-dimensional (weak field) to three-dimensional localization (high field). In fact, for weak fields the magnetic length
is greater than the width of the samples and*L*_{ϕ}: from the viewpoint of the electrons, the nanowire is an one-dimensional system. Otherwise, the nanowire behaves essentially like a three-dimensional system. In both cases, the disorder coming from the boundary scattering plays the fundamental role giving the main scattering mechanism for the diffusive electron transport.

## Conclusion

Electronic properties of self-assembled high crystalline quality tin-doped indium oxide were studied. We report on the experimental data and the related analysis on the resistance and magnetoresistance of these single crystal nanowires. The weak localization was pointed as the mechanism responsible by the negative temperature coefficient of the resistance at low temperatures. From the magneto-resistance data we quantified the characteristic phase-breaking length of the system; additionally, we observed a three- to one-dimensional transition for the localization character of the resistance.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgment

The authors thank the Brazilian research funding Agencies FAPESP and CNPq for the financial support of this work.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Pan Z, Dai Z, Wang Z:
*Science*. 2001,**291:**1947. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXhvVSnu7s%3D]; Bibcode number [2001Sci...291.1947P] 10.1126/science.1058120View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Duan X, Huang Y, Cui Y, Wang J, Lieber CM:
*Nature*. 2001,**409:**6649. 10.1038/35051047View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Kappler J, Tomescu A, Barsan N, Weimar U:
*Thin Solid Films*. 2001,**391:**186. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXksV2lt7w%3D]; Bibcode number [2001TSF...391..186K] 10.1016/S0040-6090(01)00980-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Radecka M, Przewoznik J, Zakrzewska K:
*Thin Solid Films*. 2001,**39:**247. 10.1016/S0040-6090(01)00990-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Li C, Zhang D, Han S, Liu X, Tang T, Zhou C:
*Adv. Mater.*. 2003,**15:**143. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXhtlCmuro%3D] 10.1002/adma.200390029View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Chiquito AJ, Lanfredi AJC, Oliveira RFM, Pozzi LP, Leite ER:
*Nanoletters*. 2007,**7:**1439. ; ; View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Wagner RS, Ellis WC:
*Appl. Phys. Lett.*. 1964,**4:**89. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaF2cXls1yhug%3D%3D]; Bibcode number [1964ApPhL...4...89W] 10.1063/1.1753975View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Pusep YuA, Chiquito AJ, Mergulhão S, Toropov AI:
*J. Appl. Phys.*. 2002,**92:**3830. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XntF2nurs%3D]; Bibcode number [2002JAP....92.3830P] 10.1063/1.1506002View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Chiquito AJ, Pusep YuA, Gusev GM, Toropov AI:
*Phys. Rev. B*. 2002,**66:**035323. Bibcode number [2002PhRvB..66c5323C] Bibcode number [2002PhRvB..66c5323C] 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.035323View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Leite ER, Gomes JW, Oliveira MM, Lee EJH, Longo E, Varela JA, Paskocimas CA, Boschi TM, Lanciotti F, Pizani PS, Soares PC:
*J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.*. 2002,**2:**125. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XksVyksb4%3D] 10.1166/jnn.2002.094View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Orlandi MO, Aguiar R, Lanfredi AJC, Longo E, Varela JA, Leite ER:
*Appl. Phys. A*. 2005,**80:**23. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXpslGktb4%3D]; Bibcode number [2005ApPhA..80...23O] 10.1007/s00339-004-3027-xView ArticleGoogle Scholar - White WB, Keramidas VG:
*Spectrochim. Acta*. 1972,**28A:**501.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Sobotta H, Neumann H, Kühn G, Riede V:
*Cryst. Res. Technol.*. 1990,**25:**61. COI number [1:CAS:528:DyaK3cXhsVyit78%3D] 10.1002/crat.2170250112View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Ziman JM:
*Electrons and Phonons*. Claredon Press, Oxford; 1960.Google Scholar - Bid A, Bora A, Raychaudhuri AK:
*Phys. Rev. B*. 2006,**74:**035426. Bibcode number [2006PhRvB..74c5426B] Bibcode number [2006PhRvB..74c5426B] 10.1103/PhysRevB.74.035426View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Heremans JP, Thrush CM, Morelli DT, Wu MC:
*Phys. Rev. Lett.*. 2003,**91:**076804. Bibcode number [2003PhRvL..91g6804H] Bibcode number [2003PhRvL..91g6804H] 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.076804View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Zhang Y, Li L, Li GH, Zhang LD:
*Phys. Rev. B*. 2006,**73:**113403. Bibcode number [2006PhRvB..73k3403Z] Bibcode number [2006PhRvB..73k3403Z] 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.113403View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Beutler DE, Giordano N:
*Phys. Rev. B*. 1988,**8:**38.Google Scholar - Wu W, Brongersma SH, Van Hove M, Maex K:
*Appl. Phys. Lett.*. 2004,**84:**2838. ; COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXivFOgsLo%3D]; Bibcode number [2004ApPhL..84.2838W] 10.1063/1.1703844View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Kind H, Yan H, Messer B, Law M, Yang P:
*Adv. Mater.*. 2002,**14:**158. COI number [1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhtVaru78%3D] 10.1002/1521-4095(20020116)14:2<158::AID-ADMA158>3.0.CO;2-WView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Datta S:
*Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems*. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 1997.Google Scholar