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Table 1 Summary of the main convective and pool boiling nanofluid journal articles in the last seven years

From: A review on boiling heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids

Author names [reference] Year Type of boiling Heater type Nanofluid Relevant information
Faulkner et al. [19] 2003 Convective - Ceramic nanoparticles in water Parallel microchannel heat sink
Limited improvement in overall heat transfer rate with nanofluid
Lee and Mudawar [18] 2007 Convective - Al2O3 nanoparticles in water Microchannel (copper) cooling operations
Single-phase, laminar flow → CHF enhancement
Two-phase flow → nanoparticle agglomerates at channel exit, catastrophic failure
Peng et al. [20] 2009a Convective - CuO nanoparticles in R-113 Flow boiling inside copper tube
BHT enhancement (up to 30%)
Enhancement caused by reduction of boundary layer height, due to disturbance of nanoparticles and formation of molecular adsorption layer on nanoparticle surface
Peng et al. [21] 2009b Convective - CuO nanoparticles in R-113 Flow boiling inside copper tube
Frictional pressure drop larger (up to 21%) than pure R-113, and increases with nanoparticle concentration
Boudouh et al. [22] 2010 Convective - Copper nanoparticles in water 50 parallel minichannels of dh = 800 μm
Local BHT increases with nanoparticle concentration
Higher ΔP and lower Tsurface with nanofluid compared to pure water at same mass flux
Cu-water nanofluid suitable for microchannel cooling
Kim et al. [23] 2010 Convective - Al2O3, ZnO, and Diamond nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement (up to 53%), increased with mass flux and nanoparticle concentration
BHT small enhancement at low heat flux
Nanoparticle deposition on heater → CHF enhancement
Kim et al. [24] 2010 Convective - Al2O3 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement (up to 70%) at low nanoparticle concentration (<0.01 vol.%)
Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface → wettability increased
Henderson et al. [25] 2010 Convective - SiO2 nanoparticles in R-134a and CuO nanoparticles in R-134a/polyolester oil BHT deterioration by 55% compared to pure R-134a
Nanoparticle deposition on copper tube walls
Ahn et al. [17] 2010 Convective and pool Cu plate Al2O3 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement for Pool and Convective boiling
Enhancement due to nanoparticle deposition on heater surface → wettability increased
You et al. [4] 2003 Pool Cu plate Al2O3 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement (up to 200%)
BHT unchanged
Enhancement not related to increased thermal conductivity of nanofluids
Witharana [26] 2003 Pool Cu plate Au nanoparticles in water BHT increase (between 11 and 21%) at low nanoparticle concentrations (0.001 wt%)
Increasing particle concentration, BHT enhancement increased
Das et al. [13] 2003a Pool Cylinder cartridge heater Al2O3 nanoparticles in water BHT degradation & wall superheat increase with increasing nanoparticle concentration
Limited application for boiling of nanofluids
Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface
Das et al. [27] 2003b Pool Stainless steel tubes Al2O3 nanoparticles in water BHT degradation & increase in wall superheat with increasing nanoparticle concentration
Boiling performance strongly dependent on tube diameter
BHT degradation less for narrow channels than for larger channels at high heat flux
Vassallo et al. [28] 2004 Pool NiCr wire SiO2 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement (up to 60%)
No change in BHT
Wen and Ding [29] 2005 Pool Stainless steel plate Al2O3 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement (up to 40%)
Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface
Bang and Chang [30] 2005 Pool Stainless steel plate Al2O3 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement (up to 50%)
BHT degradation
Nanoparticle deposit on heater surface, porous layer formed → wettability increased
Milanova and Kumar [31] 2005 Pool NiCr wire SiO2 nanoparticles in water (also in salts and strong electrolyte solution) CHF enhancement three times greater than with pure water
Nanofluids in salts minimise potential increase in heat transfer due to clustering
Nanofluids in a strong electrolyte, higher CHF obtained than in buffer solutions due to difference in surface area
Kim et al. [32] 2006 Pool Stainless steel plate Al2O3, ZrO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles in water Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface
Irregular porous structure formed
Increased wettability → CHF enhancement
Kim et al. [33] 2006a Pool NiCr wire TiO2 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement (up to 200%)
