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Table 1 Comparison of the physical characteristics of the carbon nanoparticles

From: Comparison of anti-angiogenic properties of pristine carbon nanoparticles

  GNS NG ND C60 MWNT
Shape Nanosheet Spherical nanoparticle Spherical nanoparticle Spherical nanoparticle Multi-wall tube
Size 6 to 8 nm/15 μm 3 to 4 nm 3 to 4 nm Approximately 50 nm (aggregates) 8 nm/5 to 20 μm
Atom configuration sp 2 sp 2 sp 3 sp 2 sp 2
Purity >99.5% >93% >95% >99.5% >95%
Zeta potential (mV) −3.83 28.7 −39.3 −38.0 −14.8
Specific surface area 120 to 150 m2/g 540 to 650 m2/g Approximately 282 m2/g 0.07 to 0.17 m2/ga >500 m2/g
Production Exfoliated Explosion Explosion Arc discharge Catalytic CVD
  1. Purity and specific surface area (except C60) were provided by the manufacturer. The size was provided by the manufacturer and examined with a transmission electron microscope. Zeta potential was examined with Zetasizer Nano-ZS90. GNS, graphene nanosheet; NG, graphite nanoparticle; ND, diamond nanoparticle; C60, fullerene C60; MWNT, multi-wall nanotube; CVD, chemical vapour deposition. aTaken from Cheng et al. [16].