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Table 2 Parameters of the stable nanofluids

From: Stability and rheology of dilute TiO2-water nanofluids

Sample Powder Base solution pH ξ (mV) Conc. TiO2 (wt.%) Conc. TiO2 (vol.%)
A1+ A1 10-2 M HCl 2.4 69.4 1.2 0.31
A1-a A1 10-3 M NaOH 12.4 -42.7 0.8b 0.2a
A2+ A2 10-2 M HCl 2.4 81.2 2.4 0.65
A2-a A2 10-3 M NaOH 12.4 -44.3 1.2* 0.3*
A3+ A3 10-2 M HCl 2.4 87 1.4 0.36
A3-a A3 10-3 M NaOH 12.3 -44.5 0.8* 0.2*
R1+a R1 10-2 M HCl 2.4 - 0.2* 0.05*
R1- R1 10-2 M NaOH 12.4 -65.2 0.2 0.05
R2+a R2 10-2 M HCl 2.4 34.9 0.2a 0.05a
R2- R2 10-2 M NaOH 12.4 -61.6 0.3 0.07
  1. Volumetric concentrations were calculated using the densities from Table 1.
  2. aUnstable samples with rough estimates of particle concentration.