Selective crystallization with preferred lithium-ion storage capability of inorganic materials
© Liu et al; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 15 November 2011
Accepted: 21 February 2012
Published: 21 February 2012
Lithium-ion batteries are supposed to be a key method to make a more efficient use of energy. In the past decade, nanostructured electrode materials have been extensively studied and have presented the opportunity to achieve superior performance for the next-generation batteries which require higher energy and power densities and longer cycle life. In this article, we reviewed recent research activities on selective crystallization of inorganic materials into nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and discuss how selective crystallization can improve the electrode performance of materials; for example, selective exposure of surfaces normal to the ionic diffusion paths can greatly enhance the ion conductivity of insertion-type materials; crystallization of alloying-type materials into nanowire arrays has proven to be a good solution to the electrode pulverization problem; and constructing conversion-type materials into hollow structures is an effective approach to buffer the volume variation during cycling. The major goal of this review is to demonstrate the importance of crystallization in energy storage applications.
Materials crystallized with unique sizes and structures are expected to find various novel applications [1–5]. The discovery of novel materials, processes, and phenomena provides fresh opportunities for the development of innovative systems and devices, which is likely to have a profound impact in areas such as energy, electronics, medicine, and biotechnology [6–12]. Batteries are a major technological challenge in the present society as they are a key method to make a more efficient use of energy [13–15]. Although the current lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology has conquered the portable electronic markets and is still improving, the use of LIB in the powering of plug-in electric vehicles or the storage of renewable energies (wind, solar) is still challenging . The performance of LIB depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the electrode materials. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been made to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power densities, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost [17–20]. These developments rely on new ways to prepare electrode materials via eco-efficient processes; achieving these goals will require the inputs of multiple disciplines.
Insertion reaction mechanism:(1)
Li-alloy reaction mechanism:(2)(3)
Conversion reaction mechanism:(4)
Insertion-type materials containing cobalt are the most studied cathodes for LIB . They show high stability in a high-voltage range; however, cobalt has limited availability in nature and is toxic, which is a tremendous drawback for mass manufacturing. Manganese offers a low-cost substitution with a high thermal threshold and excellent rate capabilities but limited cycling behavior . Olivines are nontoxic and have a moderate capacity with low fade due to cycling, but their conductivity is quite low . Alloy anodes have high capacities but show a dramatic volume change in charging and discharging, resulting in poor cycling behavior , a similar problem also found in conversion-type materials .
Nanostructuring electrode materials has been proven to be an effective strategy to alleviate these above problems [27–31]. There are several advantages associated with the development of nanomaterials for LIBs , which include (1) better accommodation of the strain of lithium insertion/removal, improving cycle performance; (2) new reactions which are not possible in bulk materials may happen; (3) better electrode/electrolyte contact, and (4) short path lengths for electron and Li+ transport. Here, we summarize recent scientific research and development of LIB electrode materials upon novel nanoscience and nanotechnology progresses. The focus is on research activities toward the selective crystallization of inorganic materials with preferred shapes, sizes, and structures, which can influence ionic diffusion and transport, electron transfer, surface/interface interaction, and the electrochemical reactions. The effect of selective crystallization on the LIB performances of electrode materials is discussed in detail according to different Li storage mechanisms. The current review shows that the selective crystallization route plays a predominant role in the development of next-generation LIBs.
Insertion-type materials involve most cathode materials and some anode materials (such as graphite, Li4Ti5O12, and TiO2). The first generation of LIB uses LiCoO2 and graphite as the positive and negative electrodes; the redox operation of both versus lithium is based on intercalation reactions. Alternative materials such as LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and Li4Ti5O12 have also reached the market at different levels, bringing about incremental improvements in performance . Nonetheless, all these materials have intrinsic capacity limitations, which are derived from their redox mechanisms and structural aspects, i.e., the intrinsic redox activity of the transition metals and the changes the crystal structure can withstand. Such limitation handicaps the device in terms of energy density. Power density of these cathode materials with bulk sizes is also generally low due to the high level of polarization at high charge/discharge rates . Therefore, the selective crystallization approach was introduced to overcome these shortcomings by decreasing diffusion paths for mass transport and increasing the surface area for charge transfer.
