Diffractive properties of imaginary-part photonic crystal slab
© Jiang et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 2 May 2012
Accepted: 8 June 2012
Published: 21 June 2012
The diffraction spectra of imaginary-part photonic crystal (IPPC) slabs are analyzed using the scattering-matrix method. By investigating the thickness dependence of the diffraction, we find a remarkable red shift of central wavelength of the diffraction spectrum, which obviously distinguishes from the phenomenon of spectral hole. We observe that diffraction efficiency can be enhanced more than 20-fold by optimizing the geometry parameters. These imply that the diffraction spectra of the IPPC slab can be controlled at will and used to guide the design to achieve useful nanoscale devices.
Photonic crystals (PCs) [1, 2] are composite nanostructures in which a periodic modulation of refractive index forms photonic bandgaps of frequencies where light propagation is fully suppressed. PCs can manipulate not only the emission of light [3–5], but also the propagation of light, the prominent examples of which are PC slab waveguides [6–9] and resonant gratings [10–12].
In most cases, PCs are composed of mediums with different real dielectric constants. However, by embedding an absorbing medium into the structure, novel physical phenomena and new types of optoelectronic devices can be created [13, 14]. Recently, Li et al.  propose an innovative type of PCs, named imaginary-part photonic crystals (IPPCs). The new type of PCs is composed of a selected dielectric medium with and without doping agent of resonant absorption medium. This new structure provides a frequency-dependent character: the IPPCs have periodic modulation of dielectric constant near the resonant frequency, but off the resonant frequency, they become ordinary structures with uniform dielectric constant. In a word, the fundamental properties of IPPCs result from the doping agent.
Since active mediums always have resonant enhancement of nonlinear effect, fast response speed, and low working threshold, many intense applications of IPPCs, such as fabrication of resonantly absorbing waveguide arrays[16, 17] and inverted nonlinear photonic crystals, have been reported. Lately, the IPPCs were found to have potential applications in display industry because of their high efficiency of color separations.
It is well known that diffraction control of light field is very important in holographic lithography, and the IPPCs have been reported to be sensitive in controlling the diffraction efficiency. Studying the diffraction properties and finding optimized diffraction efficiency in the IPPCs become an interesting issue. Some diffraction properties have been reported by Li et al.  and Feng et al. ; they present the wavelength-dependent diffraction efficiency in simple lattice structures and adopt the paraxial approximation method. Up to now, the detail dependences of diffraction efficiency on geometry parameters of the IPPCs have not been reported yet. Moreover, developing a rigorous method to exactly and efficiently investigate the fascinating characteristics of the IPPCs is necessary.
In this paper, we develop and apply the scattering-matrix method (SMM)  to exactly analyze the diffractive properties of two-dimensional (2D) IPPC slabs. With increasing thickness, we find an interesting phenomenon that the central wavelength of the diffraction spectrum shifts towards to the red end of the spectrum, which distinguishes from the phenomenon of spectral hole . The roles and competition of imaginary and real part contributions are investigated to understand these phenomena. Besides, the dependence of diffraction efficiency on the geometry parameters is investigated to find remarkable enhancement effect of diffraction around resonant wavelength. It offers us an approach to finely control the diffraction spectra of the IPPC slabs at will. More than 20-fold enhancement in the maximum diffraction efficiency can be reached.
Theory and formulation
where , , , and are the in-plane electric and magnetic Fourier components which are obtained by the Fourier expansion ofE x ,E y ,H x , andH y , respectively, in the glass substrate layer;G n is a reciprocal lattice vector which corresponds to the n thdiffraction order. Since and can be obtained by and , we focus on magnetic Fourier components.
where the n th eigenvector is the n th column vector of matrix Φ; is a diagonal matrix with , here,q n is the n theigenvalue of the propagation eigen problem in this layer; d is the thickness of this layer; a and b are a couple of vectors whose coefficients correspond to the amplitudes of forward and backward going wave as shown in Figure 1, respectively. The details of the method can be found in .
Now, we can investigate any order of diffraction efficiency, when we select the corresponding component of to calculate . Furthermore, this method also can be extended to anisotropic medium .
wherek 0 is the wave vector of incident light,t 1 andt 2 are the reciprocal primitive vectors of a periodic structure,n1andn2are integers determining the diffraction propagation direction. This implied thatG n = n1t 1 +n2t 2 . It is noticeable that there are four first-order diffractions in 2D PC slabs corresponding to (n1,n2) = (0,±1) and (±1,0). In the case of normal incident light (θ = 0°), because of the symmetry, four diffraction efficiencies of the first order are equivalent, so that one of them can stand for first-order diffraction efficiency (FODE).