Kim et al. [34] 2006b Pool NiCr and Ti wires Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement
Nanoparticle deposition on heated wire
CHF of pure water measured using a nanoparticle-coated heater
Nanoparticle deposition on heater → CHF enhancement
Chopkar et al. [35] 2007 Pool Cu surface ZrO2 nanoparticles in water BHT unchanged
Surfactants added to nanofluid as a stabiliser
Boiling renders heater surface smoother
Kim et al. [36] 2007 Pool Stainless steel wire Al2O3, ZrO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement (up to 80%) at low concentrations (<0.1 vol.%)
Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface → porous layer, wettability increased
BHT deterioration
Kim et al. [37] 2007 Pool NiCr wire Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement (up to 100%)
Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface
Increased wettability → CHF enhancement
Park and Jung [38] 2007 Pool Stainless steel tube Carbon nanotubes (CNT) in water and R-22 CNTs increase BHT (up to 29%) for both base fluids
No surface fouling observed with CNTs
Ding et al. [39] 2007 Pool Stainless steel plate Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in water BHT enhancement for both TiO2 and Al2O3
BHT enhancement increases with nanoparticle concentration, and enhancement is more sensitive for TiO2 than Al2O3 → nanoparticle properties affect BHT
Coursey and Kim [40] 2008 Pool Cu and CuO plates, and glass, and gold coated plates Al2O3 nanoparticles in ethanol and also in water Strong relationship between boiling performance and fluid/surface combination and particle concentration
CHF enhancement (up to 37% for poor wetting system)
CHF enhancement mechanism is ability of fluid to improve surface wettability
Surface treatment alone resulted in similar CHF enhancement as nanofluids, but at 20°C lower wall superheat
Milanova and Kumar [41] 2008 Pool NiCr wire SiO2 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement 50% with no nanoparticle deposition on wire
CHF enhancement three times greater with nanoparticle deposition
Liu and Liao [42] 2008 Pool Cu plate CuO and SiO2 nanoparticles in water and (C2H5OH) BHT degradation as compared to pure base fluids
CHF enhancement
Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface → wettability increased
Trisaksri and Wongwises [43] 2009 Pool Cu cylindrical tube TiO2 nanoparticles in R-141b BHT deteriorated with an increase in nanoparticle concentration
At low concentrations (0.01 vol%), no effect on BHT
Golubovic et al. [44] 2009 Pool NiCr wire Al2O3 and Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement (up to 50% for Al2O3 and 33% for Bi2O3)
CHF increases with nanoparticle concentration, until a certain value of heat flux
Average particle size has negligible effect on CHF
Nanoparticle material effects CHF
Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface → wettability increased
Kim et al. [45] 2010 Pool NiCr wire Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement, with large wall superheat
Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface, surface modification results in same CHF enhancement in pure water as for nanofluids
Nanoparticle layer increases stability of evaporating microlayer under bubble
Soltani et al. [46] 2010 Pool Stainless steel cartridge heater Al2O3 nanoparticles in CMC solution (carboxy methyl cellulose) BHT degradation, more pronounced at higher CMC concentrations
BHT enhanced with nanoparticles and CMC solution, and BHT increases with nanoparticle concentration (up to 25%)
Liu et al. [47] 2010 Pool Cu plate Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in water CHF and BHT enhancement
CNT concentration has strong influence on both BHT and CHF enhancement, an optimal mass concentration of CNTs exists
Decrease in pressure, increase in CHF and BHT enhancement
CNT porous layer deposited on heater surface after boiling
Kwark et al. [15] 2010 Pool Cu plate Al2O3, CuO and diamond nanoparticles in water CHF enhancement
CHF increases with nanoparticle concentration, until a certain heat flux
CHF enhancement potential decreases with increasing system pressure
BHT coefficient unchanged
After repeated testing, CHF remains unchanged, but BHT degrades
3 nanofluids exhibit same performance
Nanoparticle deposit on heater surface
Investigated mechanisms behind nanoparticle adhesion and surface deposit
Suriyawong and Wongwises [48] 2010 Pool Cu and Al plates TiO2 nanoparticles in water 2 surface roughness (0.2 and 4 μm)
4 μm roughness gives higher BHT than 0.2 μm roughness
Copper surfaces
At low nanoparticle concentrations BHT increased (15% at 0.2 μm, and 4% at 4 μm roughness)
Aluminium surfaces
BHT degraded for all nanoparticle concentrations and surface roughness