Besides increasing capacity, a high cell voltage resulting from a high (cathode) and low (anode) standard redox potential of the respective electrode redox reaction can also greatly improve the energy density of LIB. Due to the redox potential of an intercalation compound which mainly tracks the iono-covalency of the metal-X bonding, selective crystallization of cathode materials with fluorine substitution appears to be quite an attractive route to increase the material redox voltage as F is very electronegative . Recently, Barpanda et al. reported a polyanionic material that crystallizes in the triplite structure Li(Fe1-δMnδ)SO4F . An open-circuit voltage of 3.9 V has been achieved, exceeding that of LiFePO4 by 450 mV. Also, this new triplite phase is capable of reversibly releasing and reinserting 0.7 to 0.8 Li ions with a volume change of only 0.6% (compared with 7% and 10% for LiFePO4 and LiFeSO4F, respectively), to give a capacity of 125 mAh g-1. Such a material could become a promising cathode to replace LiFePO4. These new types of polyanionic compound, having the triplite structure, provide valuable information in the search for even better cathode materials.
In the case of anode materials, the formation of a solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer on which metallic lithium is deposited during a fast charge of the battery should also be a concern. The dendrites can grow to short-circuit the battery and ignite the electrolyte. Therefore, safety concerns have led to a search for anode materials having a redox couple in the range of 1.0 to 1.5 eV below the Fermi energy of lithium. The spinel Li4Ti5O12 is reported to be a stable anode operating on the Ti(IV)/Ti(III) redox couple located at 1.5 V versus Li+/Li. It is capable of a fast charge and a long cycle life because no SEI layer is formed [46–48]. However, it has a low specific capacity (approximately 140 mAh g-1), and the high redox potential (1.5 V) reduces the energy density of a cell using this anode. On the basis of these considerations, different niobium-based oxides such as KNb5O13 and K6Nb10.8O30 have been investigated, which exhibit a reversible Li insertion toward the targeted voltage range of 1.0 to 1.5 V versus Li+/Li [49, 50]. More recently, the mixed titanium-niobium oxides such as TiNb2O7 have been selectively crystallized as the anode for lithium batteries with some similar electrochemical properties [51, 52]. Notably, carbon-coated TiNb2O7 gives a reversible specific capacity of approximately 285 mAh g-1 cycled between 1.0 and 2.5 V versus Li+/Li with a Coulombic efficiency over 98% . These new-type anodes provided promising candidates for batteries with high rate, high cycle life, and better safety.
From the above discussion, it is evident that selective crystallization of insertion-type materials into nanosized particles and shapes with specific facets can effectively enhance the lithium-ion diffusion rate and improve their cycling performance; these improvements are all closely related to the crystal structure and reaction mechanisms of this kind of materials. As an alternative route, tuning the crystal structure by selective atom substitution can also improve the energy density of LIB by increasing the cell voltage.
Interstitial-free, 3D transition-metal oxides (MxOy, M = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Cu, etc.) are capable of incorporating more than one Li per 3D metal, hence giving high Li storage capacities . The Li storage mechanism of the MxOy differs from the Li-intercalation and Li-alloying mechanisms. Transition-metal oxides are reduced to metal in the lithiation process (Equation 4). During the first reduction of the metal oxide, highly reactive metallic nanodomains embedded in a Li2O matrix can be generated in situ, which contributed to the reversibility of this reaction . Based on this mechanism, reversible lithium storage proceeds more easily with the nanostructured oxides. Therefore, selective crystallization of transition-metal oxides has a significant role for their LIB performances. Similar to the Li-alloying process, the conversion reaction leads to volume variation upon the electrochemical cycling. Conceptually, approaches such as constructing hollow structures or nano-compositing are applicable to conversion-type anode materials as well.
The use of transition-metal oxides as conversion-type electrodes holds the promise of higher energy density and wealth of compounds, but capacity fading needs to be overcome before practical use in LIB; bulk electrodes fail within a few charge/discharge cycles due to the large volumetric change that occurs during lithiation and delithiation. Selective crystallization into specific structures and composites can have a major impact on the performance and cyclability of the conversion-type anode. Nanoscale morphologies have the potential to achieve long cycling lifetimes and good reversibility as stress management and formation of a stable passivation layer during cycling can be achieved.
