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Table 1 Theat and intrinsic properties of the carbon group elements for synthesizing ZnO nano/microstructures

From: Thermal Evaporation Synthesis and Properties of ZnO Nano/Microstructures Using Carbon Group Elements as the Reducing Agents

Reducing agent Theat(°C) IE = (IE1 + IE2; kJ mol−1) Vapor pressure (torr)a Melting point (°C)
Graphite 1,000 3,439   3,652
Si 850 2,364 4.0 × 10−11 1,410
Ge 700 2,299 2.0 × 10−11 937
Sn 800 2,219 7.1 × 10−7 231
Pb 800 2,165 5.0 × 10−2 328
  1. a Reference [20]