- Nano Express
- Open Access
p-Type hydrogen sensing with Al- and V-doped TiO2 nanostructures
© Li et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
- Received: 1 November 2012
- Accepted: 2 January 2013
- Published: 12 January 2013
Doping with other elements is one of the efficient ways to modify the physical and chemical properties of TiO2 nanomaterials. In the present work, anatase TiO2 nanofilms doped with Al and V elements were fabricated through anodic oxidation of Ti6Al4V alloy and further annealing treatment. Hydrogen sensing behavior of the crystallized Ti-Al-V-O nanofilms at various working temperatures was investigated through exposure to 1,000 ppm H2. Different from n-type hydrogen sensing characteristics of undoped TiO2 nanotubes, the Al- and V-doped nanofilms presented a p-type hydrogen sensing behavior by showing increased resistance upon exposure to the hydrogen-containing atmosphere. The Ti-Al-V-O nanofilm annealed at 450°C was mainly composed of anatase phase, which was sensitive to hydrogen-containing atmosphere only at elevated temperatures. Annealing of the Ti-Al-V-O nanofilm at 550°C could increase the content of anatase phase in the oxide nanofilm and thus resulted in a good sensitivity and resistance recovery at both room temperature and elevated temperatures. The TiO2 nanofilms doped with Al and V elements shows great potential for use as a robust semiconducting hydrogen sensor.
- Hydrogen sensor
- p- type
As a clean and renewable energy carrier, hydrogen has wide applications in the industry such as chemical production and fuel cell, as well as high-energy fuel. For these applications, a robust and reliable hydrogen sensor is needed to detect a leakage during storage and transportation. Furthermore, the hydrogen sensor should also work at elevated temperatures.
To meet these targets, various kinds of hydrogen sensors based on MOSFET, catalytic combustion, electrochemical reaction, Pd metals, and semiconducting metal oxides have been reported[2–8]. As one of the important semiconducting metal oxides, titania oxide has been reported to be sensitive to hydrogen atmosphere. In the form of dense film, traditional TiO2 sensors usually have a higher operating temperature (between 200°C and 500°C), which limits a wide application of dense TiO2 film sensors[9–11]. To improve the hydrogen sensing properties of dense TiO2 films, doping of TiO2 oxides with groups III or V elements has been reported. Such a doping was found to promote chemical reactions by reducing the activation energy between the film surface and the target gas, which enhance the response and selectivity and finally reduce the maximum operating temperature of the hydrogen sensors[12–14].
To further improve the hydrogen sensing properties of traditional TiO2 oxides, anatase TiO2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated through anodization of pure Ti metals and further annealing treatment[15, 16]. Hydrogen sensors made up of these undoped anatase nanotubes were usually sensitive to hydrogen-containing atmosphere by showing a decreased resistance upon exposure to the reductive atmosphere at either room temperature or elevated temperatures[17–19]. Such a resistance decrease in reductive atmosphere was a typical n-type hydrogen sensing behavior.
Ti6Al4V alloy is one of the important Ti alloys due to its excellent comprehensive properties and wide application in both industry and medical occasions. As reported by Macak et al., Al- and V-doped titanium oxide films could grow on the alloy substrate after surface anodization of Ti6Al4V alloy. Li et al. found that anodic Ti-Al-V-O nanofilms had good thermal stability and biocompatibility. The doping engineering was expected to change the semiconducting properties of the TiO2 oxide.
To date, rare work has been reported on the semiconducting and hydrogen sensing properties of Al- and V-doped TiO2 nanofilms. Thus, in the present work, Ti-Al-V-O oxide nanofilms were fabricated for a first principle simulation and hydrogen sensing evaluation. It was shown that the Al- and V-doped TiO2 nanofilms could demonstrate a p-type hydrogen sensing behavior at room temperature and elevated temperatures.
