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Table 1 Low temperature (≤500°C) growth of carbon nanotubes/nanofibres using PECVD methods

From: Plasma-Assisted Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes

  Temperature °C Power W Type of plasma a Feedstock Catalysts Orientation Reference
MWNTs/CNFs
1 25 200 RF CH4:H2 = 30:50 sccm Ni powder (4–7 mm) Random [38]
2 25 200/400 DECR C2H2/N2 1 sccm 2 nm Ni film Random [39]
3 120 NA DC Ratio C2H2:NH3 = 1:4 6 nm Ni film Vertically aligned [27]
4 200 1,000/60 ICP CH4 + H2 = 30 sccm 33 nm Ni film Vertically aligned [40]
5 200 NA DC C2H2:NH3 = 30:200 sccm 6 nm Ni film Vertically aligned [17]
6 250 20 DC C2H2:NH3 = 50:200 sccm Ni/Co nanoparticles Random [25]
7 370 500 Microwave CH4/H2 Fe-Si film Vertically aligned [41]
8 400 350 RF CH4:H2 = 0.4:20 sccm 100 nm Ni film Vertically aligned [42]
9 450 180 RF C2H2:NH3 = 5:20 sccm 40–100 nm Ni films Vertically aligned [43]
10 500 1,000 ICP Pure CH4 30 nm Ni film Vertically aligned [44]
11 500 <20 DC C2H2:NH3 = 50:200 sccm Ni/Fe/Co Vertically aligned [24]
SWNTs
12 450 15 Remote RF CH4:Ar = 60:15 sccm Fe/FeMo nanoparticles Random [45]/[46]
13 500 5 RF C2H4:H2 = 10:40 1 nm Fe film Vertically aligned [47]
  1. a RF radio frequency, DC direct current, ICP inductively coupled plasma