Bending effects of ZnO nanorod metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors on flexible polyimide substrate
© Chen et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 18 January 2012
Accepted: 10 March 2012
Published: 12 April 2012
The authors report the fabrication and I-V characteristics of ZnO nanorod metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors on flexible polyimide substrate. From field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectrum, ZnO nanorods had a (0002) crystal orientation and a wurtzite hexagonal structure. During the I-V and response measurement, the flexible substrates were measured with (i.e., the radius of curvatures was 0.2 cm) and without bending. From I-V results, the dark current decreased, and the UV-to-visible rejection ratio increased slightly in bending situation. The decreasing tendency of the dark current under bending condition may be attributed to the increase of the Schottky barrier height.
KeywordsZnO Nanorod MSM Photodetector Flexible
Zinc oxide (ZnO), a nanostructured material that has been widely investigated, has a wide energy band gap of 3.37 eV at room temperature, high optical gain of 300/cm which is higher than that of GaN (100/cm) , and large exciton binding energy of 60 meV  which is higher than that of ZnSe (22 meV) and GaN (25 meV). The large exciton binding energy provides high-luminescence efficiency of light emission at or above room temperature. ZnO has slightly higher saturation velocity of 3.2 × 107 cm/s  than GaN, InGaN, and AlGaN [4, 5], but the room temperature electron Hall mobility (205 cm2/V/s/)  is lower than that of GaN. ZnO has high mechanical and thermal stabilities, and radiation hardness for devices used in nuclear and space applications. ZnO also has lower growth temperature and material cost than III-nitride materials.
According to the researches, GaN and its alloys with AlN and InN cover the spectral range from red to vacuum UV (1.9 to 6.2 eV). Therefore, III-nitride materials have attracted a great deal of attention since the commercialization of light-emitting diodes. Not only GaN but also ZnO can tune the value of band gap by forming the ternary alloy of ZnMgO and ZnCdO with MgO and CdO , respectively.
Over the past decade, ZnO-based and III-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) have attracted much interest for display, illumination, and mobile phone backlights. Recently, Zhang et al.  studied on gain properties of high Al-content AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells (QWs) for mid- and deep-UV lasers. Zhao et al.  investigated the QW structures with large overlap design to enhance the internal quantum efficiency for InGaN QW-based LEDs. Shukla  studied a p-n junction LED employing ZnO/MgZnO QW active layer on a c-plane sapphire by the pulsed-laser deposition technique. Ahn et al.  showed p-n heterojunction LEDs that were formed from a p-Si thin film/nanostructured n-ZnO by a dielectrophoresis method. Except for the LEDs and LDs, ZnO makes it as a promising functional material for the electronic device manufacture such as field emission, photodetectors (PD), solar cells, waveguides, and chemical or biosensors.
To date, many groups have reported encouraging results for ZnO-based photodetectors. It is important that ZnO-based PDs be used in various military and commercial applications, like missile launching and flame detections, optical communications, and ozone layer monitoring. Indeed, ZnO-based PDs have various types, such as p-n junction PDs, p-i-n PDs, Schottky barrier PDs, and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) PDs [12–15]. Among the above structures, the MSM structure is a practical application due to its easy fabrication, low dark current and device noise values, high-response speed, and compatibility with integrated circuit technology. Recently, Yen et al.  obtained high photocurrent generation with ZnO/Si heterostructure MSM PDs by an avalanche multiplication in the ZnO layer. GaN-based MSM PDs also can detect the UV region, but a significant number of threading dislocations exit in GaN epilayers due to the large mismatches in lattice constant and thermal expansion coefficient between GaN and substrate, like sapphire and Si. Recently, Li et al.  found that dislocations had strong influence on the dark current and responsivity of the PDs. Consequently, ZnO-based materials have more advantages for PDs than GaN-based materials.
Recently, various one-dimensional (1-D) ZnO semiconducting nanostructures have been synthesized like nanorods, nanotubes, and nanobelts [18–20]. Most importantly, ZnO is well known as a piezoelectric material. Because of semiconductor properties and the coupling of piezoelectric of ZnO, many groups extensively investigated nanogenerators, piezoelectric field effect transistors, and piezoelectric strain and piezoelectric humidity/chemical sensors [21–24].
Today, many groups investigate the optoelectronic devices grown on flexible substrates, but the problem of these flexible substrates is that they must use low-temperature process. ZnO is one of the most suitable materials on flexible substrate because it can be prepared by low temperature processes, like sputter and aqueous method. Growth of 1-D ZnO semiconducting nanostructures on flexible substrates has been widely reported which are ideal candidates for LEDs, solar cell, file-effect transistors, personal health monitors, and field emission [22, 25–27] due to cheap, lightweight, and portable characteristics. However, the mechanical bending characteristics of the ZnO nanorod MSM structures fabricated on flexible substrates have rarely been investigated.
