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Table 1 List of fabrication parameters and properties for carbon/water nanofluid

From: Preparation and characterization of carbon nanofluid by a plasma arc nanoparticles synthesis system

Name NC-70 NC-80
Working currents (A) 70 80
Working voltage (V) 24.3~24.7 26.2~26.8
Working power (kW) 1.70~1.73 2.10~2.15
Pulse frequency (Hz) 25 25
Plasma Ar (L/min) 1.5
Shield Ar (L/min) 9
Carrier-gas/Ar (L/min) 18
Distilled water volume (ml) 500
Manufacturing time (s) 1,000
Particle size (Z-average, nm)a 244.4 284.6
Zeta potential (mV)a -24.4 -21.2
Concentration (wt.%)a 0.02 0.04
  1. aData are measured and calculated at 25°C.