Frequency Shift of Carbon-Nanotube-Based Mass Sensor Using Nonlocal Elasticity Theory
© The Author(s) 2010
Received: 15 May 2010
Accepted: 19 July 2010
Published: 1 August 2010
The frequency equation of carbon-nanotube-based cantilever sensor with an attached mass is derived analytically using nonlocal elasticity theory. According to the equation, the relationship between the frequency shift of the sensor and the attached mass can be obtained. When the nonlocal effect is not taken into account, the variation of frequency shift with the attached mass on the sensor is compared with the previous study. According to this study, the result shows that the frequency shift of the sensor increases with increasing the attached mass. When the attached mass is small compared with that of the sensor, the nonlocal effect is obvious and increasing nonlocal parameter decreases the frequency shift of the sensor. In addition, when the location of the attached mass is closer to the free end, the frequency shift is more significant and that makes the sensor reveal more sensitive. When the attached mass is small, a high sensitivity is obtained.
Carbon nanotube (CNT) have many potential applications in nanobiological devices and nanomechanical systems because of excellent mechanical properties, chemical and thermal stability, and hollow geometry [1–4]. In addition, the CNT is ultralight and is highly sensitive to its environment changes. Therefore, many researchers have explored the potential of using CNT as nanomechanical resonators in atomic-scale mass sensor [5–7]. For example, Chiu et al.  utilized the detection of shifts in the resonance frequency of the nanotubes to measure nanotube resonator vibration characteristics.
The atomic-scale mass sensing with a resonator is based on the fact that the resonant frequency is sensitive to the attached mass. The attached mass causes a shift to the resonant frequency of resonator. In addition, the shift in resonant frequency is associated with the location of attached mass. To analyze the effects of adsorbed mass and its location on the resonant frequency of CNT, the continuum models based on beam as well as shell was used . Recently, Dai et al.  studied the nanomechanical mass detection using nonlinear oscillators based on continuum elastic model and obtained that nonlinear oscillation leads to the unique resonant frequency shift due to mass adsorption, quite different from that in harmonic oscillation. The ultimate goal of a resonator sensor is single molecule detection capability. Chowdhury et al.  presented an equivalent approximation model to analyze frequency shift of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) due to an attached particle fixed at a location.
It is more useful for a mass sensor to simultaneously detect the mass and position of the attached particle. In this Letter, frequency shift of carbon-nanotube-based sensor with an attached mass is studied using nonlocal elasticity theory, which is a modified classical elasticity theory. This theory with long-range interactions is often applied to analyze the vibration behaviour of CNT [11–13]. In addition, the effects of nonlocal parameter, attached mass and its location on the frequency shift of a cantilevered SWCNT are analyzed.
where ω is the angular frequency.
where m = M/ρAL and ξ = c/L are the dimensionless mass and position of the attached mass, respectively; w1 and w2 are the dimensionless transverse displacements on the left and right sides of the attached mass, respectively.
The boundary conditions given by Eq. 5 correspond to conditions of zero displacement and the zero slope at fixed end (x = 0), Eqs. 6 and 7 are zero moment and the zero shear force at free end (x = 1), respectively. Eqs. 8, 9, 10 and 11 are the compatibility conditions at the location of the attached mass .
and C1, C2, C3,…C8 are constants.
The above frequency equation expressed in dimensionless wave number k for the free vibration of a cantilever beam can also be found in the textbook about vibration .
Results and Discussion
In this Letter, the frequency shift and sensitivity of carbon-nanotube-based sensor with an attached mass was studied using nonlocal elasticity theory. The relationship equation between the frequency shift of the sensor and the attached mass was derived analytically. When the nonlocal effect was not taken into account, the result was compared with the previous study, which adopted a simplified method and obtained an approximate result. According to this study, the result showed that increasing the nonlocal parameter obviously decreased the frequency shift of the sensor when the attached mass was small compared with that of the sensor. The value of frequency shift was larger when the location of the attached mass was closer to the free end. In addition, a high sensitivity of the sensor was revealed when the attached mass was small. However, the sensitivity quickly dropped as the location of the attached mass was closed to the fixed end.
The authors wish to thank the National Science Council of the Republic of China in Taiwan for providing financial support for this study under Projects NSC 99-2221-E-168-019 and NSC 99-2221-E-168-031.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
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