In this letter, we fabricated MSM ultraviolet PDs with ZnO nanorods on flexible substrate by aqueous method. The advantages of aqueous method are low cost, simple process, low temperature, and high product yield. Further, the fabricated devices were measured with and without strong mechanical bending. The optical and electric properties and the working principle of the ZnO nanorod MSM PDs would be presented in detail.
The polyimide (PI) substrates were ultrasonically cleaned in methanol, isopropanol, and deionized water and dried with nitrogen. ZnO-seed layers with a thickness of about 130 nm were grown on polyimide substrates in a low-pressure RF sputter reactor. In our sputtering system, the background pressure in the sputtering chamber was evacuated to about 8 × 10−6 Torr with a turbo pump. The deposition processes were performed in Ar and O2 ambient at an applied RF power of 120 W. After deposition, the as-grown samples were annealed 40 min in oxygen flow at 300°C in a quartz tube. After annealing, the samples were cooled to room temperature naturally, and MSM PDs were subsequently fabricated on the annealed samples. The ZnO PDs were fabricated using interdigital MSM structures by standard lithography. Using e-beam evaporation, Ag/Au (40/50 nm) contact electrodes were deposited on the samples served as Schottky contacts. The metal contact did not anneal by furnace or RTA. Then, we used photoresist to protect the electrodes by standard lithography. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown using an aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) for 1 h at 90°C. During ZnO nanorod synthesis, Zn(NO3)2 and HMTA act as a Zn2+ source and a pH buffer, respectively, which keep the pH value at a constant . After the process of the grown ZnO nanorods, the photoresist was lift-off, and there is no ZnO film or short nanorod formed on the metal electrode.
Results and discussion
where I (ϵzz) and I(0) are the current measured from the ZnO nanorod MSM PDs at a fixed bias with and without being strained, respectively. After calculation, the changes of SBH were 27 meV and 29 meV for two biases of 1 and 2 V, respectively. From the two values, it can be known that the change of the SBH is not very sensitive to the bias applied across the device.
Owing to the outward bending of the substrate, piezoelectric effects could be induced and it could be attributed to the tensile strain between n-ZnO lattices. As we know, strain can be used in many applications. In microelectronic industry, scaling of MOSFETs has attracted many people to study it for the improvement in integrated circuit density and performance. However, MOSFET size reduction has met technological challenges such as short-channel effect and high leakage current. Therefore, strain has been an increase in interest in semiconductor material since the 1950s. Using appropriate tensile and compressive strain components in the n- and p-MOSFET's channel region could enhance its performance [32–35].
Figure 4c shows the responsivity characteristics of the ZnO nanorod PDs under flat and bending curvature. In this figure, the responsivities in visible wavelengths decreased slightly under bending, and the cutoff wavelength was the same. The UV-to-visible rejection ratios, defined as the ratio of the responsivity at 370 nm and at 460 nm, are 174.6 and 503.2 for flat and 0.2-cm radius of curvature bending, respectively. The rejection ratio of the 0.2-cm radius of curvature bending had a larger value that could be attributed to the smaller dark current.
where G is the internal gain, R is the responsivity, h is the Plank's constant, v is the frequency of the light, q is the electronic charge, and η is the quantum efficiency. Assuming η is 1 for simplicity, the internal gains of the ZnO nanorod PDs measured at flat and 0.2-cm radius of curvature bending were 3.71 × 102 and 2.44 × 102, respectively. Both PDs had high responsivities due to ZnO nanorod large surface-to-volume ratio and the existence of the oxygen-related hole surface states on the ZnO nanorods surface. The oxygen molecules can adsorb on the ZnO nanorod surface by capturing free electrons and desorb from the surface by illustrating UV light which lead to an increase in the free carrier concentration, a decrease in the width of the depletion layer, and a reduction of the Schottky barrier height . Recently, Soci et al.  published the ZnO nanowire PDs with high internal gain. They fabricated a ZnO photodetector with one ZnO nanowire. Their device has achieved an internal gain of approximately 108. Instead, our device has smaller internal gain than theirs. This could be attributed to the high density of nanorod array of our device and there were small gaps between the freestanding nanorods. When the nanorods were illustrated by the UV light, the oxygen molecules desorbed from the nanorods surface. However, the nanorods were too close that make the oxygen molecules quickly readsorb with the nanorod surface by capturing free electrons and decrease the photocurrent. Thus, the internal gain of our device was smaller than theirs.