Results and discussions
In this section, we investigate not only the red shit of the central wavelength, but also the influence of different geometry parameters with normal incident light and different incident angle. In the following calculation, 625 plane waves are used to guarantee the favorable convergence and high accuracy.
The red shift of resonant diffraction
It is noticeable that the imaginary part contribution takes charge of total FODE curve atλ0 while the real part contribution dominates aroundλ0and results in the red shift of central wavelength of total FODE. Because the imaginary part of the dielectric constant not only contributes diffraction but also absorbs the propagating light, the ratio of real part contribution to imaginary part contribution grows with increasing thickness and the red shift phenomenon becomes remarkable (Figure 3).
Another interesting phenomenon is that an diffraction spectral hole appears at the absorption center at thickness larger than about 10μ m , which results from the weakness of imaginary part contributions in the competition in the cases with large thickness. It is noticeable that the red shift phenomenon appears in the structures with small filling factor, while the spectral hole phenomenon appears in the ones with large filling factor.
In a word, the red shift phenomenon and the spectral hole phenomenon can be reasonably explained by the competition between real and imaginary part contributions, and the specified central wavelength of diffraction spectral can be obtained by modulating the thickness of IPPC.
Remarkable enhancement effect of diffraction
To achieve lager diffraction efficiency, we investigate the dependence of diffraction on each geometry parameter including lattice constant, slab thickness, filling factor, lattice type, and rod shape at the resonant absorption wavelengthλ0 of doping agent with normal incident light. We focus on the IPPC slabs with different rod shapes including circular rod (CR), square rod (SR), and hexagon rod (HR), and with different lattice types including square lattice (SL), triangle lattice (TL), and honeycomb lattice (HL) . Furthermore, the dependence of diffraction on incident angler and polarization is discussed in detail. Finally, we obtain significant enhancement in diffraction efficiency.
Figure 5a shows that lattice type plays much more important role on the diffraction. Square lattice and triangle lattice result in much higher FODE than honeycomb lattice does, so they are widely adopted experimentally. In contrast, the shape of rods bears little or no relationship to the FODE. The FODEs at resonant wavelength of the three rod shapes for the square lattice type are almost identical, as shown in Figure 5b, which is also evident for the other two lattice types. So, the circular rod is widely adopted due to easy fabrication.
From the above investigation, we obtain the dependent properties of diffraction on geometry parameters and conclude that lattice type strongly influences the FODE while the influence of rod type is negligible. Moreover, among the three lattice types, square lattice is found to be the best structure for large diffraction efficiency.
Fourthly, we turn to reveal the relation between incident angle and diffraction efficiency of the IPPC slab with circular rod in square lattice by varying θand ϕ of transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarization incident light, respectively.
It is clear that we can obtain remarkable enhancement of diffraction efficiency and desirable shape of diffraction spectrum by utilizing the dependences of diffraction on geometry parameters and incident angle.
We employ and develop the scattering-matrix method to investigate the diffractive characteristics of 2D IPPC slabs rigorously. An interesting red shift of central wavelength of the diffraction spectrum in large thickness is observed and explained by analyzing the competition of imaginary and real part contributions. On the other hand, we obtain more than 20-fold enhancement of maximum FODE by investigating the dependences of diffraction on geometry parameters. To obtain remarkably large FODE, a sufficiently large lattice constant and an appropriate thickness and filling factor are necessary. Besides, lattice types play a significant role while rod shapes only slightly influence FODE. Among all lattice types, the highest diffraction efficiency can be obtained by the IPPC slab of square lattice. In the dependence of diffraction on incident angle, polar and azimuth angles can strongly influence and adjust the distribution of four diffraction efficiencies, respectively. As a result, the diffractive properties of IPPC can be used to guide the design to achieve useful nanoscale devices.
XHW is a professor in Optics in the School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, China. He got his Ph.D. degree in 1995 at Shanghai Jiaotong University, China. Then, he spent 2 years as postdoctor in the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. His current research interests mainly focus on nano-optics, quantum optics, quantum computation, and nonlinear optics, especially on the control of strong interaction between light and materials in inhomogeneous electromagnetic nanostructures, such as photonic crystals and nanometal structures. HXJ and GYC are Ph.D. students in the School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, China. JFL is an assistant professor in the College of Science, South China Agriculture University. He got his Ph.D. degree in 2011 at Sun Yat-sen University, China.
This work was financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2010CB923200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 10725420 and U0934002). The authors would like to acknowledge Prof. JY Zhou, Dr. JT Li, and Mr. YY Li for the useful discussions.
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