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Table 1 Some of the infectious diseases and QDs used to distinguish them

From: Quantum dots: synthesis, bioapplications, and toxicity

Authors Type of infectious diseases  In vitro / in vivo  Type of modified QDs
Tripp et al. [89] RSV In vitro/in vivo Antibody anti-F protein conjugated to QDs(CdTe)
Agrawal et al. [90] Individual molecules of genes, proteins, and virus particles In vivo QD-antibody color-coded NP probes and two-color co-localization imaging
Bentzen et al. [91] RSV In vivo Streptavidin-coated QDs conjugated to antibody anti-F and antibody anti-G
Dwarakanath et al. [92] S. typhimurium In vivo Antibody-QD and DNA aptamer-QD
  E. coli   
  B. subtilis spores   
Goldman et al. [93] Choleratoxin, ricin, shinga-like toxin1 and staphylococcal enterotoxin B In vitro Antibody-QD (CdSe/Zns)
Zhao et al. [94] Food-borne pathogenic E. coli O157:H7, S. typhimurium and S. flexneri   QDanti-S. flexneri antibody,anti-E. coli antibody, anti-S. typhimurium antibody
Hahn et al. [95] Single cells of E.coli O157:H7   Streptavidin-coated QDs conjugated to antibody
Mukhopadhyay et al. [96] Detect E. coli at levels as low as 104 bacteria/ml of sample   Mannose-conjugated QDs
Edgar et al. [97] Mycobacterium In vivo Streptavidin-coated QDs conjugated to phage
  B. anthracis   
Zhu et al. [98] C. parvum   QD-conjugated antibodies
  G. lamblia   
Klostranec et al. [99] Biomarkers of the most globally prevalent blood-borne infectious diseases (i.e., hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV) with low sample volume   QD-antibody
Gazouli et al. [100] Mycobacterium genus In vivo Specific DNA sequences combining QDs with magnetic beads [101, 102]
Hahn et al. [95] Individual pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 in phosphate buffer saline solution   Streptavidin-coated Qdots labeled by antibody selectively targeted pathogenic E. coli O157:H7
Su and Li [51] E. coli O157 In vivo Streptavidin-coated QDs conjugated to anti-E. coli O157 antibody
Yang and Li [52] E. coli O157H7 In vivo QDs with different sizes conjugated to anti-E. coli O157 and anti-Salmonella antibodies
  S. typhimurium   
    The bead-cell complexes reacted with QD-antibody conjugates to form bead-cell-QD complexes
  1. Other clinical therapeutic applications.