In summary, we reported the fabrication and I-V characteristics of ZnO nanorod PDs on PI substrate. The crystal and optical properties of ZnO nanorods had been investigated by SEM and XRD. They showed the ZnO nanorods grown on the PI substrate had high density array, hexagonal wurtzite structure and well (0002) crystalline phase. From I-V curve, it was found that the dark current decreased slightly and the UV-to-visible rejection ratio increased slightly in bending situation. The decreasing tendency of dark current under bending may be attributed to the increase of the Schottky barrier height. Consequently, ZnO nanorods have great potential for high-performance UV photodetectors, and polyimide is a promising substrate for flexible PDs and devices.
This work was supported by National Science Council of Taiwan under contract number NSC 100-2221-E-150-057. National Formosa University Research and Services Headquarters that provided the partial equipment for measurement is also acknowledged.
- Hvam JM: Direct recording of optical-gain spectra from Zno. J Appl Phys 1978, 49: 3124–3126. 10.1063/1.325304View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Look DC: Recent advances in ZnO materials and devices. Mater Sci Eng: B 2001, 80: 383–387. 10.1016/S0921-5107(00)00604-8View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Solis-Pomar F, Martinez E, Melendrez MF, Perez-Tijerina E: Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films. Nanoscale Res Lett 2011, 6: 524. 10.1186/1556-276X-6-524View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morkoc H, Strite S, Gao GB, Lin ME, Sverdlov B, Burns M: Large-band-gap sic, III-V nitride, and II-VI ZNSE-based semiconductor-device technologies. J Appl Phys 1994, 76: 1363–1398. 10.1063/1.358463View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Anwar AFM, Wu SL, Webster RT: Temperature dependent transport properties in GaN, A1(x)Ga(1-x)N, and InxGa1-xN semiconductors. IEEE T Electron Dev 2001, 48: 567–572. 10.1109/16.906452View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Look DC, Reynolds DC, Sizelove JR, Jones RL, Litton CW, Cantwell G, Harsch WC: Electrical properties of bulk ZnO. Solid State Commun 1998, 105: 399–401. 10.1016/S0038-1098(97)10145-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dietrich CP, Lange M, Stolzel M, Grundmann M: Microwire (Mg,Zn)O/ZnO and (Mg,Zn)O/(Cd,Zn)O non-polar quantum well heterostructures for cavity applications. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 100: 031110–1-031110–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang J, Zhao HP, Tansu N: Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid-and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes. Appl Phys Lett 2011, 98: 171111–1-171111–3.Google Scholar
- Zhao HP, Liu GY, Zhang J, Poplawsky JD, Dierolf V, Tansu N: Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells. Opt Express 2011, 19: A991-A1007. 10.1364/OE.19.00A991View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shukla G: ZnO/MgZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. J Phys D: Appl Phys 2009, 42: 075105. 10.1088/0022-3727/42/7/075105View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahn J, Park H, Mastro MA, Hite JK, Eddy CR, Kim J: Nanostructured n-ZnO/thin film p-silicon heterojunction light-emitting diodes. Opt Express 2011, 19: 26006–26010. 10.1364/OE.19.026006View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leung YH, He ZB, Luo LB, Tsang CHA, Wong NB, Zhang WJ, Lee ST: ZnO nanowires array p-n homojunction and its application as a visible-blind ultraviolet photodetector. Appl Phys Lett 2010, 96: 053102. 10.1063/1.3299269View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sun F, Shan C-X, Wang S-P, Li B-H, Zhang Z-Z, Yang C-L, Shen D-Z: Ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated from ZnO p-i-n homojunction structures. Mater Chem Phys 2011, 129: 27–29. 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2011.04.058View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim J, Yun J-H, Kim CH, Park YC, Woo JY, Park J, Lee J-H, Yi J, Han C-S: ZnO nanowire-embedded Schottky diode for effective UV detection by the barrier reduction effect. Nanotechnology 2010, 21: 115205. 10.1088/0957-4484/21/11/115205View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Qin L, Shing C, Sawyer S: Metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on zinc-oxide colloidal nanoparticles. IEEE Electron Device Lett 2011, 32: 51–53.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yen T, Yun J, Kim SJ, Cartwright A, Anderson WA: Photocurrent enhancement in nanocrystalline-ZnO/Si heterojunction metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors. Electrochemical Solid-State Lett 2011, 14: H415-H418. 