Material and film fabrication
Ti6Al4V alloy plate in as-cast states was used as the anodic substrate. Plate sample with a size of 10 × 10 × 1 mm was grinded and polished with emery papers and then ultrasonically cleaned with absolute alcohol. Finally, they were rinsed with deionized water and dried in N2 stream. Electrochemical anodization was carried out with a DC voltage stabilizer. All of the samples were fabricated at 15 V (for 1.5 h) in electrolytes of 1 M NaH2PO4 containing 0.5 wt.% HF. The as-anodized samples were annealed at either 450°C or 550°C for 1 h in air to obtain crystallized nanofilms. Nanofilm sensors were fabricated using circular Pt electrodes and conductive wires for PCB assembly. Detailed sensor fabrication process can be found in our previous work.
Characterization of nanostructure films
Surfaces of the above as-anodized and as-annealed samples were characterized with a scanning electron microscope (SEM; FEI SIRION 200, Hillsboro, OR, USA) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA; OXFORD INCA, Fremont, CA, USA). Surface compositions of the nanofilms were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS; ESCALAB 250, Thermo VG Scientific, West Sussex, UK). The phase structures of the as-annealed samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD; D/max 2550 V, Rigaku, Tokyo, Japan). Grazing incident diffraction with an incident angle of 1° was carried out during the XRD testing.
Testing of hydrogen sensors
The nanofilm sensors were tested in alternating atmospheres of air and 1,000 ppm H2 at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 300°C. A Keithley 2700 multimeter (Cleveland, OH, USA) was used to test the resistance of the nanofilm sensor during the hydrogen sensing experiments.
Figure2d,f presents the surface morphologies of the as-annealed oxide nanofilms. In comparison with the anodic oxide nanofilms (Figure2a,b), surface morphology of the oxide nanofilm annealed at 450°C did not change (Figure2d,e). This suggests that both the nanotube arrays and the nanopores could bear the above annealing temperature. After annealing at 550°C, noticeable structural change in the oxide nanotubes was found. As shown in Figure2f, the top ends of the nanotubes collapsed although the nanotubular structures could be still observed and the nanopores at the β-phase region totally collapsed and transformed to a powder-like sintering compact. Obviously, both the nanotubes and nanopores of the oxide nanofilms could demonstrate different thermal stability.
Element content of the oxide nanofilms before and after annealing at 450°C and 550°C
Oxide nanofilm condition
Annealed at 450°C
Annealed at 550°C
Annealed at 450°C
Annealed at 550°C
where R0 is the original resistance of the sensor before exposure to the hydrogen-containing atmosphere, and R is the sensor resistance after exposure to or removal of the hydrogen-containing atmosphere.
Doping of TiO2 oxide with 1 to 5 mol% or 5% to 12% V element has been reported by Kahattha et al. and Hong et al.[25, 26]. Also, Al-doped TiO2 oxide has been reported by Berger et al., Tsuchiya et al., and Nah[27–29]. The uniform doping of other elements in TiO2 oxide has been also reported in several literatures, including the report of lattice widening in Nb-doped TiO2 nanotubes[21, 23, 30]. According to our EDX point and area analyses, the Ti, Al, V, and O elements uniformly distributed in the analyzed area of the oxide layer. We did not find the aggregation of TiOx, AlOx, and VOx. This suggests that pure TiO2 oxide could not exist for our present oxide film. Although our XPS analyses could only indicate the chemical valence states of Al and V elements rather than proof for the Al and V doping in the lattice of TiO2 oxide, our XRD analyses revealed that the main diffraction peaks (25.28°, 48.38°, and 53.88°) of pure anatase TiO2 shifted to a certain degree due to the coexistence of Al and V elements. This indicated that the doping of Al and V elements into the TiO2 lattice could result in a shift of diffraction peaks of TiO2 oxide. Based on the above analyses, we believe that the present oxide film is a kind of Al- and V-doped TiO2 nanostructures.
