Gelatin-layered and multi-sized porous β-tricalcium phosphate for tissue engineering scaffold
© Kim et al; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 2 September 2011
Accepted: 17 January 2012
Published: 17 January 2012
The multi-sized porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were fabricated by freeze drying followed by slurry coating using a multi-sized porous sponge as a template. Then, gelatin was dip coated on the multi-sized porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds under vacuum. The mechanical and biological properties of the fabricated scaffolds were evaluated and compared to the uniformly sized porous scaffolds and scaffolds that were not coated by gelatin. The compressive strength was tested by a universal testing machine, and the cell viability and differentiation behavior were measured using a cell counting kit and alkaline phosphatase activity using the MC3T3-E1 cells. In comparison, the gelatin-coated multi-sized porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold showed enhanced compressive strength. After 14 days, the multi-sized pores were shown to affect cell differentiation, and gelatin coatings were shown to affect the cell viability and differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the multi-sized porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold coated by gelatin enhanced the mechanical and biological strengths.
Tissue engineering is one of the important methods of constructing biological tissues or devices for reconstruction and repair of the organ structures in order to maintain and improve their function . The production of scaffolds, which are used for framework and initial support for the cells to attach, proliferate and differentiate, and form an extracellular matrix, is one area of tissue engineering . The goal of scaffold production in tissue engineering is to fabricate reproducible, bioactive, and bioresorbable 3D scaffolds with appropriated properties that are able to maintain their structure for predictable times, even under load-bearing conditions . The bioceramic scaffold is commonly used as a replacement of hard tissue through the 3D scaffold. The hydroxyapatite [HA], Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, and β-tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP], Ca3(PO4)2, are well-known bioceramics which are biocompatible and bioactive. These materials exhibit a close resemblance in chemical composition to the human bone, a high biocompatibility with the surrounding living tissue, and high osteoconduction characteristics .
With the current tissue engineering, the scaffolds have suffered from limited cell depth viability when cultured in vitro, with viable cells existing within the outer 250 to 500 μm from the fluid-scaffold interface because of the lack of nutrient delivery into and waste removal from the inner regions of the scaffold construct [5, 6]. To achieve better bioactive 3D scaffolds, bioceramic scaffolds with multi-pores were created to enhance biological properties as they have improved oxygen diffusion and fluid permeability.
The bioceramics have disadvantages of being brittle, and the composites of calcium phosphate ceramic with a protein-based polymer were of interest as the bone tissues repair materials due to their better mechanical properties as well as having adequate biological properties. The natural-based materials such as polysaccharides (starch, alginate, chitin/chitosan, hyaluronic acid derivatives) or proteins (soy, collagen, gelatin) in combination with a reinforcement of a variety of biofibers are one of the protein-based polymers, and the others are synthetic biodegradable polymers such as saturated poly(a-hydroxy esters), including poly(lactic acid), poly(-glycolic acid), and poly(lactic-coglycolide) copolymers . Gelatin is obtained by thermal denaturation or physical and chemical degradation of collagen through the breaking of the triple-helix structure into random coils . When compared with collagen, gelatin does not express antigenicity under physiological conditions; it is completely resorbable in vivo, and its physicochemical properties can be suitably modulated; furthermore, it is much cheaper and easier to obtain in concentrated solutions . Gelatin is also clinically proven as a temporary defect filler and wound dressing because of its biodegradability and cytocompatibility [10, 11]. However, the mechanical properties of gelatin itself are not satisfactory for hard tissue applications. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to create a 3D scaffold with enhanced mechanical and biological properties through multi-pore formation and gelatin coating.
Materials and methods
Preparation of multi-sized porous β-TCP scaffold and gelatin coating
The β-TCP scaffold was fabricated using template coating and freeze drying methods. The β-TCP slurry was made by dispersing the nano β-TCP powders (OssGen Co., Daegu, South Korea) into distilled water. The organic additives (5% polyvinyl alcohol, 1% methyl cellulose, 5% ammonium polyacrylate dispersant, and 5% N,N-dimethylformamide drying agent) were added to the slurry to improve the sintering force and to stabilize the scaffold structure. The polyurethane sponges used as template were coated with slurry and dried at room temperature or using the freeze drying method for 12 h, and the β-TCP scaffold was sintered at 1,250°C for 3 h. After the first coating, the micro-sized pore on the scaffold surface was fabricated by needle. The β-TCP scaffold was coated again with slurry and resintered. The final β-TCP scaffold size was 5 × 5 × 5 mm.
The 3% gelatin powder from the bovine skin was melted in distilled water at 45°C. After cross-linking with 0.2% glutaraldehyde, the gelatin was coated on the β-TCP scaffold through the dip-coating method at vacuum environment. Compressed air was blown into the β-TCP scaffold to remove the residual gelatin slurry. The gelatin-coated β-TCP scaffold was dried at 40°C in a vacuum drying oven for removal of the glutaraldehyde. The four types of sample were prepared by the above processes and designated with a code for the purpose of this paper [see Additional file 1].
Characterization of the β-TCP scaffold
The surface morphologies of the sintered and gelatin-coated β-TCP scaffold were showed by a field emission scanning electron microscope [FE-SEM] (S-800; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The detailed porosity and thickness of the structure were observed with micro-CT (Skyscan 1076; Skyscan Co., Antwerp, Belgium). The resolution was set at 9 μm, rotation step was 0.6° and rotation angle was 180°.
where S is the compressive strength (in megapascals), F is the maximum compressive load (in newton), and A is the surface area of the β-TCP scaffold perpendicular to the load axis (in square millimeters).