10.1149/1.3614415View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li D, Sun X, Song H, Li Z, Chen Y, Miao G, Jiang H: Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors. Appl Phys Lett 2011, 98: 011108. 10.1063/1.3536480View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu J, Ippolito SJ, Wlodarski W, Strano M, Kalantar-Zadeh K: Nanorod based Schottky contact gas sensors in reversed bias condition. Nanotechnology 2010, 21: 265502. 10.1088/0957-4484/21/26/265502View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Han JB, Fan FR, Xu C, Lin SS, Wei M, Duan X, Wang ZL: ZnO nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cell and its application in self-powered devices. Nanotechnology 2010, 21: 405203. 10.1088/0957-4484/21/40/405203View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang ZL: ZnO nanowire and nanobelt platform for nanotechnology. Mat Sci Eng R 2009, 64: 33–71. 10.1016/j.mser.2009.02.001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang ZL, Song JH: Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science 2006, 312: 242–246. 10.1126/science.1124005View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kwon SS, Hong WK, Jo G, Maeng J, Kim TW, Song S, Lee T: Piezoelectric effect on the electronic transport characteristics of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors on bent flexible substrates. Adv Mater 2008, 20: 4557–4562. 10.1002/adma.200800691View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou J, Gu YD, Fei P, Mai WJ, Gao YF, Yang RS, Bao G, Wang ZL: Flexible piezotronic strain sensor. Nano Lett 2008, 8: 3035–3040. 10.1021/nl802367tView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang ZL, Lao CS, Kuang Q, Park MC, Deng YL: Polymer functionalized piezoelectric-FET as humidity/chemical nanosensors. Appl Phys Lett 2007, 90: 262107. 10.1063/1.2748097View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee C-H, Kim Y-J, Hong YJ, Jeon S-R, Bae S, Hong BH, Yi G-C: Flexible inorganic nanostructure light-emitting diodes fabricated on graphene films. Adv Mater 2011, 23: 4614–4619. 10.1002/adma.201102407View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chu S, Li DD, Chang PC, Lu JG: Flexible dye-sensitized solar cell based on vertical ZnO nanowire arrays. Nanoscale Res Lett 2011, 6: 38.Google Scholar
- Hwang JO, Lee DH, Kim JY, Han TH, Kim BH, Park M, No K, Kim SO: Vertical ZnO nanowires/graphene hybrids for transparent and flexible field emission. J Mater Chem 2011, 21: 3432–3437. 10.1039/c0jm01495hView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahsanulhaq Q, Umar A, Hahn YB: Growth of aligned ZnO nanorods and nanopencils on ZnO/Si in aqueous solution: growth mechanism and structural and optical properties. Nanotechnology 2007, 18: 115603. 10.1088/0957-4484/18/11/115603View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang ZL, Wu WZ: Piezotronic nanowire-based resistive switches as programmable electromechanical memories. Nano Lett 2011, 11: 2779–2785. 10.1021/nl201074aView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- He JH, Hsin CL, Liu J, Chen LJ, Wang ZL: Piezoelectric gated diode of a single ZnO nanowire. Adv Mater 2007, 19: 781–784. 10.1002/adma.200601908View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sze SM: Physics of Semiconductor Devices. 2nd edition. Wiley, New York; 1981.Google Scholar
- Chu M, Sun Y, Aghoram U, Thompson SE: Strain: a solution for higher carrier mobility in nanoscale MOSFETs. AnnuRev Mater Res 2009, 39: 203–229. 10.1146/annurev-matsci-082908-145312View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee MH, Chang ST, Wu TH, Tseng WN: Driving current enhancement of strained Ge (110) p-type tunnel FETs and anisotropic effect. Electron Device Lett, IEEE 2011, 32: 1355–1357.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yeo YC: Enhancing CMOS transistor performance using lattice-mismatched materials in source/drain regions. Semicond Sci Tech 2007, 22: S177-S182. 10.1088/0268-1242/22/1/S42View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ghani T, Armstrong M, Auth C, Bost M, Charvat P, Glass G, Hoffmann T, Johnson K, Kenyon C, Klaus J, McIntyre B, Mistry K, Murthy A, Sandford J, Silberstein M, Sivakumar S, Smith P, Zawadzki K, Thompson S, Bohr M: A 90 nm high volume manufacturing logic technology featuring novel 45 nm gate length strained silicon CMOS transistors. In Electron Devices Meeting Tech Dig 2003, 11.6.1–11.6.3.Google Scholar
- Bube RH: PhotoconductiVity of Solids. Wiley, New York; 1960:461.Google Scholar
- Soci C, Zhang A, Xiang B, Dayeh SA, Aplin DPR, Park J, Bao XY, Lo YH, Wang D: ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain. Nano Lett 2007, 7: 1003–1009. 10.1021/nl070111xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.