Conclusions and outlook
Selective crystallization of electrode materials into nanostructures has presented the opportunity to design novel energy-storage materials for the next-generation, high-performance LIBs with higher energy density, higher power density, and longer cycle life. Due to the high surface area and specific configuration of nanostructured materials, these electrodes can provide high lithium-ion flux across the interface, short diffusion pathways for both Li ions and electrons, abundant active sites for Li storage, and high freedom for volume change during electrochemical charge/discharge process. In this review article, three categories of LIB electrode materials were discussed. The first one is insertion-type materials, which can store Li through an intercalation process. The improved storage ability is closely related to their surface area, crystallinity, as well as the orientation of these crystallites. In the second group, alloying-type materials such as Sn and Si were presented. Nanostructuring these bulk materials into nanowire arrays and dispersing these elements into rigid matrices have been proven to be effective approaches to overcome the poor cycling problems. The third category is conversion-type materials. Their large-scale application is also hindered by the rapid capacity decay during charging/discharging because of the significant volume change. Nanostructures with hollow interiors and nanocomposites have been developed to address this problem. For a specific material, it is hard to achieve a structure which own all advantaged features, and for different materials, the effect of the crystallization feature is not identical; therefore, much necessary work still needs to be done to give a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between nanostructures and their performances.
To realize widespread commercial applications, controlled and large-scale fabrication of nanostructures is required, in which selective crystallization should play a vital role. The future directions of electrode materials for LIBs should focus on exploring new types of lithium-ion redox couples with different electrode reaction mechanisms and designing novel structures and morphologies in order to further increase battery energy/power densities, enhance charge/discharge rate capability, improve service life and safety, and reduce the cost at the same time. The 3D nanoarchitectured cells, in which pillared anodes and cathodes are interdigitated, have already attracted much interest. Developing flexible electrodes and all-solid batteries is a strong demand for meeting the various requirements of modern gadgets, which will also be an important feature of research in future years.
Financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 50872016, 20973033, and 51125009) and the National Natural Science Foundation for Creative Research Group (No. 20921002) are acknowledged.
- Liu J, Liu F, Gao K, Wu J, Xue D: Recent developments in the chemical synthesis of inorganic porous capsules. J Mater Chem 2009, 19: 6073–6084. 10.1039/b900116fView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yan X, Xu D, Xue D: SO42-ions direct the one-dimensional growth of 5Mg(OH)2·MgSO4·2H2O. Acta Mater 2007, 55: 5747–5757. 10.1016/j.actamat.2007.06.023View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu F, Xue D: Controlled fabrication of Nb2O5hollow nanospheres and nanotubes. Mod Phys Lett B 2009, 23: 3769–3775. 10.1142/S0217984909021818View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Xue D: Thermal oxidation strategy towards porous metal oxide hollow architectures. Adv Mater 2008, 20: 2622–2626. 10.1002/adma.200800208View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luo C, Xue D: Mild, quasireverse emulsion route to submicrometer lithium niobate hollow spheres. Langmuir 2006, 22: 9914–9918. 10.1021/la062193vView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu J, Xue D: Controlled etching of hexagonal ZnO architectures in an alcohol thermal process. Mater Res Bull 2010, 45: 295–299. 10.1016/j.materresbull.2009.12.010View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu F, Xue D: One-step solution-based strategy to 3D superstructures of Nb2O5-LiF. Nanosci Nanotechnol Lett 2009, 1: 66–71. 10.1166/nnl.2009.1012View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu J, Xue D: Crystallization of NaNbO3microcubes by a solution-phase ion exchange route. Cryst Eng Comm 2011, 13: 3773–3781.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu F, Xue D: Assembly of nanoscale building blocks at solution/solid interfaces. Mater Res Bull 2010, 45: 329–332. 10.1016/j.materresbull.2009.12.009View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu J, Xue D: Five branching growth patterns in the cubic crystal system: a direct observation of cuprous oxide microcrystals. Acta Mater 2007, 55: 2397–2406. 10.1016/j.actamat.2006.11.032View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu F, Xue D: Self-construction of core-shell TiO2: a colloidal-molecular mediated recrystallization process. Nanosci Nanotechnol Lett 2011, 3: 389–393. 