The biological properties were measured by cell proliferation and differentiation. The mouse osteoblast cell, MC3T3-E1 cell, (ATCC, Rockville, MD, U.S.A.) was used for in vitro tests. The cells (1 × 105 cells/100 μl) were seeded on each scaffold for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days in a 37°C, 5% CO2 incubator. The cell viability was measured by the Cell Counting Kit-8 [CCK-8] (Dojindo Laboratories, Kumamoto, Japan). The tetrazolium salt, 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt (WST-8), was reduced by the dehydrogenases in the cells to show an orange-colored product (formazan). The absorbance was read at 450 nm with an ELISA reader (Benchmark Plus, Hercules, CA, USA).
The cell differentiation was measured by measuring the level of alkaline phosphatase [ALP] activity using the Sensolyte® pNPP ALP Assay Kit (Anaspec, Inc., Fremont, CA, USA). The cells were lysed by Triton X-100 (Anaspec, Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) into the kit and reacted with the working solution. The final solution shows a yellow-colored product. The absorbance was measured at 405 nm.
Results and discussion
Characterization of the β-TCP scaffold
Biological properties of the β-TCP scaffold
Figure 5b shows the ALP activity of the seeded cells on each scaffold. The MP and MPGC having multi-sized pores have shown a higher ALP activity compared to the scaffolds having uniformly sized pores. In addition, the gelatin coating on the scaffold enhanced the ALP activity compared to the uncoated samples. After 14 days, the MPGC showed the highest ALP activity than the others. This result, wherein the ALP activity was enhanced by increasing gelatin content, is in agreement with the previous research by Takahashi et al. .
The scaffold having multi-sized pores were successfully fabricated using template coating and freeze drying methods. The gelatin-coated scaffold was fabricated uniformly by dip coating. The compressive strength of the β-TCP scaffold was enhanced about five times by gelatin coating. The scaffold having multi-sized pores resulted in improved cell differentiation, and gelatin coating enhanced the cell proliferation and differentiation. This study provides significant data regarding the mechanical and biological properties of the β-TCP scaffold according to the multi-sized pores and gelatin coating.
This study was supported by a grant of the Korea Healthcare Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health, Welfare & Family Affairs, Republic of Korea (A101578).
- Wu X, Liu Y, Li X, Wen P, Zhang Y, Long Y, Wang X, Guo Y, Xing F, Gao J: Preparation of aligned porous gelatin scaffolds by unidirectional freeze-drying method. Acta Biomater 2010, 6: 1167–1177. 10.1016/j.actbio.2009.08.041View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu C, Xia Z, Czernuszka JT: Design and development of three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. Chem Eng Res Des 2007, 85: 1051–1064. 10.1205/cherd06196View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guarino V, Cause F, Ambrosio L: Bioactive scaffolds for bone and ligament tissue. Expert Rev Med Dev 2007, 4: 405–418. 10.1586/174344126.96.36.1995View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Descamps M, Richart O, Hardouin P, Hornez JC, Leriche A: Synthesis of macroporous β-tricalcium phosphate with controlled porous architectural. Ceramics Int 2008, 34: 1131–1137. 10.1016/j.ceramint.2007.01.004View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Buckley CT, O'Kelly KU: Fabrication and characterization of a porous multidomain hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering investigations. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2010, 93B: 459–467.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Susan L, Genevieve M, Michael J, Antonios G: Three-dimensional culture of rat calvarial osteoblasts in porous biodegradable polymers. Biomaterials 1998, 19: 1405–1412. 10.1016/S0142-9612(98)00021-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bakhtiari L, Reza Rezaie H, Mohamad Hosseinalipour S, Ali Shokrgozar M: Investigation of biphasic calcium phosphate/gelatin nanocomposite scaffolds as a bone tissue engineering. Ceram Int 2010, 36: 2421–2426. 10.1016/j.ceramint.2010.07.012View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Veis A: The Macromolecular Chemistry of Gelatin. New York and London: Academic Press; 1964.Google Scholar
- Bigi A, Panzavolta S, Rubini K: Relationship between triple-helix content and mechanical properties of gelatin films. Biomaterials 2004, 25: 5675–5680. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.01.033View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sundaram J, Durance TD, Wang R: Porous scaffold of gelatin-starch with nanohydroxyapatite composite processed via novel microwave vacuum drying. Acta Biomater 2008, 4: 932–942. 10.1016/j.actbio.2008.01.019View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yaylaoglu MB, Korkusuz P, Ors U, Korkusuz F, Hasirci V: Development of a calcium phosphate-gelatin composite as a bone substitute and its use in drug release. Biomaterials 1999, 20: 711–719. 10.1016/S0142-9612(98)00199-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Panzavolta S, Fini M, Nicoletti A, Bracci B, Rubini K, Giardino R, Bigi A: Porous composite scaffolds based on gelatin and partially hydrolyzed α-tricalcium phosphate. Acta Biomater 2009, 5: 636–643. 10.1016/j.actbio.2008.08.017View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Landi E, Valentini F, Tampieri A: Porous hydroxyapatite/gelatine scaffolds with ice-designed channel-like porosity for biomedical applications. Acta Biomater 2008, 4: 1620–1626. 10.1016/j.actbio.2008.05.023View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roohani-Esfahani S, Nouri-Khorasani S, Lu Z, Appleyard R, Zreiqat H: The influence hydroxyapatite nanoparticle shape and size on the properties of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds coated with hydroxyapatite-PCL composites. Biomaterials 2010, 31: 5498–5509. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.03.058View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kobayashi S, Yamadi S: Strain rate dependency of mechanical properties of TCP/PLLA composites after immersion in simulated body environments. Compos Sci Technol 2010, 70: 1820–1825. 10.1016/j.compscitech.2010.06.008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Takahashi Y, Yamamoto M, Tabata Y: Enhanced osteoinduction by controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 from biodegradable sponge composed of gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate. Biomaterials 2005, 26: 4856–4865. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.01.012View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.