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Table 1 Summary of experimental studies on convective heat transfer properties of nanofluids

From: Experimental and theoretical studies of nanofluid thermal conductivity enhancement: a review

Reference Nanofluids Flow nature Findings
Pak and Cho [91] dp = 13 nm spherical Al2O3-water
dp = 27 nm spherical TiO2-water
Tube/turbulent Nu is 30% larger than conventional base fluid and larger than Dittus-Boelter prediction
Li and Xuan [92] dp < 100 nm spherical Cu-water Tube/turbulent Nu is larger than Dittus-Boelter prediction when volume fraction φ > 0.5%
Wen and Ding [93] dp = 27-56 nm spherical Al2O3-water Tube/laminar Nu > 4.36 for fully-developed pipe flow with constant wall heat flux
Ding [94] dp > 100 nm rodlike carbon nanotube-water Tube/laminar Nu increase more than 300% at Re = 800
Heris [95] dp = 20 nm spherical Al2O3-water Tube/laminar Nu measured is larger than Nu of pure water
Williams [49] dp = 46 nm spherical Al2O3-water
dp = 60 nm spherical ZrO2-water
Tube/turbulent Nu of nanofluids can be predicted by traditional correlations and models. No abnormal heat transfer enhancement was observed.
Kolade [37] dp = 40-50 nm spherical Al2O3-water rodlike carbon nanotube-oil Tube/laminar Nu is apparently larger than pure based fluid
Duangthongsuk [14] dp = 21 nm spherical TiO2-water Tube/turbulent Pak and Cho (1998) correlation show better agreement to experimental data of Nu than Xuan and Li (2002) correlation
Rea [96] dp = 50 nm spherical Al2O3-water
dp = 50 nm spherical ZrO2-water
Tube/laminar Nu of Al2O3-water nanofluid show up to 27% more than pure water, ZrO2-water displays much lower enhancement.
Jung [90] dp = 170 nm spherical Al2O3-water
dp = 170 nm spherical Al2O3-ethylene glycol
Rectangular microchannel/laminar Nu increases with increasing the Reynolds number in laminar flow regime, appreciable enhancement of Nu is measured
Heris [97] spherical Al2O3-water Tube/laminar Nu increases with increasing the Peclet number and φ, Brownian motion may play role in convective heat transfer enhancement