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Table 1 Coefficients obtained by the ANN and LSM algorithms for an EFM system

From: The use of artificial neural networks in electrostatic force microscopy

Coefficients ANN LSM
q i
q1 −0.26 417.40
q2 1.75 −2.31
q3 −1.54 2.43
q4 0.98 −0.82
L i
L1 −0.032 −12,582.71
L2 −0.15 2,194.47
L3 −0.30 −157.42
L4 0.90 5.51
L5 0.41 0.015
L6 0.13 0.48
L7 1.32 −0.39
L8 −7.31 26.26
L9 10.16 −445.25
L10 11.51 3,126.11
L11 7.75 −9,298.52
L12 4.42 9,311.48
  1. L = 10 R, θ = 20°, D = 0.1 R, and ϵ = 10. qi and Li correspond to punctual charges and charged segments inside the tip, respectively.