In general, TiO2 nanotubes are n-type semiconductors by showing resistance decrease in reducing atmosphere like hydrogen and resistance increase in oxidizing atmosphere like oxygen. In our experiment, all of the as-annealed Ti-Al-V-O oxide nanofilms presented resistance increase upon exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere. This indicates that semiconducting characteristics of the TiO2 oxide here have been affected by doping with Al and V elements. A partial transformation from n-type semiconductor to p-type semiconductor may happen due to element doping. Through a modeling technique, Williams and Moseley theoretically predicted that conductance type of semiconducting oxides could change with the doping elements. The following experiments proved that the semiconductor characteristics of TiO2 could change when doped with certain amounts of Cr, Nb, and Cu elements. Liu et al. found that Nb doping did not alter the n-type hydrogen sensing behavior of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. Moreover, it was found that TiO2 nanotubes could keep the n-type nature when doped with a certain amount of boron. Also, the nanotubes may keep n-type semiconductors or transform to p-type semiconductors when doped with nitrogen, depending on whether or not nearby oxygen atoms occupy surface sites.
There are many factors that could affect the hydrogen sensing performance of the Al- and V-doped TiO2 nanofilms. Nanotubular geometry, polymorph, element doping, and testing temperature affected the hydrogen sensing properties of the nanofilm sensors. Varghese et al. found that undoped TiO2 nanotubes with a smaller diameter (22 nm) could have a higher sensitivity for 1,000 ppm H2 at 290°C. Anatase, the polymorph of TiO2, has been reported to be highly sensitive to reducing gases like hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The hydrogen atom could diffuse to the interstitial sites of TiO2. As the c/a ratio of anatase phase is almost four times that of the rutile phase, the anatase TiO2 phase thus has a greater contribution to hydrogen sensitivity.
In the present oxide system, the nanofilms consisted of anatase phase favorable for hydrogen sensing at different temperatures. There are more defects and dislocations in the anatase structures than other crystalline structures[38, 39]. Al and V atoms had an atomic radius different from Ti atom. Thus, Al and V doping could produce more lattice vacancy to capture electrons and accelerate the electron change which is beneficial for the chemical adsorption of hydrogen at the surface and therefore enhance the hydrogen sensitivity. Furthermore, an increased operating temperature of the nanofilm sensor could accelerate the diffusivity of the hydrogen atoms to the surface of the nanofilms and thus lead to a higher sensitivity.
As a ceramic oxide fabricated on robust metal substrate, the doped nanofilm provides a robust sensor unit working at either room temperature or elevated temperatures. The hydrogen sensing capability shown by the Al- and V-doped nanofilms makes it possible to further explore the semiconducting characteristics and hydrogen sensing behaviors of various kinds of TiO2 nanofilms with different dopant levels (i.e., Al/V ratio).
In summary, Ti-Al-V-O oxide nanofilms with anatase structures were prepared by anodization and annealing. Annealing at different temperatures was found to result in different hydrogen sensing performances. Al and V doping was found to reduce the bandgap of TiO2 oxide. The Al- and V-doped anatase nanofilms demonstrated a p-type hydrogen sensing characteristics, which was quite different from the undoped TiO2 nanotubes. The Ti-Al-V-O nanofilms annealed at 450°C demonstrated sensitivity for 1,000 ppm H2 at elevated operating temperatures, while Ti-Al-V-O nanofilms annealed at 550°C had good sensing response at both room temperature and elevated temperatures.
This work was supported by Shanghai Pujiang Program (no. 07pj14047) and 863 Plan of China (no. 2006AA02A1). We thank the contribution from SEM lab at Instrumental Analysis Center of SJTU.