10.1166/nnl.2011.1174View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu F, Xue D: CuS hierarchical architectures by a combination of bottom-up and top-down method. Nanosci Nanotechnol Lett 2011, 3: 440–445. 10.1166/nnl.2011.1172View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chiang YM: Building a better battery. Science 2010, 330: 1485–1486. 10.1126/science.1198591View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kang J, Ko Y, Park J, Kim D: Origin of capacity fading in nano-sized Co3O4electrodes: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study. Nanoscale Res Lett 2008, 3: 390–394. 10.1007/s11671-008-9176-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seo SD, Jin YH, Lee SH, Shim HW, Kim DW: Low-temperature synthesis of CuO-interlaced nanodiscs for lithium ion battery electrodes. Nanoscale Res Lett 2011, 6: 397. 10.1186/1556-276X-6-397View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tarascon JM: Key challenges in future Li-battery research. Phil Trans R Soc A 2010, 368: 3227–3241. 10.1098/rsta.2010.0112View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu F, Song S, Xue D, Zhang H: Folded structured graphene paper for high performance electrode materials. Adv Mater 2012, 24: 1089–1094. 10.1002/adma.201104691View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tarascon JM, Armand M: Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 2001, 414: 359–367. 10.1038/35104644View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Malik R, Zhou F, Ceder G: Kinetics of non-equilibrium lithium incorporation in LiFePO4. Nat Mater 2011, 10: 587–590. 10.1038/nmat3065View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sun YK, Myung ST, Park BC, Prakash J, Belharouak I, Amine K: High-energy cathode material for long-life and safe lithium batteries. Nat Mater 2009, 8: 320–324. 10.1038/nmat2418View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Song H, Lee KT, Kim MG, Nazar LF, Cho J: Recent progress in nanostructured cathode materials for lithium secondary batteries. Adv Mater 2010, 20: 3818–3834.Google Scholar
- Ji L, Lin Z, Alcoutlabi M, Zhang X: Recent developments in nanostructured anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Energy Environ Sci 2011, 4: 2682–2699. 10.1039/c0ee00699hView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cheng F, Liang J, Tao Z, Chen J: Functional materials for rechargeable batteries. Adv Mater 2011, 23: 1695–1715. 10.1002/adma.201003587View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yuan L, Wang Z, Zhang W, Hu X, Chen J, Huang Y, Goodenough JB: Development and challenges of LiFePO4cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Energy Environ Sci 2011, 4: 269–284. 10.1039/c0ee00029aView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Goodenough JB, Kim Y: Challenges for rechargeable Li batteries. Chem Mater 2010, 22: 587–603. 10.1021/cm901452zView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang J, Zhong L, Wang C, Sullivan JP, Xu W, Zhang LQ, Mao SX, Hudak NS, Liu XH, Subramanian A, Fan H, Qi L, Kushima A, Li J: In situ observation of the electrochemical lithiation of a single SnO2nanowire electrode. Science 2010, 330: 1515. 10.1126/science.1195628View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Arico AS, Bruce PG, Scrosati B, Tarascon JM, Schalkwijk WV: Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices. Nat Mater 2005, 4: 366–377. 10.1038/nmat1368View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bruce PG, Scrosati B, Tarascon JM: Nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Angew Chem Int Ed 2008, 47: 2930–3946. 10.1002/anie.200702505View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu C, Li F, Ma L, Cheng H: Advanced materials for energy storage. Adv Mater 2010, 22: E28-E62. 10.1002/adma.200903328View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guo Y, Hu J, Wan L: Nanostructured materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices. Adv Mater 2008, 20: 2878–2887. 10.1002/adma.200800627View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cao A, Hu H, Liang H, Wan L: Self-assembled vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) hollow microspheres from nanorods and their application in lithium-ion batteries. Angew Chem Int Ed 2005, 44: 4391–4395. 10.1002/anie.200500946View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Goodenough JB, Kim Y: Challenges for rechargeable batteries. J Power Sources 2011, 196: 6688–6694. 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.074View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee KT, Cho J: Roles of nanosize in lithium reactive nanomaterials for lithium ion batteries. Nano Today 2011, 6: 28–41. 10.1016/j.nantod.2010.11.002View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gibot P, Casas-Cabanas M, Laffont L, Levasseur S, Carlach P, Hamelet S, Tarascon JM, Masquelier C: Room-temperature single-phase Li insertion/extraction in nanoscale LixFePO4. Nat Mater 2008, 7: 741–747. 