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Table 1 Solar thermal nanofluid comparison table

From: Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors

Type Graphite Al Copper Silver Gold
Particle, vol.% 0.0004 0.001 0.004 0.004 0.004
Commercially available Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Surfactant, vol.% 0.5 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
1M NaOH, vol.% (achieve pH 9 to 10) 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003
Sonication time, min 45 30 30 30 30
Collector depth, cm 10 10 10 10 10
Approximate cost, $/L 0.52 0.64 1.85 3.65 233
  1. Assumes pure water base - where water + stabilizers = $0.5/L).