- Dresselhaus MS, Thomas IL: Energy and power. Nature 2001, 414: 332–337. 10.1038/35104599View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Higuchi T, Nakagomi S, Kokubun Y: Field effect hydrogen sensor device with simple structure based on GaN. Sens Actuators B 2009, 140: 79–85. 10.1016/j.snb.2009.04.031View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lupan O, Ursaki VV, Chai G, Chow L, Emelchenko GA, Tiginyanu IM, Gruzintsev AN, Redkin AN: Selective hydrogen gas nanosensor using individual ZnO nanowire with fast response at room temperature. Sens Actuators B 2010, 144: 56–66. 10.1016/j.snb.2009.10.038View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Malyshev VV, Pislyakov A: Investigation of gas-sensitivity of sensor structures to hydrogen in a wide range of temperature, concentration and humidity of gas medium. Sens Actuators B 2008, 134: 913–921. 10.1016/j.snb.2008.06.046View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ranjbar M, Fardindoost S, Mahdavi SM, Zad AI, Tahmasebi N: Palladium nanoparticle deposition onto the WO3 surface through hydrogen reduction of PdCl2: characterization and gasochromic properties. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 2011, 95: 2335–2340. 10.1016/j.solmat.2011.04.002View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mor GK, Carvalho MA, Varghese OK, Pishko MV, Grimes CA: A room-temperature TiO2-nanotube hydrogen sensor able to self-clean photoactively from environmental contamination. J Mater Res 2004, 19: 628–634. 10.1557/jmr.2004.19.2.628View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Şennik E, Çolak Z, Kılınç N, Öztürk ZZ: Synthesis of highly-ordered TiO2 nanotubes for a hydrogen sensor. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2010, 35: 4420–4427. 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.01.100View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Adamyan AZ, Adamyan ZNand Aroutiounian VM: Sol–gel derived thin-film semiconductor hydrogen gas sensor. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2007, 32: 4101–4108. 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2007.03.043View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim HS, Moon WT, Jun YK, Hong SH: High H2 sensing performance in hydrogen trititanate-derived TiO2. Sens Actuators B 2006, 120: 63–68. 10.1016/j.snb.2006.01.043View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mohammadia MR, Fray DJ: Nanostructured TiO2–CeO2 mixed oxides by an aqueous sol–gel process: effect of Ce:Ti molar ratio on physical and sensing properties. Sens Actuators B 2010, 150: 631–640. 10.1016/j.snb.2010.08.029View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hazra SK, Basu S: High sensitivity and fast response hydrogen sensors based on electrochemically etched porous titania thin films. Sens Actuators B 2006, 115: 403–411. 10.1016/j.snb.2005.10.002View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zakrzewska K, Radecka M, Rekas M: Effect of Nb, Cr, Sn additions on gas sensing properties of TiO2 thin films. Thin Solid Films 1997, 310: 161–166. 10.1016/S0040-6090(97)00401-XView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Srivastava S, Kumar S, Singh VN, Singh M, Vijay YK: Investigations of AB5-type hydrogen storage materials with enhanced hydrogen storage capacity. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2011, 36: 6343–6355. 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.01.141View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tavares CJ, Castro MV, Marins ES, Samantilleke AP, Ferdov S, Rebouta L, Benelmekki M, Cerqueira MF, Alpuim P, Xuriguera E, Rivière JP, Eyidi D, Beaufort MF, Mendes A: Effect of hot-filament annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere on the electrical and structural properties of Nb-doped TiO2 sputtered thin films. Thin Solid Films 2012, 520: 2514–2519. 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.10.031View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yasuhiro S, Takeo H, Makoto E: H2 sensing performance of anodically oxidized TiO2 thin films equipped with Pd electrode. Sens Actuators B 2007, 121: 219–220. 10.1016/j.snb.2006.09.039View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Boon-Bretta L, Bousek J, Moretto P: Reliability of commercially available hydrogen sensors for detection of hydrogen at critical concentrations: part II – selected sensor test results. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2009, 34: 562–5671. 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.10.033View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Yu X, Yang Q: Fabrication of TiO2 nanotube thin films and their gas sensing properties. J Sensors 2009. 10.1155/2009/402174Google Scholar