10.1038/nmat2245View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meethong N, Kao YH, Carter WC, Chiang YM: Comparative study of lithium transport kinetics in olivine cathodes for Li-ion batteries. Chem Mater 2010, 22: 1088–1097. 10.1021/cm902118mView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang H, Yang Y, Liang Y, Cui L, Casalongue HS, Li Y, Hong G, Cui Y, Dai H: LiMn1-xFexPO4nanorods grown on graphene sheets for ultrahigh-rate-performance lithium ion batteries. Angew Chem Int Ed 2011, 50: 7364–7368. 10.1002/anie.201103163View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nan C, Lu J, Chen C, Peng Q, Li Y: Solvothermal synthesis of lithium iron phosphate nanoplates. J Mater Chem 2011, 21: 9994–9996. 10.1039/c0jm04126bView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luo WB, Dahn JR: Comparative study of Li[Co1-zAlz]O2prepared by solid-state and co-precipitation methods. Electrochim Acta 2009, 54: 4655–4661. 10.1016/j.electacta.2009.03.068View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Winter M, Besenhard JO, Spahr ME, Novák P: Insertion electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Adv Mater 1998, 10: 725–763. 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(199807)10:10<725::AID-ADMA725>3.0.CO;2-ZView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim DK, Muralidharan P, Lee HW, Ruffo R, Yang Y, Chan CK, Peng H, Huggins RA, Cui Y: Spinel LiMn2O4nanorods as lithium ion battery cathodes. Nano Lett 2008, 8: 3948–3952. 10.1021/nl8024328View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cheng F, Wang H, Zhu Z, Wang Y, Zhang T, Tao Z, Chen J: Porous LiMn2O4nanorods with durable high-rate capability for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Energy Environ Sci 2011, 4: 3668–3675. 10.1039/c1ee01795kView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang Y, Cao G: New developments of nanostructured cathode materials for highly efficient lithium ion batteries. Adv Mater 2008, 20: 2251–2269. 10.1002/adma.200702242View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Xue D: Cation-induced coiling of vanadium pentoxide nanobelts. Nanoscale Res Lett 2010, 5: 1619–1626. 10.1007/s11671-010-9685-zView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Zhou Y, Wang J, Pan Y, Xue D: Template-free solvothermal synthesis of yolk-shell V2O5microspheres. Chem Commun 2011, 47: 10380–10382. 10.1039/c1cc13779dView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barpanda P, Ati M, Melot BC, Rousse G, Chotard JN, Doublet ML, Sougrati MT, Corr SA, Jumas JC, Tarascon JM: A 3.90 V iron-based fluorosulphate material for lithium-ion batteries crystallizing in the triplite structure. Nat Mater 2011, 10: 772–779. 10.1038/nmat3093View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee DK, Shim HW, An JS, Cho CM, Cho IS, Hong KS, Kim DW: Synthesis of heterogeneous Li4Ti5O12nanostructured anodes with long-term cycle stability. Nanoscale Res Lett 2010, 5: 1585–1589. 10.1007/s11671-010-9680-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu GN, Liu HJ, Zhuang JH, Wang CX, Wang YG, Xia YY: Carbon-coated nano-sized Li4Ti5O12nanoporous micro-sphere as anode material for high-rate lithium-ion batteries. Energy Environ Sci 2011, 4: 4016–4022. 10.1039/c1ee01680fView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kang E, Jung YS, Kim GH, Chun J, Wiesner U, Dillon AC, Kim JK, Lee J: Highly improved rate capability for a lithium-ion battery nano-Li4Ti5O12negative electrode via carbon-coated mesoporous uniform pores with a simple self-assembly method. Adv Funct Mater 2011, 21: 4349–4357. 10.1002/adfm.201101123View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Han JT, Liu DQ, Song SH, Kim Y, Goodenough JB: Lithium ion intercalation performance of niobium oxides: KNb5O13and K6Nb10.8O30. Chem Mater 2009, 21: 4753–4755. 10.1021/cm9024149View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu YH, Goodenough JB, Dathar GKP, Henkelman G, Wu J, Stevenson K: Behavior of Li guest in KNb5O13host with one-dimensional tunnels and multiple interstitial sites. Chem Mater 2011, 23: 3210–3216. 10.1021/cm200958rView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Han JT, Goodenough JB: 3-V full cell performance of anode framework TiNb2O7/Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. Chem Mater 2011, 23: 3404–3407. 10.1021/cm201515gView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Han JT, Huang YH, Goodenough JB: New anode framework for rechargeable lithium batteries. Chem Mater 2011, 23: 2027–2029. 10.1021/cm200441hView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Szczech JR, Jin S: Nanostructured silicon for high capacity lithium battery anodes. Energy Environ Sci 2011, 4: 56–72. 10.1039/c0ee00281jView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang WJ: Lithium insertion/extraction mechanism in alloy anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 2011, 196: 877–885. 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.08.114View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Park CM, Sohn HJ: Quasi-intercalation and facile amorphization in layered ZnSb for li-ion batteries. Adv Mater 2010, 22: 47–52. 