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Table 3 Comparison of angiogenesis parameters of vessels with a diameter less than 100 μm

From: Comparison of anti-angiogenic properties of pristine carbon nanoparticles

  Mean vessel area (mm2) Mean vessel length (mm) Number of branch points Angiogenic activity
Group     
Control 44.9 a 9.9 a 11.4 a  
GNS 50.0 a 9.9 a 13.4 ab + (tendency)
NG 47.5 a 9.1 ab 10.1 a 0
ND 33.1 b 7.7 b 5.5 c - -
C60 52.1 a 11.9 c 14.7 b +++
MWNT 46.2 a 8.7 ab 9.1 d - -
P value 0.004 0.000 0.000  
Pooled SE 3.1 0.4 0.7  
  1. A 0 means no activity; a plus sign indicates low pro-angiogenic activity; three plus signs indicate high pro-angiogenic activity; two hyphens indicate medium anti-angiogenic activity; and three hyphens indicate high anti-angiogenic activity. Values with different letters are significantly different, P < 0.05. SE, standard error; GNS, graphene nanosheet; NG, graphite nanoparticle; ND, diamond nanoparticle; C60, fullerene C60; MWNT, multi-wall nanotube.