- Hübert T, Boon-Brett L, Black G, Banach U: Hydrogen sensors – a review. Sens Actuators B 2011, 157: 329–352. 10.1016/j.snb.2011.04.070View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Devi GS, Hyodo T, Shimizu Y, Egashira M: Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-based powders and their gas-sensing properties. Sens Actuators B 2002, 87: 122–129. 10.1016/S0925-4005(02)00228-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu JC, Wu TI: Influences of the cyclic electrolytic hydrogenation and subsequent solution treatment on the hydrogen absorption and evolution of β-solution treated Ti-6Al-4 V alloy. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008, 33: 5651–5660. 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.07.027View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Macak JM, Tsuchiya H, Taveira L, Ghicov A, Schmuki P: Self-organized nanotubular oxide layers on Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V formed by anodization in NH4F solutions. J Biomed Mater Res A 2005, 75: 928–933.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Ding DY, Ning CQ, Bai S, Huang L, Li M, Mao DL: Thermal stability and in vitro bioactivity of Ti-Al-V-O nanostructures fabricated on Ti6Al4V alloy. Nanotechnology 2009, 20: 65708. 10.1088/0957-4484/20/6/065708View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu HG, Ding DY, Ning CQ, Li ZH: Wide-range hydrogen sensing with Nb-doped TiO2 nanotubes. Nanotechnology 2012, 23: 015502. 10.1088/0957-4484/23/1/015502View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Varghese OK, Gong DW, Paulose M, Ong KG, Grimes CA: Hydrogen sensing using titania nanotubes. Sens Actuators B 2003, 93: 338–344. 10.1016/S0925-4005(03)00222-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kahattha C, Wongpisutpaisan N, Vittayakorn N, Pecharapa W: Physical properties of V-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sonochemical-assisted process. Ceramics Inter 2012., 38: In Press In PressGoogle Scholar
- Hong NH, Sakai J, Prellier W, Hassini A, Ruyter A, Gervais F: Ferromagnetism in transition-metal-doped TiO2 thin films. Phys Rev B 2004, 70: 195204.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Berger S, Tsuchiya H, Schmuki P: Transition from nanopores to nanotubes: self-ordered anodic oxide structures on titanium-aluminides. Chem Mater 2008, 20: 3245. 10.1021/cm8004024View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsuchiya H, Berger S, Macak JM, Ghicov A, Schmuki P: Self-organized porous and tubular oxide layers on TiAl alloys. Electrochem Comm 2007, 9: 2397. 10.1016/j.elecom.2007.07.013View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nah Y: Doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes: synthesis and applications. Chem Phys Chem 2010, 11: 2698. 10.1002/cphc.201000276Google Scholar
- Ghicov A, Yamamoto M, Schmuki P: Lattice widening in Niobium-doped TiO2 nanotubes: efficient ion intercalation and swift electrochromic contrast. Angew Chem Inter Ed 2008, 47: 7934. 10.1002/anie.200802598View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Williams DE, Moseley PT: Dopant effects on the response of gas-sensitive resistors utilising semiconducting oxides. J Mater Chem 1991, 1: 809–814. 10.1039/jm9910100809View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ruiz AM, Sakai G, Cornet A, Shimanoe K, Morante JR, Yamazoe N: Cr-doped TiO2 gas sensor for exhaust NO2 monitoring. Sens Actuators B 2003, 93: 509–518. 10.1016/S0925-4005(03)00183-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yamada Y, Seno Y, Masuoka Y, Nakamura T, Yamashita K: NO2 sensing characteristics of Nb doped TiO2 thin films and their electronic properties. Sens Actuators B 2000, 66: 164–166. 10.1016/S0925-4005(00)00314-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Savage N, Chwieroth B, Ginwalla A, Patton BR, Akbar SA, Dutta PK: Composite n–p semiconducting titanium oxides as gas sensors. Sens Actuators B 2001, 79: 17–27. 10.1016/S0925-4005(01)00843-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mowbray DJ, Martinez JI, García Lastra JM, Thygesen KS, Jacobsen KW: Stability and electronic properties of TiO2 nanostructures with and without B and N doping. J Phys Chem C 2009, 113: 12301–12308. 10.1021/jp904672pView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Varghese OK, Gong DW, Paulose M, Ong KG, Dickey EC, Grimes CA: Extreme changes in the electrical resistance of titania nanotubes with hydrogen exposure. Adv Mater 2003, 15: 62462–62467.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Birkefeld LD, Azad AM, Akbar SA: Carbon monoxide and hydrogen detection by anatase modification of titanium oxide. J Am Ceram Soc 1992, 75: 2964–2968. 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1992.tb04372.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gong XQ, Selloni A, Batzill M, Diebold U: Steps on anatase TiO2(101). Nature Mater 2006, 5: 660–664.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chaudhari GN, Bende AM, Bodade AB, et al.: Structural and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline TiO2: WO3-based hydrogen sensors. Sens Actuators B 2006, 11: 5297–5302.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.