10.1002/adma.200901427View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Teki R, Datta MK, Krishnan P, Parker TC, Lu TM, Kumta PN, Koratkar N: Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Small 2009, 5: 2236–2242. 10.1002/smll.200900382View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kasavajjula U, Wang CS, Appleby AJ: Nano- and bulk-silicon-based insertion anodes for lithium-ion secondary cells. J Power Sources 2007, 163: 1003–1039. 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.09.084View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang J, Winter M, Besenhard JO: Li- alloy anodes for lithium-ion-batteries. Solid State Ionics 1996, 90: 281–287. 10.1016/S0167-2738(96)00389-XView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chan CK, Peng HL, Liu G, McIlwrath K, Zhang XF, Huggins RA, Cui Y: High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires. Nat Nanotechnol 2008, 3: 31–35. 10.1038/nnano.2007.411View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cao F, Deng J, Xin S, Ji H, Schmidt OG, Wan L, Guo Y: Cu-Si nanocable arrays as high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Adv Mater 2011, 23: 4415–4420. 10.1002/adma.201102062View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cheng L, Yan J, Zhu G, Luo J, Wang C, Xia Y: General synthesis of carbon-coated nanostructure Li4Ti5O12as a high rate electrode material for Li-ion intercalation. J Mater Chem 2010, 20: 595–620. 10.1039/b914604kView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Zhong C, Chou S, Liu H: Flexible free-standing graphene-silicon composite film for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochem Commun 2010, 12: 1467–1470. 10.1016/j.elecom.2010.08.008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chan CK, Patel RN, O'Connell MJ, Korgel BA, Cui Y: Solution-grown silicon nanowires for lithium-ion battery anodes. ACS Nano 2010, 3: 1443–1450.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Magasinski A, Dixon P, Hertzberg B, Kvit A, Ayala J, Yushin G: High-performance lithium-ion anodes using a hierarchical bottom-up approach. Nat Mater 2010, 9: 353–358. 10.1038/nmat2725View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen Y, Huang QZ, Wang J, Wang Q, Xue JM: Synthesis of monodispersed SnO2@C composite hollow spheres for lithium ion battery anode applications. J Mater Chem 2011, 21: 17448–17453. 10.1039/c1jm13572dView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Xue D: Sn-based nanomaterials converted from SnS nanobelts: facile synthesis, characterizations, optical properties and energy storage performances. Electrochim Acta 2010, 56: 243–250. 10.1016/j.electacta.2010.08.091View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ji L, Tan Z, Kuykendall T, An EJ, Fu Y, Battaglia V, Zhang Y: Multilayer nanoassembly of Sn-nanopillar arrays sandwiched between graphene layers for high-capacity lithium storage. Energy Environ Sci 2011, 4: 3611–3616. 10.1039/c1ee01592cView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Xue D: Hollow nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Nanoscale Res Lett 2010, 5: 1525–1534. 10.1007/s11671-010-9728-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Xia H, Xue D, Lu L: Double-shelled nanocapsules of V2O5-based composites as high-performance anode and cathode materials for Li ion batteries. J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131: 12086–12087. 10.1021/ja9053256View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cabana J, Monconduit L, Larcher D, Palacín MR: Beyond intercalation-based Li-ion batteries; the state of the art and challenges of electrode materials reacting through conversion reactions. Adv Mater 2010, 22: E170-E192. 10.1002/adma.201000717View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Xia H, Lu L, Xue D: Anisotropic Co3O4porous nanocapsules toward high-capacity Li-ion batteries. J Mater Chem 2010, 20: 1506–1510. 10.1039/b923834dView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Tan B, Wu Y: Mesoporous Co3O4nanowire arrays for lithium ion batteries with high capacity and rate capability. Nano Lett 2008, 8: 265–270. 10.1021/nl0725906View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li B, Cao H, Shao J, Qu M: Enhanced anode performances of the Fe3O4-Carbon-rGO three dimensional composite in lithium ion batteries. Chem Commun 2011, 47: 10374–10376. 10.1039/c1cc13462kView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang B, Chen JS, Wu HB, Wang Z, Lou XW: Quasiemulsion-templated formation of α-Fe2O3hollow spheres with enhanced lithium storage properties. J Am Chem Soc 2011, 133: 17146–17148. 10.1021/ja208346sView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taberna PL, Mitra S, Poizot P, Simon P, Tarascon JM: High rate capabilities Fe3O4-based Cu nano-architectured electrodes for lithium-ion battery applications. Nat Mater 2006, 5: 567–573. 10.1038/nmat1672View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.