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Table 1 Enhancement of thermal conductivity of water on addition of nanoparticles reported in the literature [13, 14, 1742].

From: Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

Particle material Particle size (nm) Concentration (vol.%) Thermal conductivity ratio (Keff/Kf) Remarks Reference
Cu 100 2.50-7.50 1.24-1.78 Laurate salt Surfactant [18]
  100-200 0.05 1.116 Spherical and square [19]
  Not available 0.05 1.036 -  
  130-200 0.05 1.085 Spherical and square  
  75-100 0.1 1.238 Spherical and square  
  50-100 0.1 1.238 Spherical and square  
  100-300 0.1 1.110 Spherical, square, and needle  
  130-300 0.2 1.097 Spherical  
  200 × 500 0.2 1.132 Needle  
  250 0.2 1.036 Spherical, square, and needle  
Ag 60-70 0.001 1.30 30°C [20]
    1.04 40°C  
  8-15 0.10-0.39 1.03-1.11 - [21]
Au 10-20 0.00013 1.03 30°C (citerate reduced) [20]
    1.05 40°C (citerate reduced)  
   0.00026 1.05 30°C (citerate reduced)  
    1.08 60°C (citerate reduced)  
Fe 10 0.2-0.55 1.14-1.18 - [22]
Al2Cu 30 1.0-2.0 1.48-1.98 - [23]
  65   1.4-1.78 -  
  104   1.35-1.60 -  
Ag2Al 30 1.0-2.0 1.5-2.1 - [23]
  80   1.4-1.9 -  
  120   1.3-1.75 -  
CuO 36 5 1.6 - [13]
  23.6 1.00-3.41 1.03-1.12 - [24]
  23 4.50-9.70 1.18-1.36 - [17]
  28.6 1.00-4.00 1.07-1.14 21°C [25]
    1.22-1.26 36°C  
    1.29-1.36 51°C  
  - 1.00 1.05 - [26]
  25 0.03-0.30 1.04-1.12 pH = 3 [27]
    1.02-1.07 pH = 6  
  29 2.00-6.00 1.35-1.36 28.9°C [28]
    1.35-1.50 31.3°C  
    1.38-1.51 33.4°C  
  29 0-16 1.00-1.24 - [29]
Al2O3 13 1.30-4.30 1.109-1.324 31.85°C [30]
    1.100-1.296 46.85°C  
    1.092-1.262 66.85°C  
  38.4 1.00-4.30 1.03-1.10 - [24]
  28 3.00-5.00 1.12-1.16 - [17]
  60.4 1.80-5.00 1.07-1.21 - [31]
  60.4 5.00 1.23 - [32]
  38.4 1.00-4.00 1.02-1.09 21°C [25]
    1.07-1.16 36°C  
    1.10-1.24 51°C  
  27-56 1.6 1.10 Sodium dodeculbenzene sulfonate [33]
  11 1.00 1.09 21°C [34]
    1.15 71°C  
  47   1.03 21°C  
    1.10 71°C  
  150   1.004 21°C  
    1.09 71°C  
  47 4.00 1.08 21°C  
    1.29 71°C  
  36 2.0-10.0 1.08-1.11 27.5°C [28]
    1.15-1.22 32.5°C  
    1.18-1.29 34.7°C  
  36-47 0-18 1.00-1.31 - [29]
SiO2 12 1.10-2.30 1.010-1.011 31.85°C [30]
    1.009-1.010 46.85°C  
   1.10-2.40 1.005-1.007 66.85°C  
  - 1.00 1.03 - [26]
  15-20 1.00-4.00 1.02-1.05 - [21]
TiO2 27 3.25-4.30 1.080-1.105 31.85°C [30]
    1.084-1.108 46.85°C  
    1.075-1.099 86.85°C  
  15 0.50-5.00 1.05-1.30 Sphere (CTAB) [35]
  10 × 40   1.08-1.33 Rod (CTAB)  
SiC 26 4.2 1.158 Sphere [36]
  600 4.00 1.229 Cylinder  
MWCNT 15 × 30000 0.40-1.00 1.03-1.07 - [37]
  100 × >50000 0.60 1.38 Sodium dodecyl sulfate [38]
  20-60 dia 0.04-0.84 1.04-1.24 Sodium dodecyl benzene 20°C [39]
    1.05-1.31 Sodium dodecyl benzene 45°C  
  130 × >10000 0.60 1.34 CATB [40]
  - 0-1 wt% 1.00-1.10 Gum Arabic 20°C [41]
    1.00-1.30 Gum Arabic 25°C  
    1.00-1.80 Gum Arabic 30°C  
  - 1.00 1.07 - [26]
  - 0.6 1.39 SDS 0.1 mass% [42]
    1.23 SDS 0.5 m ass%  
    1.30 SDS 2 mass%  
    1.28 SDS 3 mass%  
    1.19 CTAB 0.1 mass%  
    1.34 CTAB 1 mass%  
    1.34 CTAB 3 mass%  
    1.28 CTAB 6 mass%  
    1.11 Triton 0.17 mass%  
    1.12 Triton 0.35 mass%  
    1.13 Triton 0.5 mass%  
    1.11 Triton 1 mass%  
    1.28 Nanosperse 0.7 mass%  
   0.75 1.03 CTAB 1 mass%  
    1.02 CTAB 3 mass%  
   1 1.08 CTAB 5.5 mass%